Nghiên cứu khả năng cố định đạm của đậu phộng ( lạc - Agachis hyporaea L.) trên đất xám bằng phương pháp đồng vị đánh dấu 15N

BQGIAOfH)e vABAo TAO BAI HQCQuae GIA THANHPHa HOcHi MINH Tnt<'JngD?iHQCkhoaHQcTv Nhien *** m*** Vo HuY,Dang NghiencUukhaDangcfidinhd~mcuad~uphQng (Arachishyp'ogaeaL.) trenda'txambiingphddng phapd6ngvidanhda'u15N. Chuyennganh: SinhH6a Mil sf): 01-05-10 Tomt~tlu~nanTie'nsiSinhhQc .ThanhphoH6ChiMinh 1999 """"""'" Lu~nanduQchoillltbanh~i B(>manSinhH6a,KhoaSinhhqc,TnttlngE>:;tihqc KhoaHqcTl!Nhic~n,E>~ihqcQu6cgiaThanhPho'Ho ChiMinh vaPhongSinh Hqc Ph6ngX:;t,TrungTam Ky Thu~t

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Tóm tắt tài liệu Nghiên cứu khả năng cố định đạm của đậu phộng ( lạc - Agachis hyporaea L.) trên đất xám bằng phương pháp đồng vị đánh dấu 15N, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
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D6i t1iQ'ngvaph~mvinghiencUn Lu~nansii'dl).ngkythu~tdongvidanhd1lu15NM nghienCUukhaDangCBB cuad~uphQngliendillxam.Khaosatanhhuangcacyeiut6dinhduong(N, P, K, Ca va vi luqng)deinDangguiltva khanangCBB d~uphi)nglien dill xam.So sanhnangguiltva hi~uquakinhteicuacongthacphanbontill duqcvathtfctih bonphancuanongdaTIlien di~nfi)ng(24,2ha)d6ivdid~uphQngtrendillxam. 4. Ph1idngph3pnghiencUn Phuongphapdongvi daubdilu15NchophepchUngtaphanbi~tduqccac nguonN khacnhaumacaythunh~ntit:Mt, phanvakhong!<himacacphuong phapc6di~n!<hac(danhgian6ts~n,!<hacbi~tN, !<hii'acetylen,philntichureid...) khongco khanangnay.Vi theicoth~noiphuongphapdongvi danhdilu15Nla mQtphuongphapu'uvi~tva duynhiltchonhungthongso'chinhxacva tinc~y trongvi~cdo laCIngluqngN-c6dinhtrongcayquadothieitl~pnhungbi~nphap hii'uhi~uM t6iI1UhoaquatrinhCBB nhiimgiatangDangguiltchocaytrong. 5. Nhi1ngdonggopmoi CDU.nd~utieDsii'dl).ngphuongphapdongvidanhdilu15NnghienCUllkhanang CBB cayd~uphQnga Vi~tNam,clingcilps6li~uveluqngN-c6dinhcayd~u phQnglien dill xam,mafa huanglingdl).ngphuongphapnayd6ivdi caccay co!<hanangCBB ti8mDangtrongM th6ngnonglamnghi~pa Vi~tNam. aJ Thieitl~pm6itu'ongquailvdidi)tu'ongquail!0,70)giuacacli8u luqngnguyento'N, P, K, Ca vathClidi~mphunvi luqngvdi luqngN-c6dinh cuad~uphQngliendill xam. 3Q)Xac dinhtrodirava humat[Hum(COOK)nJHi cac chill gia tangkha Dang CBB cuad~uphQngtrendillxam. @)XaedinhchungBradyrhizobiumtl!nhiens6ngcQngsinhvdi ciiy d~uphQng trendiltxamc6khaDangCBB cao,khaDangnaytangm~nhkhiph6ih<;Jpvdi cacchungBradyrhizobiumnh~pnQithichnghic6ti~mDang. (2)Xac dinhcaegi6ngLy-thu~n,ICVG 91123va ICVG 1660c6 Dangsuiltva khaDangCBB caola cacgi6ngd~uph(\ngc6 ti~mDangtrendiltxamBong NamBQ. @ Buaracongthll'cMn phanhCJply tangDangsuiltva tangkhaDangCBB cua d~uphQngtrendiltxamBongNamBQ. 6. B6C\lCcual~n an Lu~nang6m:151trang A. Md d~u:4 trang B. NQidung:145trang Chuang1.T6ngquailvilnd~nghiencth1:61trang Chuong2.V~tli~uvaphuongphilp:18trang Chuong3.Ke'tquavathaolu~n:66trang 3.1.KhaDangCBB cuad~uphQnglIendiltxam(29trang) 3.2.Anhhuangcacnguyent6dinhduongMn khaDangCBB (28trang) 3.3.NangsuiltvakhaDangCBB congthucbOnphanfundu<;Jc(9 trang) C. Ke'tlu~nvakie'nnghi:2trang D. Hi li~udaD:314taili~u(28tiiili~utie'ngVi~t,286tiii li~utie'ngAnh) E. Phl,lll,lc:40phl,lll,lc(19hinhva21bang). Ke'tquacualu~nant6ngcQngc623hinhva22bang. 4B. NQidung Chtid'ng1.T6ngquaDva'nd~nghiencti'u 1.1. Vi sinhv~tCDD cQngsinhvaenzymNitrogenase Khiii quatvasosanhsvCBB trongky ngM IDeotieDtrlnhHaber-Bosch viiquatrinhCBB xuctacboiNitrogenase(Nase): 8(SOz")+80H- 8HS03- :23>-~ . 2NH4++Hz 16MgATPz-+16HzO 16MgADP+16HzP04- Philo lo~icac loai Rhizobiums6ngcQngsinhvOicily hQd?u IDeokhoa philolo~ihi(:nMnh cuaBurton,1980.Buaradiu trUCphilotti'cua3 lo~iNase: Nz+lOH+ Mo-Nase,V-NaseviiFe-Nase.Mo ill cochephIlolingxuclaccuaMo-Naseg6m 8 giaido~ntropgquatrinhkhti'NzthiinhNH4+ cuaLoweviiThorneley,1984. 1.2. Cd che'philntu euaquatrinhCDD Trinhbaycochephilotti'cuaquatrinhCBB ce)ngsinhvoisvthalligiacua gencaychu,genRhizobiumclingnhuvai tracacphilntti'd~ctru'ng:flavonoid, leghaemoglobin,lectin,lipochitinoligosaceharid(LCO) ...Neu cacconduong biendu'Ongtrongvi(:ccungdip Dangluqngviicha'tkhti'choquatrinhCBB. Mo tacdche'ho~tde)ngh(:enzymd6nghoaN~ + trongcayhQd?u(GSIGOGAT) vii v?n chuy€n N-c6 dinh ra khoi n6t s~n(amid hoi;icureid). Trinh bay a muc de) phantti'v~cdchedi~uboaquatrinhCBB thongquaho~tinhcuaNase(enzym DRAT va DRAG) vaM gen(gennit).Mo tavj tr!vii vai tracuacaegenlien quailcte'nqua trinhCBB trongRhizobium(nod,nif vii fix) vii trongcay chu (legheamoglobin,sucrosesynthetase,glutaminsynthetase,nodulin23,24...), 1.3. Anh hudngye'ut6bOahQcvachUngRhizobiumde'nkbanangCDD Phantichanhhuangcuayeut6hoahQcbaag5mcactacnhilnde)ctinh (acid,AI) va sv thie'uhl;ltehiitdinhdu'Ong(N, P, K, Ca,Mo, Co) Mn quatrinh 5CBB cQngsinh.Philnnchco sdchQnIQcchUngRhizobiumthichh~ptIenviing Mt d~ttru'ngd~tangcui1ngkhaDangCBB, d~cbi~tnhilnm~nhsl!canhtranh cuacacchungRhizobiumtrongvi~cxamchitmtdre ~o n6tsllnhinhthanhsl! cQngsinhvalitn hanhquatrinhCBB. 1.4. Caephttdngphapdanhgiakhiinug CBB Trinh bayco sdkhoahQCva nguyenly cacphuongphapdanhgia kha DangCBB hi~nhanh:doho~tdQNaseb~g 15N1,canbdng-vakhacbi~t-N, khd' acetyIen,ureid,d5ngvi danhdIlu15N(phaIoangd5ngvi 15N,giatrj 'A', phanb6 15NtI!nhien).Nh~nxetvat6ngke'tnhungtie'nbQ,gidih~ncuatUngphuongphap trongd6neub~tphuongpMp phaloangd5ngvi 15Nvagiatrj 'A' Ia tinc~ynhilt trongvi~cdoIui1ngvadanhgiakhiiDangCBB cuacaytr5ngtrend5ngruQng. 1.5. BonggopcoaCBB trongsanxwttn6ngnghi~pvatlnhhlnhsanXwtt- nghiencuudiyd~uphQngaVi~tNam. Phannchti~mDangCBB cuacayhQd~utrongvi~cthie'tl~pn~nDong nghi~pb~nvung(j Vi~tNam.Nhilnm~nh i~uquakinhtt cuaCBB trongvi~c giamIu~ngphanN nh~pkha:u,tangDangsua'tV\Isan.Bua s6li~uchangminh rdngne'utang20%Dangsua'tva 10%di~nnchgieotr5ngchocayhQd~u,Vi~t Namc6th~thol~iichtitCBB Iu~ngN ph~IrQic6giatrj 7 tri~uUSDhangDam. Khaiquattlnhhlnhsansua'td~uphQng(jVi~tNamtit1980Mn nay,nhilnm~nh Dangsua'tcontha'psovdicacnudeIrongkhuVl!c.T6ngktt caelacnMnklmham Dangsua'td~uphQng(j Vi~tNamtrongd6n6ib~cIa chuakhai iliacc6hi~uqua khaDangCBB. T6ngktt caenghienCU'utru"dcdaychidl!aIrenDangsua'tvacac chitieDDonghQCchuac6s6li~udaubgiakhaDangCBB cayd~uphQng(j Vi~t Nam.Nha'nm~nhcanthittphaic6mQtphuongphapchinhxacva tinc~ytrong vi~cnghienCU'udaubgia CBB nhdmthie'tl~pnhifngbi~nphapDangcaokha DangCBB vatangDangsua'tcayd~uphQngtrenviingdiltxamBongNamBQ. 6Chu'dng2. V~tli~uvaphu'dngphap 2.1. Bfaban,khiMu vada'tdai Die thinghi~mdii-t,!-iApBimTre2,Xii TanAnHQi,Huy~nCoChi,TP, H6 Chi Minh,Khi Mu khuvl!enayla DongiimvdihaimilamU'avakhor5 r~t. Gi6ngd~uphQng:Ly l'!-P,Ly thu~, SellLai, ICVG 9Il23, ICVG 1660, Gi6ngcay ehuiin:d~uphQngbi dQtbie'nkhongco khi Dangl'!-on6ts~nUG1, UG2,UG3,UG4vaUG5 (Vi~ncaytr6ngc,!-nQu6cIe'- ICRISAT cl1p)vagi6ng Idae,!-nLC 90-4,LC 88-67-1(Vi~nKhoaHqeNongNghi(:pMi~nNameffp). 2.3. CachM tri thinghi(:m Thi nghi~mDbakinh : dl1tdU'<;Je111yd tangmii-t0-15 em,phoi kho, d~pnho nghi~nquaray1-2rom,canehoVaGeh~usanh10kgdfft/eh~u,Thi nghi~mngoai Bfft thi nghim tronglun an la Mt xam(Acrisols) du<;Jehinh thanhtren effutnie trm tiehphil sae6 PIeixtoxen bi thoaihoa nghiemtrqngdo qua trinh xoi mOllva rii'a troi bdi nude va gi6 Den lu<;Jngduong chfft trong dl1trl1t thffp (Bang I), BanI! 1. Tinh chtit dtit xtim trong thi nghim pH C N-ts P,O, Cbift& tieu Cationtraod& Set Tillt Cat Nm H2O % % % (mglloogdift) (meqllOOgdift) % % % NH.+ P20, K,O Ca2+ M2+ 1992 5.08 1,15 0,04 0,02 2,9 6,9 1,92 1,06 0,26 2,55 13,3 84,1 1993 5,48 fI.,65 0,05 0,02 2,3 7,3 2,40 2,96 0,72 2,37 8.02 89,6 1994 5,68 0,98 0,03 0,02 3,4 6,6 3,85 1,50 0,49 2,45 15.7 81,2 1995 5,43 0,87 O.m 0,02 1,5 7,7 3,50 1,50 0,49 1,23 10,5 88,3 1996 5,31 0,85 0,04 0,03 2,5 5,6 2,57 1,33 0,60 3,60 14,8 81,6 T.B 5,60 0,90 0,04 0,02 2,52 6,82 2,85 1,67 0,51 2,44 12,5 S4,9 SE :to,4 :1:0.18 :1:.008 NS :1:0.70 :1:0.79 :1:0,80 :to,74 :to,17 :1:0,8 :1:3 :1:3,8 2.2. Gi6ngdu phQngvagi6ngcdychlliin 7d6ng:caenghi(:mtMe duqetr6ngtrencae10e6di(:ntieh20 m2phanb6 kh6i hoanloanngftunhienvdi4 Ianl~pli!-i.Trangm6i10chOn2 khungtOne6kieh thude1,5m20,5 m x 1 m x 0,3m),2 khungeachnhau60 em,mQttr6ngd~u phQngva mQttr6ngcay chuiin(Peopleet aI., 1989).Caekhungnay duqcMn phiin15N-urea.Thi nghi(:mdi(:nrQng:24,2havdicaeeongthaephiinMn khae nhauehod~uphQngtrenliatxamduqetht1ehi(:ntrong2 Dam1996-1998. PhanbOn,chUngBradyrhizobiumvatro dira Phane5N,P, K, Ca, Mg va vi luqng)duqebOnvdi caelieu luqngkhae nhauph~thuQeVaGm~edichthinghi(:m.Philo15N-urea(46,6% N) doCo Quan 2.4. NangLuqngNguyenTd'Qu6et6'(IAEA) dip, caephiinkhaemuad th~trUong. ChungBradyrhizobiumnuoicayd nhi(:tdQ25-30°CtrongmoitrUongYEM, tho laysinhkh6id giii'aphalog.Dungd~ehuyenphileMa vikhuiinBradyrhizobium (108VSV/ml)duqeMn d luqng1ml1kgdilt.Tro duamuaa th~tru'ongvdi thanh phanh6ahQegiaunguyent6daluqngvavi luqng(Bang2)~ Bani! 2. ThanhpMn hOahgccUafrOdim 2.5. Phu'dngphapdaubda'uda'tbiingd6ngvi 32pva1~ B6nKH232PO4VaGdiltvdiho'!-tdQ3,7-18,5X 106Bqlkgdilt.TrQnd6ngV~ ph6ngXi!-32ptrongeh~ub~ngquekhuilyvdinudecfit,d€ yen3-5ngaydt5eha Nguyent6dabldng(%) Nguyent6vilu9fig(ppm) Mh pH P,O, K,o Na,O CaO MgO cr 80,2- Mo Mn Zn B 1. 9.2 2.21 4,41 3.81 1.60 2,68 2,2 3.15 18 1620 270 119 2 9,4 2,93 1,89 3,45 7,10 2.96 1,7 2.04 17 1414 218 119 3, 8.8 2.20 3,65 1,53 5,20 2,59 1,3 2,02 17 1475 198 71 4. 9,8 3,04 2,34 1,83 4.47 1,66 1,5 1,31 15 1403 215 62 T. Blnh 9,3 2,59 3,07 2,35 4,60 2,47 1,7 2,13 16 1478 225 93 SE :to.4 :to.50 :t1,20 :t1,20 :t2.30 :to,60 :to,4 :to,80 :t1,3 :t998 :t31 :t31 8quamoophaIoangdOngvi d~ttdi stfcanMng (IAEA, 1989).Cay d~uphQng du'<;Icb6nvdi h.t<;lng20kgNlhavdi5% 15Natomexcess(a.e.)vacaychuiindu'<;Ic b6nvdiIu'<;Ing100kgNlhavdi1%lsNa.e.I~-Urea du'<;Icb6nd d~ngdungdich7 ngaysankhi gieo(Hardarson,1991). 2.6. ChAmsoethinghi(:m 2.7. Thi nghi~mdu'<;Ictu'ditieDva phbngsanb~nhtheophu'dngphapDongdaD. Thu ho~ehman 2.8. Thum§uIsN,chQnm§ud~idi~nvaxli'lym§utheoFAO/IAEA, 1989. Philn Hehman .y.Bo %P t/5ngs6 theophu'dngphapValnado-molybdapamon(IAEA, 1976).Bo ho~tdQph6ngx~32pb~nghi~uU'ngCberenkov(Zapataet al., 1986) quamayLSC-2 (LiquidScintillationCounter),hangNuclearInterprise,AOO. .y. Bo %N t/5ngs6 theophu'dngphapKjeldalh(Eastin1978).Bo %15N trongm§u theophu'dngphapRittenberg(FieIdler va Proksch,1975)quamay NOI-6e (Ph/5ke' phat s6ng cao clog - Emmision Spectrometer),hang Fischer AnalysenInstrumenteGmbH,Leipzig,BU'c. 2.9. C6ngthdedanhgiakhaDAnge6dinhd~m TrinhbaycachtinhlOankhaDangCBB theophu'dngphapgiatr!"A" cua FriedvaBroasbart,1975vaciii tie'nciiaHardarson,1991vdieongthU'cnhu'sau: %Ndfa= 100 {1-[%Ndffc6dinJ,I(nx %Ndff caycho&,,)]}+ %Ndffc6dinh[(1/n)- 1] 2.10.CaetMngs6dohtcmgvae6ngthdelienh~ .y.Sinhkh6i,Dangsu1fth~t,%N,%P,%I~ a.e.vaS.A . (ho~tdQrieng32p) .y.N tichIuy (kgNlha);P tichIuy(kgPlha);%Ndff(%); %Pdff (%);Ndff (kgNlha);Pdff (kgPlha);hi~uquasli'dl:1ngphiin(%); %Ndfa(%); Lu'<;IngN-co dinh (kgNlha); va I<;Iich tir CBB (kgNlha; =Lu'<;IngN-c6 d!nh - Lu'<;IngN-h~t). 92.11. Xti'lys61i~u Soli~uduQcxil'lytheophanm~mMicrosoftExcel97vaStatgraphic4.0. 2.12. Caethfnghi~mtitn banh Lu~nanduQctitn h~mhtir12/1991Mn 03/1998g5m:05thinghi~mnha kinb,06thinghi~mngoaid5ng,va03thil'nghi~mtricinkhaidi~nrQng(24,2ha). Chn'dng3.Klt qwivathaoI~n 3.1. KhaDangell'dinh~meUad~uphQngtr~ndft xam 3.1.1.fJQnghpchlfptllaN, P vakhdniingCBB coo44apillingtrendIftxam Phantichd(>nghQcgiatangsinhkhoi,tichluyN, P vaIuQngN, P h~pthu tirphantheothC1igiansinhtnidngcuad~uphQng(Ly) trenMt xam.Ktt quacho th~ysinhkhoi,tichluy P,Ndff vaPdffgiatangm~nhd 25-75NSG nhungch~m d 90 NSG, nhungluQngN-tichIuy vangia tangm~nhd 75-90NSG di~unay chungtokhaDangbitn duongN vancaotronggiaido~nlamdayqua(Bang3). Bant! 3. Niing su/it, hftpthuN va hi~uqua sa d!mgphan Ji1cUa d(luph(mg Trodira(3000kglha)+ 20kgNtha Trodira+pMnu/!n DC)khacbi~!e6fnghia a mU'ex3exua! 95%. (LSD a 0,05) Ngaysau LuongN Hiu quasO' Xuly gieo Sinhkh6i tiehluy %Ndff Ndff dungpMn NSG !!IeMu mj!Nlchu % mN/ehu % PMn n/!n: 25 1,9 60 3,19 1,9 3.5 20N, 30P20"40K2O, 50 8,1 2\7 2,91 6,3 ll,6 400CaOkgtha 75 22.7 672 3,28 22.1 20,1 90 28,6 1019 1,74 \7,7 16,1 25 2,1 64 3,27 2,1 3,8 50 8.5 229 3,12 7,2 13,1 75 25,6 796 2,36 18,8 17,1 90 28,8 1049 1,00 10,5 9,5 25 2,3 73 3,12 2,3 4,1 50 8,9 251 2,89 7,3 13,2 75 28,5 884 3,29 29,1 26,5 90 31,0 1l0l 0,67 7,4 6,7 25 NS NS NS NS NS 50 NS 22 NS 0,8 1,6 75 2,6 108 1,02 7,4 3,8 90 2,4 67 0,6 4,5 5,4 10 Thie't I~pm6i tu'dngquail tuye'ntinhgiil'asinhkh6i vdi Iu'CJngN-, P-tich luy cua ciiy d~uphQngteendilt xam.Thie'tI~pm6i tu'dngquail b~c3 giil'ahi~uqua su dl;lngphiloN, P voithCliglaDsinhtfu'dngcuacay.Thongquad6ngvj 32pdanhgia gia tri dinhdu'6ngP cuatrodita:6,04kg troditac6 gia trj dinhdu'6ngtu'dng du'dngvoi 1 kg phansuperIan.LAndAutieDxay d1,J'ngdQnghQCv~ml,l.tdjnh Iu'CJngkhaDanghftpthuN titcacngu6n(phan.dill va khongkhi) cuacay d~u phQngteendillxam.XacdjnhIu'CJngN ha'pthutitphand6ngg6priftnM vaot6ng Iu'CJngN cuacay(1-3%),trongkhi d6Iu'CJngN hApthutitkhongkhi riftcaD(40- 60%)quye'tdjnhDangsua'th~ts1,J'chocay.BanhgiakhaDangCBB cuacayd~u phQngIDeothoi glaD sinh tfu'dng.Phathi~ndangcM yIII cay d~uphQngteenda't xamvin duytrl khanangCBB caDtranggiaido~nlamdAyqua(HlnhI). IDnh 1.Dqngh(Jcllb;1ngN lufpthutitcaengu6n(jcacnghi~mthackhacnhau. 1200l DN:Jfs BNdff 0r-llia f1 n rtR lOOO-Y 8 1 4M 11505(JQ _R-LJ J?.5.-JB 461Z;:;- 600 219:r'1'>' t: 400 200 o. CJ CJ o 0 0c: en eno en 00z'<O Z Z 0 Z ZanZ an an en 8 an M r-- t=: r-- ZE-o r-- \1"\ + M c: "<I.) Z cae nghi th\!c 11 3.1.2.Anh hliltngcuaMo,RhUIafovaOpenaUdin niingsu/ftvaklulniingC/)/) cuad4uph9ngtrendlftxam Phantichanhhu'dngcuaMo (Molybden),Rhidafo(eM ph!lmphanvi sinh)vaOpenall(cM'tkichthichsinhtru'dng)tensinhkh6iva filingsuitth:;ltcua d~uphQngtrendittxamd cacgiaido:;lnsinhtru'dngkhacnhau.ChUngminhMo, Rhidafova Openallgiatangquatrlnhn6tsilnh6a,tangs1,J'cQngsinhngaythoi giandati(35NGS) vatangcu'ongkhafilingCBB (}giaido:;lnsail(100NSG) do d6dftntditangnangsuittd~uphQngtrendittxam.ChangminhkhanangCBB va filingsuiltcay d~uphQngtrendill xamgia tangneunhu'c6 s1,J'ph6i h<;1pgiiYa chungRhizobiumthichh<;!pvdiMo (Bang4). BanI! 4. Lw;mgN rich luy va Mp thuN titcae ngubn if cac giai dot;lnkhdc nhau. 32 128 0,6 0,3 2,4 4,6 NS 14,6 5,2 8,1 8 120LSD,) 0,05 I :PMn n.§ndlicJCb6nv"i li.§ullicJng20N, 60P2O" 40 K2O, 500CaO kglha 2: RhidafoaOh<i-tchualOIl/g cha'tmangv"i hfcJnglkg RIridafo/lOOkg h<i-t 3:Mo Mn viio da'tn6ngdQ500ppm,lmllkg da't 4 :Openallb6nviioda'tn6ngdQ200ppm,lmllkgda't , : Chu trong ngoij.c ddn Iii ph~n tr1\mgia t1\ngso v"i d5i chung. G~;;~~h. T u- Ni~1E~ \' ii.'I" t,'r;;;> ~H !j\ 't! ~>!§r ;~; i".. >Ii" ,,_." I \--" :--'( l j ---=---'-------- N-tich]iiy Ndff HQSDphfu1 Ndfs Ndfa N-c6djnh Xi1!y mgN/chu % % % % mgN/chau NSG NSG NSG NSG NSG NSG 35 100 35 100 35 100 35 100- 35 100 35 100 DCI 196 1418 3.3 1,8 19,1 37,6 94,2 88,8 2,6 9,5 5 134 RlIi.' 185 1724 2,9 1,4 ]6,1 37,2 84,1 72,5 13 26,1 24 449 (22)' (235) Mo' 240 ]751 3,2 1,5 3,1 38,8 92,6 74,6 4.0 23,9 10 418 (24) (212) Mo+ 255 1740 3,1 I,D 23,5 26,4 89,3 50,4 7,6 48,6 20 845 Rbi. (23) (537) R+ 202 1798 3,5 1,4 21,1 37,5 96,3 71,1 0 28,5 0 513 Opena1l4 (27) (263) 12 3.1.3.Hi?u quacootrodUa,vi lli{lng,Rhidafovakuma!din nangsua!vakhii nangCBB cuadljuphl)ngtrendiftxam Chungminhtic dQngcM ye'ucuacacv~tli~uteenIii gia tangkhafiling CBB (luqngN- c6dinhtang3,58%-53,26%sovdid6ichung)di~unaydllntdi giatangluqngN tichlilYvafilingsuiltciiyd~uphQngteendillxam.Ke'tquadang chuy la trodi:rava humatkhi ph6ihqpvdiRhidafokh:ifilingCBB d~uphQng teendillxamgiatangriltcao(Hinh2). 3 ""z ;:;-::r ~. DC Tro dl1a Rhidafo Vi hlqng Rhi + TO Rhi + VL Rhi + Rhi+ Hu Humar +VL Cae nghiemthue ffinh 2. Anh huJng tro dlta, vi lu(Tng,Rhidafo va humatde'n51'hap thu N tlt cae ngut5n. 3.1.4.Hi?uquacoochungBradyrhizobiumdin nangsua/;vakhdniingCBB Xac dinhcacchUngBradyrhizobiumdiaphudng(ISL) s6ngcQngsinhvdi d~uphQngteendill xam c6 kha nang CBB cao. Xac dinh cac chung Bradyrhizobiumnh~pnQic6ti~mnangchod?uphQngteendillxamla SMS-176, Tal-lOOO.Phit hi~ncacchUngBradyrhizobiumduqckhuye'ncaohi~nnayIa NC- 92 vaTal-lOOc6khanangCBB thilptrendill xamc6 Ie dochuapM h<;1pdi~u ki~nkhiMu vadiltdaiho~cdosl!qnh tranhm<;!nhmevdichungdiaphudng. 13 Phat hin dang cM y la sl! ph6i h<;lpgiii'a cac chung (ISC: g6m chung Bradyrhizobiumdja phuong+ chungBradyrhizobiumnhp nQi thichh<;Ip)se cho kha nang CBB cao ooat, c6 Ie do tangcu'<'1ngstf xam nhim, gia tang qua trlnh n6tsn hoa va thucdily qua triooCBB cho cay du phQngtrendilt xam (Bang 5), Bant! 5, Anh hilling cac chung Bradyrhizobium din ndng suLftva khii ndng CDD ChUng Sinh Nng Bradyrhizobium khili suith<1t N-tlchluy "Na.e Ndff Ndfs Ndfa wchau wchau mgN/ch % % % % mgN/ch D6ichUng* 44,9 13,6 1297 0,148 2,96 28,65 68,39 814 (Kh6ngnhiEm) SMS-176 50,2 14,4 1551 0,105 2,11 20,76 77,13 1198 (Ando) (19,58)** (47,17) NC-n 43,2 13,2 1322 0,131 2,62 25,35 72,03 953 (AnDo) (5,70) (17,07) 431/DMG 46,1 12,7 1371 0,139 2,78 26,91 70,31 962 (Canada) (5,70) (18,18) Tal-100 43,3 11,6 1367 0,138 2,74 26,73 70,53 964 (USA) (5,39) (18,42) Tal-100D 49,6 16,3 1497 0,133 2,60 25,74 71,60 1077 (USA) (15,42) (32,30) ISL 48,7 14,9 1476 0,147 2,94 28,51 68,55 1023 (Vit Nam) (13,80) (25,67) ISC 54,5 17,3 1675 0,125 2,50 25,22 72,28 1211 (Vit Nam) (29,14) (48,77) LSD (j0,05 6,5 4,1 229 0,043 0,86 4,21 3,05 235 * :Phiinnn 20N, 90P,O" 120K2O,300CaO,30MgO (kg/ha) ** :Chittrongngoc ddnIii pMnIDlmgiatangsovdid6ichUng, 14 3.1.5.NangsuittvakltaRangCBB coocacgit/ngtJ4upM/ngtit"ngltifm/ren diftxam Xac djnhgi5ngd~uph(\ngLy ~p c'1diaphuongc6nangsua'tvakhanang CBB bi giamSUInghiemtrQngsovdicaegi5ngkhaosat.Xacdjnhcaegi5ngLy tuy6nchQn,ICVG 91123vaICVG 1660c6nangsua't,khanangCBB val<;liich titCBB caola caegi5ngc6ti~mnangtrenda'txam(Bang6),S5li~uchUngminh dinggi5ngLy ~p hi~ndangsii'd~ngdC).iITatrenda'txambi thoaiboava xu5ng ca'pnghiemtr<;mg,Do d6,mu5ntangnangsua'td~uphQngtrenvilngda'tnaydin phaipb~ctranggi5ngLy tc)'pdangsii'd~nghi~nnaybo~cthaythe'bAngcae gi5ngc6nangsua'tva khanangCBB caoc6ti~mnangnhucaegi5ngkhaosat tren, Banf!6,Nangsufi!vakhilRangco'djnhdamcuacaegiongd4uphi)ngIhiinghi~m, L<;1iict. Caegi6ng Sinhkh& NShat N-ticbIllY "Na.e Ndff Ndfs Ndfa CDD tim nAn ta'nlha kg/ha kgN/ha % % % % k/ha k/ha Ly t\iP' 3,651 1085 95 0,135 2,7 34,8 62,5 59 +9 (D6ichli'ng) Ly tuyi1n 4,711 1624 135 0,125 2,5 31,7 65,8 89 + 11 chon (29)" (50) (42) (50) Senlai 4,748 1349 124 0,130 2,6 33,2 64,1 80 +15 75-23 (30) (24) (31) (34) lCVG 4,591 1514 130 0,130 2,6 33,0 64,4 84 +11 91123 (26) (40) (37) (42) ICVG 5,063 1663 137 0,125 2,5 32,0 65,5 90 +13 1660 (39) (53) (44) (53) LSD (j 0,05 0,452 186 29 NS NS NS 2,2 8 NS , :Phonnen20N (+Rhizobium),90P2O"120K2O,300CoO,30MgO (kglha). .. :ChITtfOngngoilcddnIii pbiintramgiatangsovdid6icbli'ng. 15 3.2. Anh hu'dngcaenguyent6dinh du'i1ngde'nkhaDangCBB d~uph(}ng 3.2.1.AnlzlullingcaeMllllif/ng N denniingsootvaklziiniingCBB dijuplzqng Phantichanhhuangcuavi~cgia tangluqngphanN (10 - 40 kgN/ha+ Rhizobium)Mn sinhkhoi,Dangguilt,tichluyN, khiiDanghilpthuN titcaengu6n (dilt,phanvakh6ngkhi)cuad~uph9ngtIendiltxam(Bang7), BallI! 7,Anh h!(Jng cua cae ldu h((JngN din 1IIingsuat va khd n6ng cil d;nh d{1m, * : Phann~n: 60P,O" 40 K,O. 400CaO, 30MgO (kglha) ** : Chit trongngo~cIii phiintramgia tlingso yoi d6!chUng Chungminhvdih.tqngMn N thap(10kgN/ha)ho~ccao(40kgN/ha)d~u diintdigiamDangguilt,tichluyN vakhaDangCE>E>chod~uphQngtIendfttxam, Thie'tl~pmoitt.tdngquailb~c3 giUaluqngN-codinhvaluqngphanN (If'mh3). Thie'tl~psl1phiinboN cuaphanvaocaethanhphilneuacayva t6ndQngtrong dilt khi gia tangluqngphiintit 10Mn 40 kgN/ha: luqngN-phanehuye'ut~p trungvaoh\ltva phanbo vaocaethanhphilneuacay theoty l~nhusau: h\lt (50%)>dilt(25%)>thanla (18%)>r€ (1%),Thie'tl~pmoitt.tdngquailhammil giuali~uluqngphanN vdiluqngN-phanvaocayvat6ndQngtrongdilt(Hlnh4), Luongph.n Sinh N-tich LU<.1ngN- N bono kho'i Niingsuat luy 15Na.e Ndff Ndfs Ndfa co'dinh kgNlba tanlba tilnlba kgNlba % % % % kgNlba 10N +Rhi. 6,55 2.77 In 0,237 4,78 60,80 34,42 59 (Do'i ChU'ng) 20N +Rhi, 6,89 3,Ol 197 0,366 7,32 46,53 46,15 91 (8,68)** (14,53) (54,23) 30N +Rhi. 6,60 2,98 187 0,658 13,24 46.14 40.62 76 (7,58) (8,n) (28,81) 40N +Rhl, 6,57 2,79 179 0,655 13,60 43,22 43,17 77 (0,72) (4,06) (30.50) LSD (j0,05 0,29 0,10 7 0,055 3,2 7 4,1 8 16 0 0 0 y =O,O089x' -O,7625x'+ 19,863x- 72,25 R' =0,7278 10 20 30 40 50 Li~u Itt<;lngN (kgNlha) mnh 3. Tuang quan giila [lIqngN-dl dinh va li€u [II{1ngpJuln N tren cay ~u ph(jng 30 25 20'" -E Z 15 O(J ..I<: 10 5 0 0 y; 1,1752xo, R'; 0.9474 0 5 IS 4520 25 30 35 4010 mnh 4. Tlfang quan giila [IIqngpJuln N v(7i[IIqngN-pJuln VaGcay va t6n d(Jng trang dat Lieu ht<,ingN (kgNlha) Xac djnhhtQngphilo20kgN/ha+Rhizobiumla thichhQpnhf(td6ivdid~u phQng\rendf(txamvi chonangsuf(tvakhanangCBB caonhat.Nhii'ngluQng b6nN tha'p(10kgN/ha)ho~cao(40kgN/ha)selamgiamnangsuatvii khiinang CBB. B~cbi~tvdiluQngb6nphiloN cao(40kgN/ha)sediind€n thatthoatN va kimhamkhiinangCBB ciiacay. 110l 100l.. 90-! <E 80 Z 70"" 60..c 50.5. '0 40\0 U 30 Z 20 10 0 0 17 3.2.2.Anh hillingcaeliiu I"{lngP dtnnangsuiftvakhii nangCBB d4uphi)ng Ph1intichsinhkhO'i,nangsuith~t,N-, P- tichluy va khitnangCBB cua d~uphQngtrendfttxambibie'ndQngm~nhmetheoIi~uh1Qngphospho(P). C1'ic thongsO'naygiatangkhigiatanghtQngP tit0-90kgP20slhanhunggiitmd h1Qng 120P20slha(ffmh5).ThietI~pmO'itltcJngquailb~c3 giii'aIu'QngN-cO'dinhva li~uIu'QngP (Hinh6).XacdiM luqngP thichhqpchod~uphQngIrendfttxamla 90kgP20slha. '" <Ez OJ) ~ 240 [ " 220 200 "" 180 "" 160 140 "" 1201/ 100~ 80 1 60 40 20 O' CNdfs 8Ndff DNdfa 186 139 138 155 166 30 60 90 120 Li€u IU'<1ngP (kg P205/ha) mnh 5. Anh huiing cua cae li€u lw;mgphospho din Sl!hifp thuN tit ctic ngu6n 240 ~ 220 <E 200 ~ 180 ~ 160 "3 140 ;0 120 '8 100 Z 80 OJ) 60 .6. 40 3 20 0 0 0 y: .0.OOO2x'+0.023Ix' - 0.1672x+139.32 R':0.7144 . 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Li~u IU'<;IngPhospho(kg P205/ha) mnh 6. Tudngquangiilalw;mgN-c6dinhvalilu lw;mgphospho 18 3.2.3.Anh hrillngeaeli€u lli{lngK din nangsufitvakhdnangelfdinkdf!.m Phantichiinhhuangcae1i~u1U<;lngK dtn Dangsua'tvakhaDangCBB d~u phQngtrenda'txam(fllnh 7).Thie't1~pm6itU'dngquaDb~c3 giUa1U<;lngN-c6 djnhva1U<;IngphanK (Hlnh8).Xac djnh1u<;IngK thichh<;lpchod~uphQngtren da'txam1a120kgK2Olha. ,,/ 2000 t /"~DNdr, 8Ndff ONdr. 1800"" - 1600I~: 1-- 140° 1 " Or-=' /"'" 1200J / I!I 327J! 1000 / iii ,," IZ t""01) 800 " 10S3e /" 600 I> 40°1/ 200-+' 0 -1496-- 1601 30 60 90 120 ISO Li~u hr<!ngK (kg K201ha) ffinh 7.Anh h1liJngcUa cac ldu f1tqngK Mn s!I lufp thuN ta cae ngubn. 3000 -, 2700~ 2400 l 2100 I ,~" 1800 -j.<:: , ~1500 I E 1200 900 600 " 300 i, 0 y =-0,00Ix3 + 0,1554x2 - 1,0192x + 1075,9 R2=0,8684 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Li~u htc;lngKali (kgK201ha) ffinh 8. TIlf1ngquan giila lll(1ngN-cI)'dinh v(Ji cac ldu lllqng Kali 19 3.2.4.Ank ktilJngcae/iiu lll{lngCadIn niingsuittvakkdniingciidinkd{lm Phiintfchsinhkho'i,nangsuit, tiehluyN vakhii nangCBB giatangtheo h.tQngb6nCa tU'0 - 300kg CaOlha,nhungsI;ib6nvu'Qtmti'e400kg CaOlhase d~ntdigiiimcaethongso'nay(ffinh9).Thie'tl~pmo'itu'dngquailgiii'aluQngN- co'dint va li~uluQngCa. Xaedint luQngMn 300kg CaOlhaehod~uphQnge6 nangsuitvakhiinangCBB eaonhiltlIendillxam(ffinh 10). 20°1/- 0 Ndfs 18°1 160f./ 140l' '" 120 I' /~ 1O0j / :!i 80,/ ./ 1./ 60~' ~~~.'.. Ot.< . Ndff 0 Ndfa 101 63 100 200 300 400 ffinh 9. Anh hliUng ale ldu IIl(1ngCa din s!(h{[pthuN tit cac ngu6n khac nhau Lic;lllU'1ngCanxi (kg CaOlha) 1401 120i 100 <tI <E 80 Z ~ 60 40 20 0 0 y =-6E..Q6xJ+0,0034X2-0,2455x+35.814 R2=0,7908 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 ffinh ZO.Tlldng quan giila IIl(1ngN-dJ dink va cae lii!u IIl(1ngcamei. Li~ulu<;!ngCanxi(kgCaOlha) 20 * Phonn€:n: 20N (+Rhizobiwn),90P,Os,120K2O,300CoO,30MgO (kglha). ** : Bonvilodatnbngdo500ppmcuacacngnyentoMo, B,Co.Cu,ZnviiMn,600litlha *** :Phunvilocaynbngdi)100ppmcuacacnguyento'Mo,B, Co,Cu,ZnviiMn, 600litlha 3.3. Nangsua'tvakhaDangCBB cuae6ngthuebOnphantlmdu'Q'eehod~u phQngtrenda'txam 3.3.1.NangsulitvakhdnangCBB ciiacacconKthucbOnphOnclwdi!uph{)ng Philotichsaibic;\tv€ sinhkha'i,Dangsua't,1u'<JngN-lichlilY,vaha'pthoN tir caengu5ncuad~uphQngtrenda'txamvdicaeeongthucMn philokhiicnhau. Xaedjnhcongthucb6nphilotlIDdu'qegiatangDangxuatvakhaDangCDD so vdjtongthueb6nphilohic;\nayeuaDongdaD(Bang9). 3.2.5, Anh htilJng cac thUidii!mphun vi lli{lngdtn nang sufi/:vakhd nang CBB Xiic dinh vic;\cb6n vi 1u'<Jngvao da'tvdi n6ng dQ 500 ppm 0 0 NSG va phon thiln Iii vdi n5ng dQ 100ppm 0 35 NSG cho Dangsua'tva 1u'<JngN-ca' dinh cao nha't.Philo lich vic;\cphon vi 1u'<Jngsdm(25 NSG) hoc trti (45 NSG) trong giai d01.lnra hoa S1'5lam giam Dang sua'tva kha Dang CDD cily (Bang 8). Bani! 8. Anh hliUng cae thili dilm phun vi lll(lng din ndng sufi! va khii ndng CDD Thbidi6ID Sinhkh61 NAng L9iicb phunVL cay suiltt N-tichlilY "Na.e. Ndff Ndfs Ndfa CBB NSG tiilllha kg/ha kgNlha % % % % kgNlha kgNlha 06i chUng* 3,651 1085 91 0,155 3,1 30.0 66,8 61 +11 Bonvilo 4,920 1529 130 0,130 2,6 24,9 72,5 94 +23 dat** (41) (42) (54) 25NSG*** 3,782 1048 95 0,140 2,8 27,7 69,5 66 +15 (-4) (5) (9) 35NSG 4.346 1367 118 0,130 2,6 25,5 71,9 85 +17 (26) (30) (40) 45NSG 3,772 1249 101 0,145 2,9 28,9 68.2 69 +9 (15) (11) (13) LSD i'J0,05 1095 295 29' NS NS NS NS 12 9 21 BanI! 9.Anhhl(iJngcaeeongtMe phdnbondin nangsudtvakhanangCDD d(iuphQng. Caecong Sinh Nang N-tich Loi icn thucbOn kh61 su'-that IllY "Na.e Ndff Ndfs Ndfa CDD phan t'-nlha kWha kgNlha % % % % kgNlha kgNlha Nongdan* 5,992 826 122 0,231 4,6 49,3 46,1 57 + 17 (06i chUng) CPM** 6,717 978 150 0,188 3,8 43,7 52,5 78 +31 (18)*** (23) (37) CPM +600 7,825 1331 184 0,172 3,4 40,3 56.3 103 +39 kgTrodua (61) (51) (81) CPM +800 6.671 1086 151 0,237 4,7 55.2 40,1 59 +7 kgTrodua (31) (24) (4) CPM+1000 6,912 1278 156 0,245 4,9 57,3 37,8 60 +2 kgTrodua (55) (28) (5) LSDP=0,05 NS 461 GI 0,045 1,0 NS 7,0 30 17 * CDngth",cbonpMnhin naycuanDngdan: 20N, 60P,O5,10K.,O.300CaDvii 3{ilntrodualha ** CPM -PMn bontlmdU'\1C: 20N (+Rhizobium),90P,O" 120K,O, 300CaD,30MgO(kglha),vi IU'dng *** : Chii'{rongngoocddnIii phantramgiatangsovdid6ichU'ng. BanK...l.JL So sanh hieu qua kinh te'eong tMe bon phdn mai eho d(iuphQngtren dilt xtim Giaphan Hesold C:\Ccong Nangsuilt Boi T6ngtho Chiphidilutl! Tin toolkg nhuankhi {hltcbOn clauy5 tho nhap* (trieud6nWha) Wi clauy5 dilutJ1 phan tilnlha kWha triu d6ng Phan Chikhac {rieudIha (d6ng) phanOOn N6ngdiin 1,605 0 8,025 2,008 4,208 1,809 1251 0,90 (D6ichU'ng) CPM 1,702 97 8,510 1,440 3,680 3,390 846 2,35 CPM +600 1,803 198 9,015 1,680 3,880 3,455 931 2,05 kgTrodira CPM +800 1,806 201 9,030 1,740 3,940 3,350 963 1,92 kgTrodira CPM+1000 1,790 185 8,950 1,835 4,036 3,079 1025 1,67 kgTrodira * Ghidu ph<}ng: 5.000donglkgdiiuvotalthilidim thang8- 1995, 22 Phantichhi~uquakinhIe'cuacacc6ngthacMn phanchod?uphQngtren d[(txam.Xac dinhcongthacMn phanJim du'qcgiamchiphi dftun.tchophan b6nvatangnangsuiitsovdicongthacMn phiintruyenth6ngcuan6ngdan,do d6tangIqi wc sanxuiitd?uphQnglen 1,2-1,6tri~ud6nglha/v~(Bang10). 3.3.2.Thi'inghi?mtrendi?nrf)ngclingtIULCbOnphfinurndrlf/Cchodijuphf)ng £>.'ioogia va so sanhhi~uquakinhIe'cuacacc6ngthacMn phiintim duqcvathl1cti~nMn phancuan6ngdantrong26hQgiadinhvdi t6ngdi~ntich caOOlacla 24,2hatrendjabantri6nkhaiIa huy~nTrangBang(TayNinh)va huy~nCu Chi (TP H6 ChiMinh)trong2 nam1996-1998(Bang11). BangJL Kef quatriln khaieongthuebonphfinamdw;etrang2nam1996-1998 ]CongthueI (eongthuebonpMn hii;nnayCUBnongdan):2OOgiaIrodita(l.loo.OOOd)+250kgsuper Ian (260.000d) + 125kgpMn NPK 16-16-8(315.000d) +300kg CaO (240.000d) / ha (giathanh: 1.915.000d). 2CongthUe2 (eongthUepMn bOntimdude,CPM) : 70kgUre (195.000d)+550kgsuperIan(570.000 d) + 150kgKCl (270.000d)+phlIDvi ludng(B, Mo, Co...)(185.000d) +3ookgCaO (240.000d) / ha (giatMnh : 1.460.000d) 3CongthUe3 (eongthuepMn bOnOmdu'<;1e+6ookgtrodita):40gi~trodita(220.000d)+70kgUre + 550kgSuperIan+150KCI +phonvi ludng(B,Mo.Co...)+3ookgCaO/ ha(giathanh:1.680.000d). s6 DienrichtriGnkhaiIrongcaeVl! Nangsuilt Nangsuilt Nangsuilt IT vacaethOn!!s6thonban CTI] (tilnlha) CT 2' (tilnlha) CT33(tilnlha) Vu DoneXuan 96-97(8.0ha) 0 Nangsufiltrungbinh 2,543 2,584 2,690 ._.

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