Prototype lessons on developing textual skill of first year college students of the Thai nguyen system

THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines PROTOTYPE LESSONS ON DEVELOPING TEXTUAL SKILL OF FIRST YEAR COLLEGE STUDENTS OF THE THAI NGUYEN SYSTEM A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of Graduate School Batangas State University Batangas City, Philippines In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Major in English By: HOANG HUONG LY (LILY) 2015 THAI NGUYEN UNIVE

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ERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines ABSTRACT Title : Prototype Lessons on Developing Textual Skill of First Year College Students of the Thai Nguyen System Author : Hoang Huong Ly Degree : Doctor of Philosophy major in English Language and Literature Year : 2015 Advisor : Dr. Matilda H. Dimanno Summary This study attempts to assess textual skill of first year college students of Thai Nguyen System. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1) What is the demographic profile of students in terms of gender, parents‟ educational attainment, students‟ exposure to English media, place of origin, and school graduated from?; 2) What is the respondents' textual performance in terms of combining sentences, constructing sentences, connecting ideas, using words effectively, and developing paragraph?; 3) Are there significant relationships between the students' textual performance and their profile variables?; 4) How do teachers assess the textual performance of students in English?; 5) Are there significant differences on students‟ textual performance and THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines teachers‟ assessment on the same areas? and 6) What prototype lessons may be proposed to develop students‟ textual performance? Two sets of instruments - the survey questionnaire for teacher respondents and the teacher-made test for student respondents - were used to determine textual skill of first year college students of Thai Nguyen System and teachers‟ assessment on the same areas. The research found out that college students have equal gender distribution, well-educated parents, not well exposed to the English media, came from urban areas, and pursued their secondary education in public schools. They have skills in sentence combining with average performance in constructing sentences, connecting ideas, using words effectively and developing paragraph. Male students‟ performance in combining sentences, connecting ideas and developing paragraphs is different from the female students‟ performance. College students performed their textual skill in using words effectively, but the performance of the students in this area is significantly different. Teachers considered all the component skills important for students to develop and they had a very high assessment of the degree of importance of the different items under the textual skills. However, student‟s performance in the areas of combining sentence, constructing sentences and connecting ideas are not related to the teacher‟s assessment. Based on the findings, the prototype lessons are designed to provide a learning THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines material that would address the inadequacies of the student population, this being part of the emerging trend of responsive and outcome -based language education. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher wishes to acknowledge with her profound gratitude to the valuable constributions of the following individuals: Dr. Matilda H. Dimaano, her dissertation advisor, for her enthusiastic guidance, critical comments, thorough suggestions, and great encouragement that help her to accomplish the dissertation in time. Dr. Corazon Cabrera, Dr Remedios P. Magnaye, Dr. Amada G. Abanaag, Dr. Ma Luisa Valdez, and Dr Felix Panopio, members of the panel, for their insightful comment and suggestions, their wisdom and expertise in research to enrich her study. All the members of ITC, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, for their assistant and facilitating. The teachers of English at Thai Nguyen University, especially at four selected universites, for their friendship, generosity, assistance, and cooporation. The first year college students of academic year 2014-2015 who served as the subjects of the study, for their enthusiasm and cooperation. Her love and inspiration, Pham Hong Thai and her lovely son - Pham Hoang Minh, who are always with her and always in her heart, for their deep love, unceasing support both moral and finance, and their faith and great encouragement that push her through writing. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines Her big family, especially her Mum and Dad and her parents-in-law, who always believe in her and are proud of her - their daughter. Hoang Huong Ly THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE......................... TABLE OF CONTENTS...................... LIST OF TABLES......................... LIST OF FIGURES.. CHAPTER I. THE PROBLEM Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem.. 5 Scope, Delimitation and Limitation... 6 Significance of the Study 8 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Conceptual Literature. 10 Research Literature 44 Synthesis.. 51 Theoretical Framework.. 53 Conceptual Framework.. 55 Hypothesis 58 Definition of Terms.. 58 III. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines Research Environment . 60 Research Design......................................... 62 Subject of Study 62 Data Gathering Instrument. 64 Data Gathering Procedure.. 66 Statistical Treatment of Data.. 66 IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 68 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Summary of Findings ............................................ 116 Conclusions .......................................................... 128 Recommendations ................................................ 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY............ 130 APPENDICES A. Letters of Request . 138 B. Questionnaires ............................ 144 C. Documentations.. 160 CURRICULUM VITAE THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Distribution of Population and Sample 63 2 Gender Profile of the Student Respondents . 68 3 Parent's Education Profile of the Student Respondents.. 69 4 Profile of students‟ exposure to English media 70 5 Type of English media exposure by the student respondents 71 6 Place of origin of the Student Respondents . 73 7 Type of High School of the Student Respondents ... 74 8 Level of student's performance in the different textual skill test 77 9 Student's Performance in the Textual Skills Tests stratified according to the Profile Variables 86 10 List Textual Performance of the Students as assessed by the Teachers . 90 11 Students‟ English Language Performance and their Frequency of Use 92 12 Students‟ English Language Performance and their Degree of Importance .. 93 13 Student's Performance and Teachers‟ assessment on the Students‟ Textual Competence 94 14 Basis in the Design of Prototype Lessons to Develop Students‟ Textual Performance .. 96 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study ....................................... 55 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 1 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction The English language is one of the foreign languages taught in various stages of the educational system, especially in countries that have adopted it as their second language. A number of reasons justify this grand educational decision as the English language has risen to a global status and has fast become the lingua franca of the entire world. Although English is only the third in rank among the world languages, the first of which is Chinese Mandarin and the second is Spanish, the wide adoption and acceptance of modern English in business communication drive its continuous success. In fact, countries in Africa and Asia for example who are multi-lingual and multi-dialect have made English as their common language bridging the communication gap among their regional constituents. Therefore, English has risen from its former status as the language of the colonialists to a language of democracy and progress. Globalization has created a demand for proficiency in the English language. Important business transactions in the world‟s biggest economies are crafted in the English language. The movement of people either for tourism, business, education or migration to a foreign country requires a minimum level of English language proficiency. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 2 These are some of the several reasons why English language schools have proliferated, that is to cater to the increasing need of the wider speaking public. While the teaching of the English language has taken a full and formalistic engagement like the programs for English as the Second Language (ESL) or English as a Foreign Language (EFL) assumed by designated language teaching institutions, deficiencies have been and continuously being identified. The ESL and EFL pedagogical styles were seen to follow the scholastic or traditional approaches of teaching English. With traditional approaches, it is meant that the English language is taught in the way that it is taught in schools, like building vocabularies and putting heavy emphasis on grammar. This approach has been challenged as evaluations of the non-native speakers in various foreign educational institutions that showed preponderance of ineffective English communication skills. In fact, the ESL program was primarily geared towards developing written English proficiency, not spoken English proficiency. It is clear that people cannot use only spoken language to communicate because written language plays very important role in every field. As can be seen, in four skills, writing or textual skill is creative and difficult one that learners at different levels of English, especially elementary encounter because they need to gain basic knowledge of THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 3 English in general as well as writing in particular. If they are taught textual skill thoroughly and often pratise writing, they are able to use words and compound or complex sentences exactly and effectively to express their ideas logically. Language learning proceeds in a longitudinal and sequential fashion and several researches have provided evidence to this effect. In fact, there were 5 stages identified in communicative development that L1 learners need to undergo. ESL/EFL learners were also found to undergo communicative development in a similar process, suggesting the universality of the language learning process. And following L1 learners‟ pattern in acquiring linguistic skills of their native language that occur in stages, macro and micro skills are acquired as well. The four macro language skills that occur in sequential process include listening first, then speaking, followed by reading, and finally writing. These macro skills as indicated are related to each other in two ways, and these are the direction of communication - the in or out, and the method of communication - the spoken or written. The micro-skills acquired would include grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling. The linguistic skills development and maturity of the second language learners can be evaluated cross-sectionally through a sampling assessment of their macro skills as well as their micro skills. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 4 Such is particularly important especially among freshman students of the University, where a linguistic performance assessment would be critical in making a decision for English language remedial programs. Aware of the academic tasks of a tertiary education, a minimum skill and proficiency in the English language is required for them to successfully tackle the requirements of their courses. During the process of teaching basic English at university, I notice with deep concern that many first year students have difficulties in writing skills. The reason for this is that students often write simple sentences and do not know how to use compound and complex sentences. Also, they are confused with constructing sentences, connecting ideas and using words effectively. They, consequently, make mistakes in the process of writing, especially writing a paragraph or an essay. Besides, most of them are afraid of writing or do not practise writing regularly. Therefore, in this study an attempt will be made to probe the textual skill of the Vietnamese first year basic English students and this will be compared with the linguistic rating of their respective teachers. This approach will not only validate the authenticity of the data but also gauge the student‟s performance relative to the teacher‟s linguistic performance evaluation. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 5 It is true that several studies have been done regarding the assessment of grammatical performance and textual performance, however, what we often see is that these parameters are evaluated either alone separately with respect to another performance parameter or comparing the effect of one over the other. In most of the studies conducted, grammatical performance was utilized as an index for a longitudinal interventional studies, the same way with textual performance. This research which will examine these two performance parameters at the same time among first - year Basic English students in a cross-sectional and non-interventional design will be the first of its types to be conducted among Vietnamese students. Because of all reasons given above, I would like to study students‟ ability of writing expressed through the way they combine sentences, construct sentences, connect ideas, use words effectively, and develop paragraph. Based on the results and findings of the study, helpful prototype lessons can be proposed with the hope of providing the students with useful learning materials to improve their writing skills. Statement of the Problem This study assessed textual skill of first year college students of Thai Nguyen System. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of students in terms of: THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 6 1.1. gender; 1.2. parents‟ educational attainment; 1.3. students‟ exposure to English media; 1.4. place of origin; and 1.5. school graduated from? 2. What is the respondents' textual performance in terms of: 2.1. combining sentences; 2.2. constructing sentences; 2.3. connecting ideas; 2.4. using words effectively; and 2.5. developing paragraph? 3. Are there significant relationships between the students' textual performance and their profile variables? 4. How do teachers assess the textual performance of students in English? 5. Are there significant differences on students‟ textual performance and teachers‟ assessment on the same areas? 6. What prototype lessons may be proposed to develop students‟ textual performance? Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study The study covered the textual skill of first year college students of the Thai Nguyen system. The output of the study is the prototype lessons THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 7 in order to develop the textual skill of first year students of the Thai Nguyen system. This study was limited to the responses of 379 first year Basic English language students from selected Universities in Thai Nguyen and their respective English teachers. The students answered the teacher–made test on textual performance relative to combining sentences, constructing sentences, connecting ideas, using words effectively, and developing paragraph which served as the source of the quantitative data that were analyzed statistically. The students‟ demographic profiles were included in this study. These student respondents were enrolled in the Basic English course in the University. The teacher respondents were the respective teachers of the evaluated students and the teacher‟s assessment of the student and the students‟ scores in questionnaire were compared. Comparison of means and t-test were done as well as correlation analysis but not limited to these statistical parameters. Demographic data were presented as graphical figures. The study is limited only to first year college students enrolled in the four Thai Nguyen University systems. Those students who were not enrolled in the Basic English Course as well as those who were in the upper year levels were excluded in the study. Significance of the Study THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 8 This study is believed to have profound significance to the Administrators, teachers of English and first year college students in Thai Nguyen University, and future researchers Administrators. This study will also be significant to the administrator and policy-makers because of the information that they will be provided regarding the textual performance of their students, that way they can make the grand decision to establish an English language remedial program for the affected student population or whether the teachers‟ strategic intervention and the prototype lessons which are the output of this study would suffice to supplement the deficiency needs of the students. First Year College Students at Thai Nguyen University. Results of the study will help them understand their textual performance. This will also serve as basis for improvement on the areas they find most difficult. The output developed in the study in the form of prototype lessons in English language will reinforce them in the deficiencies encountered. Teachers of basic English. The results of study will benefit the teachers because they can inject their impressions on their students. Similarly, they would benefit from the results that will be cascaded to them at the end of the study so that they will understand why their students perform accordingly. They will also be benefited by THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 9 the prototype lessons developed as these serve as pedagogical aids in their students‟ learning. Policy-Makers. Results of the study will provide them with the latest textual performance of the first year college English students which can form the basis for national policy formulation. This will also substantiate the status of the primary and secondary education whether they have successfully prepared the students to this tertiary level. Future researchers. This may be useful for other researchers who might wish to conduct a similar study. Future researchers may use this study to enrich their own literature in the field of writing skill. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 10 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter presents the relevant conceptual and research literature which are found relevant to the present study, synthesis, theoretical and conceptual frameworks and definition of terms. The literatures included are found substantial to the study and give the necessary background to understand the present research. Conceptual Literature The following concepts which focus on Basic College English, grammatical and textual performance, and writing English composition and prototype lessons in English are reviewed to substantiate the study. Basic College English. An English-based controlled language which is also called simple English is referred to as Basic English. It is an international auxiliary language intended to serve as a means of communication between people whose native languages differed (www. 5 minuteenglish.com/ basic-english-lang.htm). This was created by British writer and linguist Charles Kay Ogden as an aid for teaching English as a second language. Basic English is a simplified subset of regular English which Ogden believes that with a controlled English learning experience would be easier to achieve. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 11 In learning English, there is a need to have knowledge of some basic rules of the language. Developing a solid foundation in English grammar will help students create sentences correctly and easier to improve communication skills in both spoken and written English. The requirements in the offering of Basic College English vary depending on the college or university the student has chosen. A good rule thumbs for anyone interested in knowing exactly what those site specific pre- requisites are to check with the college. However, if a student is uncertain as to which college to attend, there is a method to determine and be prepared for some of the most basic college English requirements (every-day life.global pointt.com/ basic-college-English requirements 6092, html). Since reading is dominant in college English classes, these can be a mixture of classical literature, contemporary poetry, social commentary, opinion pieces, academic articles and or drama. According to Harvard report for reading, for students to absorb these works properly, they must develop a habit of reading with purpose. They must know what they want to get out from the reading assignment and be able to look for those points. In college English classes, writing is heavily dealt on and one of the most difficult aspects considered along this area is grammar. It is expected by everybody that students will be able to show an THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 12 understanding of the basic rules of grammar. For students to have better understanding of grammar, they need to seek and purchase the latest edition of a writer's handbook which contains all the rules of grammar, syntax, citation, formatting and vocabulary. Students can easily use and refer to these books every time needed as these guides come with online resources of writers. College students should have a strong vocabulary through reading. The institution wants to have students who possess strong lexicon. Students can effectively communicate if they have many ideas. Since words represent ideas, it is believed that the students who possess more words the better they could express themselves. For that reason students should continuously learn and add new words to their vocabulary. There are seven secrets to succeed in taking Basic College English (grammar.about.com/od/yourwriting/a/fresh.com.tips/htm). These include: knowing the writing handbook and be able to use this; reading twice where the first reading if for pleasure and the second is for facts; using the college writing center and reviewing the basic grammatical structures and terms; preparing to move beyond; using online resources wisely as well as avoiding plagiarism. It can be daunting to combine words together to form phrases and phrases to form complete sentences and communicate in the THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 13 English language. Once the basics of English communication is mastered, the next step is to advance the speaking, reading and writing skills (Ideboen, Alyssa, www. com/ how- 7489732 -learn -basic-college. english.html). To improve English language education the following are the study tips and tricks to follow to master the basics of College English: review the basis by grabbing an English grammar book and a tutor or an English speaking friend and making some of understanding basic English grammar since college level English involve a bigger vocabulary and more complex structures; use of English daily through practicing listening skills such as watching television or listening to radio or communicating with people by talking to friends. Have practice with TOEFL example questions to get idea of advance English test- questions, and work through practice exams as well as get corrected by having a tutor or close friend to help hone skills by listening and adjusting pronunciation. As a flexible major, English offers many opportunities to students to take electives within the major area of study. A solid grounding in undergraduate studies can prepare one to pursue an advance degree. English requirements differ from university to university, but there are some general basics. Most universities require all students to take a composition class, while a writing-focused class may be required to THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 14 graduate from college (education/ seattlepi. com/ic – college -english- requirements-1224 html). Some universities require a survey course in English literature, a class that covers a breath of literature overtime. Other universities require two or three courses focusing an older works, such as phrase by Shakespeare, Chaucer, or other pre-1800's writers. Grammatical and Textual Performance of Students. The set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in any given natural language which include morphology, syntax, and phonology, and often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatic is referred to as grammar. As the basic backbone of any language, both in spoken and written forms of language, grammar does not only include rules for usage of proper tenses and proper sentence construction, but also deals with punctuation and correct usage of words. Without grammar, a language will be totally coarse and ugly to deal with, and would eventually become completely illegible and nonsense (Importance of Grammar. [Internet]. 2013). There are five reasons why grammar is important in a language. These include: to be able to maintain uniformity where the use of language according to one‟s own whims and fancies would result to a preponderance of language variations which results to ambiguity and vagueness, miscommunications and communication problems; to be legible where language which doesn‟t make sense will be useless in THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 15 communication like an improperly constructed sentence. Miscommunication is caused by the use of wrong words or not be able to relay intended information to the listener or re-punctuation of which the entire meaning of the sentence is changed. To insure the correct communication of thoughts and ideas through language is the ultimate purpose of grammar. Another reason is to sound good and interesting like a grammatically sound piece of prose or verse. A person will become disinterested if one talks or writes something without proper grammar. For language to have smooth flow and interesting sound, it must abide by the rules of grammar in constructing the sentences. Professionalism is another reason why grammar is important. It is a must that in business and professional speaking and documents language used must be free from any grammatical error. The last reason is to break it and make it. The value of correct grammar is realized by Individuals who are into literary careers. According to Cruz et al (2001) grammar is that science which deals with words, forms of words, word combination and the relationship between words. It is a system of rules for the use of a language or the study of what is preferred and what is to be avoided in effective speech and writing. It tells us what words do in sentences and how they THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 16 combine to convey meaning. It is the use of words appropriate to a language as it is spoken and written. The analytical study of grammar includes the study of syntax, or sentence structure, and morphology, or word structure. Syntax in particular delves with linguistic structure above the word level, morphology, concerns with structure at and below the word level, and does not involve the level of individual sounds, in the same way with intonation, which is in the domain of phonology (Carlos and Haike, 2005). Grammar can be cl... elicitative or explanatory. The learner is informed about the language in the instructional material while if the material provides exposure to the language in use it is experiential. The materials are elicitative when it stimulates language use and when it seeks discoveries about language in natural settings. Instructional materials according to Littlejohn et al (1989) have a hidden curriculum that includes attitudes toward knowledge, attitudes toward teaching and learning, attitudes toward the role and relationship of the teacher, student values and attitudes related to gender and society. Instructional philosophy, approach, method and content including both linguistic and cultural information are found or incorporated in instructional materials. Beliefs that writers have about what language is and how it should be taught made up the choices in writing textbooks. Approach like the aural oral and activities chosen as well as selected linguistic and cultural information may be utilized by the writers. As regard to the role of instructional materials in student life it plays a very significant one because it helps them come face to face with the real thing or object. Instructional materials as tools used by THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 36 teachers in the classroom make learning more conceptual, concrete, factual and illustrative and make students remember or recall what has been taught. Instructional materials may be suitable for students‟ needs even if they are not designed specifically for them; that textbooks make it possible for students to review and prepare their lessons, that textbooks are efficient in terms of time and money, and that textbooks can and should allow for adaptation and improvisation. Instructional materials help learning and teaching (O‟Neil, 1990). Teachers and students rely heavily in textbooks and textbooks determine the components and methods of learning, that is they control the content, methods and procedures of learning. The way the textbook presents the material, the students learn what is presented in it as well as the way students are learning from it. The class and the learning process are influenced by the educational philosophy of the textbook. So that one of the most important influences on what goes on the classroom and considered the center of instruction in many cases are no other than the instructional materials is explanatory. In language teaching, effective instructional materials are shaped by consideration of a number of factors such as teacher, learner and contextual variable. Included in the teacher factor are the teacher‟s language proficiency, training and experience, cultural background and THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 37 preferred teaching style. Learner factors on the other hand include learners‟ learning style preferences, their language learning needs, interests and motivations while in contextual factors, the school culture, classroom conditions, class size and availability of teaching resources in situations where the materials will be used (Richards.www.professor.jackrichards.com). Instructional material refers to those things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively and efficiently and help students learn. Those material or resources employed by the teachers make teaching and learning effective and productive. It is a means of instruction which must be selected on the basis of its objective and the use of instructional material reduces the problem of interference and translation in teaching of English language. Instructional materials are those that promote the effectiveness of instruction during teaching learning process. The use of these materials makes teaching real and concrete and is considered one of the significant developments in the field of language teaching. According to Allwright (1990), materials should teach students to learn that they should be resource books for ideas and activities for instruction/learning and that they should give teachers rationale for what they do. It was emphasized that materials control teaching and learning. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 38 On the use of instructional materials, teachers teach effectively and facilitate learning through its utilization. If properly used, instructional materials help make ideas clear and make learning more vivid. Further, teacher using instructional materials in the lesson covers more facts at a very short period of time. As regard to the students, when the materials are used, they immediately conceptualize what is being taught. Teaching and learning activities are facilitated by the use of instructional materials as well as the attainment of objectives of the lesson depending on the availability, adequacy and appropriateness of the selected materials. This indicates that the learning materials are not haphazardly selected. Teacher should select carefully resource materials to be used in teaching since this is one aspect of teacher‟s responsibilities. Students, on the other hand, who are taught with the use of instructional materials tend to have more knowledge and could follow easily what the teacher is saying and could explain better with understanding. Moreover, teacher‟s use of instructional materials in class during learning activity provides students with greater acquisition with higher retention and factual knowledge. Instructional materials illustrate vividly meaning of the lesson to the students thereby contributing teaching with quality. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 39 Clarke (1989) stated that authenticity, realism, context and focus on the learner are the bases or characterization for communicative methodology; that is why it is considered important. There are other aspects that constitute communicative methodology characteristics. The teaching context that enables the writer to fail in the instructional materials to the target audience as well as the writers profile of the target language teachers learners are provided by the publisher in planning a new textbook or course book series. The writer‟s understanding of language and language use will have a major impact on material‟s design most especially in developing materials for any aspect of learning be it a skill based course in listening, speaking, reading or writing or an integrated skills – basic series. The role in determining the goals the writer sets for the materials, the focus of the materials themselves and the activities within then play a very important role in the impact of material design. Materials will inevitably reflect a theory of the nature of language, communication or language use while the preparation of instructional materials might appear to be an essentially practical activity. As regard to the role of instructional materials, there is a movement that makes the learner the center of language learning than the teacher since 1970. These learners are more important than the teachers, materials, curriculum, methods or evaluation. Learners need THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 40 should be the focus of designing materials, teaching methods and evaluation. The center of instruction and learning must be the learner. Materials development as both a field of study and a practical undertaking studies the principles and procedure of the design, implementation and evaluation of language teaching materials. Practical undertakings involve the production, evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials by teachers for their own classrooms and by writers of instructional materials for sale or distribution. Pinter (2006) discussed that learning teaching materials in practice can be developed and produced by evaluating learning materials, adapting, supplementing and creating own materials. Dick et al (1990) emphasized that in creating own materials is the teacher‟s last effort to develop learning materials instead of adapting and supplementing the existing textbooks or authentic texts. And that there should be fundamental bases in order to create materials among others, teaching objectives or instructional goals, students' needs and topic based planning. In determining how the instructional materials will look alike and how they will work, there are two factors that play a crucial role. The first is the theory of language and language use reflected in the materials and the second is the theory of learning on which the materials are THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 41 based. The necessary links between theory and practice are provided by these two sources of input. Relative to materials development further, there are several principles in relation to teaching of languages. These are: materials should have impact; materials help learners to feel at ease; materials should help learners develop confidence. Materials should require and facilitate learner self-improvement; materials should expose the learner to language in authentic use; materials should provide the learners with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes; materials should take into account that the positive effects of instructions are usually delayed. Materials should take into account that learners differ in learning styles, materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude; materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction, materials should maximize learning potential by encouraging intellectual, aesthetic and emotional involvement which stimulates both right and left brain activities, and materials should not rely too much on controlled practice as well as materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback. To help learners learn is the role of the teachers. Curriculum which is the statement of the goals of learning and the methods of learning should be followed by the teachers for them to choose which THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 42 materials will be appropriate for teaching. They may also adapt, supplement and elaborate those materials and also monitor the progress and needs of the students before evaluation. Textbooks, video, audio tapes, computer software and visual aids are included instructional materials. The content and the procedure of learning are influenced by the instructional materials as well as the choice of deductive versus inductive learning, the role of memorization, the use of creativity and problem solving, production versus reception and the order in which materials are presented. The following technology supports instruction and learning such as overhead projector, slides, video and audio, tape recorders, video cameras and computers. Teachers and students rely on the materials and the materials become the center of instruction instead of students. Textbooks and other commercially produced materials are very important in language instruction since many teachers are busy and do not have time or inclination to prepare extra instructional materials. Choosing the best material for instruction and make supplementary materials for the class and how to adapt the materials are considered very important for teachers to know. Research Literature Several studies on the grammar and textual performance of students which provided significant substance to the study had been reviewed. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 43 Huo (2004) compared the grammatical performance in Simultaneous Interpretation (SI), consecutive interpretation (CI) and free narrative among Chinese interpreters. Chinese interpreters: were given three tasks namely; five-minute Chinese to English CI; five-minute Chinese to English SI and five-minute free narrative in English and utilized an English coordinator as Control to measure the grammatical performance. The percentages of correct use of this coordinator in the three tasks are compared and analyzed. Result of the study shows that in SI, the grammaticality of the output does deteriorate compared with CI and free narrative. The study contributed to the establishment of a fuller model of SI and the possibility of using SI as a tool for linguistic studies in other areas. Viakinnou-Brinson (2012) investigated the effects of French-only grammar instruction and French/English grammar instruction on elementary-level students‟ grammar performance. Students‟ instructional preference and perceptions of the use of either approach to teach grammar and French in general were examined. Results of the study show that the grammar test score increases significantly greater for the French-only condition, and post-test grammar scores were significantly higher for the French-only condition. Further, qualitative findings suggested that although a majority of students expressed a THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 44 preference for learning French grammar with the support of English, they recognized the benefits of a target language or TL approach. Amer (2013) studied the relationship between explicit instructions in the organizational patterns of comparison/contrast texts, regarded as a major type of expository English, and EFL writing performance. The study also examined whether students‟ metacognitive and cognitive knowledge of the text structures of comparison/contrast texts improves their in-class writing performance. Respondents of the study include 22 Palestinian EFL university students enrolled in an academic writing course and spanned for three weeks during which the subjects received nine hours of explicit instruction in the organizational structures of compare/contrast texts. Results of the study indicate a direct correlation between explicit instruction in text structure and improved writing performance and those participants provided evidence that they felt more comfortable and confident about writing when they are explicitly taught the organizational structures of expository texts. The study highlighted the pedagogical implications of this study to EFL writing teachers and curricula developers who should make explicit instruction in text structure an integral part of EFL writing courses. Saeidi and Sahebkheir (2011) investigated the effect of the use of model essays on EFL learners‟ attention to four different aspects of THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 45 writing, lexicon, grammar, discourse and content. They also determined the effect of model essays on developing the accuracy and complexity of EFL learners‟ writing performance. Their participants were 40 Iranian female EFL learners who were divided into two groups: a control group and an experimental group. Their control group were provided with teacher error correction as feedback while the experimental group received model essays as feedback. A pre-test was administered followed by 21 treatment sessions and a post-test. Results revealed that students in the experimental group noticed the use of lexicon in the model essays more often; that model essays significantly affected the accuracy and complexity of EFL learners‟ writing performance. Their findings established that model essays need to be included in writing courses and that teachers should encourage their students to use the models appropriately. Paziraie (2013) evaluated the effect of textual metafunction on the levels of coherence and cohesion in the Iranian EFL learners‟ English writing performance. Participants of the study included sixty Iranian intermediate EFL adult female learners who were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. These were given a writing pre-test followed by an essay writing class, consisting of two sessions per week, for a period of ten-weeks; however, while the experimental group was taught how to write a standard three-paragraph THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 46 essay in English, and apply the textual metafunction in it, the control group was only taught how to write a standard three-paragraph essay. At the end of the intervention, both groups were given a writing post-test in which they were asked to write a standard three-paragraph essay on a subject. Results of the study indicated a significant difference between the scores of the post-tests, meaning that the textual metafunction was significantly effective in the experimental group‟s writing task. They also found out that although the mean scores of the control group‟s pre-post tests were the same, the mean score of the experimental group‟s post- test was higher than that of the pre-test, meaning that textual metafunction increased the levels of cohesion and coherence in their writing task. Chuenchaichon (2011) investigated the impact of incorporating reading into writing on the EFL writing of 54 second-year English major students at Naresuan University, Thailand. The intervention included intensive reading tasks which were incorporated into a paragraph- writing classroom. The students‟ writing performance was assessed in terms of grammatical accuracy, grammatical complexity, and coherence and cohesion. The findings showed a positive impact of reading on paragraph-writing development, particularly the aspect of grammatical. They emphasized the benefits of paragraph-writing instruction in THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 47 contextual scenarios and at the same time may help writing teachers to recognize the importance of reading tasks for EFL writing classrooms in university contexts. Lu (2010) investigated the cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners‟ argumentative essay writing in English. The study particularly explored the factors English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Respondents of the study were the136 university students who received a battery of tests in two sessions. The tests consisted of timed essay writing tasks in L1 and L2, post-writing questionnaires for genre knowledge and use of strategies in the writing process, a timed grammaticality judgment task for L2 grammar knowledge, a receptive vocabulary test and a controlled- production vocabulary test for L2 vocabulary knowledge, and working memory span tasks in L1 and L2. Results of the study revealed that L2 language proficiency was the most important predictor of L2 writing, followed by genre knowledge and L2 writing strategies; that L1 writing ability and working memory capacity have slight impact as explanatory variables for L2 writing performance in the timed essay writing task. Sawir (2005) studied the language difficulties of international students in Australia, specifically the effects of their prior learning THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 48 experience. The data were based on the interviews gathered from students that came from five Asian nations. Result of the study found that the learning difficulties of the students were grounded in weaknesses in their prior learning experiences – focused on grammar and reading skills in teacher-centred classrooms, not in conversational skills – and in the beliefs about language learning instilled during schooling. Strategies for overcoming these problems were proposed. Naibaho and Sibarani (2009) examined the correlation of students' metacognitive performance, grammatical achievement to writing ability. They used writing ability test, grammatical test and metacognitive questionaires which were validated following split-half method for metacognitive performance and grammatical achievement, and inter-rater correlations for the writing instruments. Their subjects were English department students of FKIP Nonunensen 2005/2006. Their sampling was purposive and random specifically the students who are taking writing subjects. Results of the study show the following: there is a significant correlation of the students metacognitive performance to writing ability; there is a significant correlation of students grammatical achievement to writing ability; and there is a significant correlation between students metacognitive performance and grammatical achievement to writing ability. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 49 Chang (2013) investigated fifth-grade students‟ thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Respondents of the study include the forty-five fifth grade students, 18 students of which were classified as English language learners (ELL‟s) and 27 were students who were fluent English speakers. Qualitative analysis was used to code students‟ thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students‟ knowledge of academic language feature and reading comprehension differed by students‟ ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students‟ knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results of the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results of the quantitative analyses indicate that ELL student‟s knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, and discourse knowledge were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students; and that vocabulary not grammar or discourse feature was significantly related to students‟ comprehension scores. The study implied for understanding THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 50 the features of academic language that influence students‟ comprehension of expository texts in science. Synthesis The conceptual and research literature reviewed became the basis of the present study. The concepts of Cruz regarding grammar as a science, Carlos and Haike on analytical study of grammar, Nordquist ideas on classification of grammar as well as Purpura provide rich information in the discussion about grammatical performance. These find supports to the insights provided by Ellis, Grabe and Kaplan, and Matsuki. Canale and Swain‟s ideas about writing as manifestation of grammatical competence, Candlin and Hyland constructs on writing as a social process which is similar to the ideas of Phung, and Tribble‟s view of writing as a language skill provide more rationale in the explanation regarding textual performance. This further enrich by the insights provided by Hillocks, Hedge and Peha. For the discussion regarding the topic writing English composition, the concepts of Shaw on features of composition, Jackson et al „s qualities of a good composition, Fernando‟s idea about unity in the whole theme provide very rich insights. These are supplemented by the discussion of Cinco and Roberts. As for the topic prototype lessons as instructional materials, Soares, Rosch, Lakoff, Brugman and Sternberg and Horvath provided THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 51 many ideas and information. While Houde et al, Briton, Littlejohn et al and O‟ Neil give support to the insights provided. With regards to the similarities and differences of the cited studies to the present study, the studies of Amer, Paziraie, Chuenchaichon, Lu, find similarity as these tackle about writing performance of students which is also the focus of the present study. These studies differ from the present study in terms of variables and respondents. Amer‟s study deals on the organizational patterns of comparison/contrast texts, as a major type of expository English, and EFL writing performance; Paziraie „s zero in on the effect on the use of model essay on EFL learners attention to four different aspects of writing, lexicon, grammar, discourse and content; Chuenchaichon‟s learner‟s English writing incorporating reading into writing EFL writing of 54 second year English major students and Lu‟s cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners‟ argumentative essay writing in English. The present study on the other hand deals on the writing performance of first year college students in terms of combining sentences, constructing sentences, connecting ideas, using words effectively; and developing paragraph. Same is true with the studies of Naibaho and Sibaran, and Chang. These studies find similarities to the present study as they deal with writing which is also the subject matter of the present study. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 52 Naibaho and Sibaran differ as it talks about the 5th grade students thoughts in texts difficulty while Chang tackles about grammatical achievement in writing with English department students. The present study on the other hand includes the demographic profile of first year college students with prototype lessons as output. Thus, despite the similarities cited, the present study is not a duplication of the above mentioned studies and has a character of its own. Theoretical Framework The study made use of Fulkerson‟s (1990) composition theory of relation which explains how reading and writing practices, as well as the knowledge produce, both structure and are structured by social interaction. Theory of relations shares a number of interrelated presuppositions. The first is, writing like all languages is an invariably social activity. The following are considered outcomes of prior language use: vocabulary, style, and voice of an individual. It is not easy to generate automatically the significance of an individual as point of synthesis as well as the exhaustive range of variations of raw materials the writer may work on. Second, writing like all language practices is ideological. This means that writing as an instrument of power is bound up with values and beliefs and denunciation of others. Finally for writing is constitutive, it has interrelationship with formation and evolution of THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 53 individual identity as well as creation, organization and development of contemporary society. In addition, theory of relations foreground the function of writing in sustaining, altering, or organizing social action, and in so doing account for ways in which individual are connected through literate practices. It remain attentive to the ways in which power is conserved, shared, and appropriated through writing, and how such exchange affect individuals because such interaction can be understood as a continual exchange of value claims. Writing pedagogies influenced by such theory propose that in college and beyond students are ready or best prepared to write when encouraged to develop self –conscious awareness of the complexity of writing and the interrelationships that make individual agency possible. This theory provides the present study with the framework and insights considered important in developing first year college students‟ textual performance. Conceptual Framework This study adapted the systems approach framework to represent the flow of the study. The components is classified as input, process and output as presented in Figure 1. This serves as springboard in the conduct of the study. The Input box contains the demographic profile of students in terms of age, parents‟ educational attainment, students‟ exposure to media, THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 54 place of origin, and school graduated from as well as students‟ textual performance in terms of combining sentences, constructing sentences, connecting ideas, using words effectively, and developing paragraphs. Included also in the process box is the teachers‟ assessment of students‟ textual performance in English. The process box involves the assessment of the subjects test scor...ching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford University Press. 2000. Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J. Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, Cambridge: Polity. 1999. Houde, S. Hill, C. What Do Prototypes Prototype? Handbook of Human- Computer Interaction. 2nd Edition.1997 Jackson, B.M. & Charles, V,. 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London: Arnold. 2002. Soares, M. & Rebelo, F. Advance in Usability Evaluation. CRC Press. 2012 Rosch, E. Teaching Metaphor. Applied Linguistics. 1988 Tribble, C. Writing, New York, Oxford University Press. 1996. Weigle, S. C. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2002. Williams J. D. The Teacher's Grammar Book. Routledge. 2005. B. PUBLISHED MATERIALS Amer M. The Effect of Explicit Instruction in Expository Text Structure on the Writing Performance of Arab EFL University Students. AWEJ Volume.4 Number.1. pp224-238. 2013. Chuenchaichon Y. Impact of Intensive Reading on the Written Performance of Thai University EFL Writers. University of Reading Language Studies Working Papers. Vol. 3. p3-14. 2011. Huo S. Grammatical Performance in Simultaneous Interpretation: An Error Analysis. MA Linguistics Thesis.The Chinese University of Hong Kong. 52p. Saeidi M and Sahebkheir F. 2011. The Effect of Model Essays on Accuracy and Complexity of EFL Learners' Writing Performance.Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 10 (1): 130-137, 2011. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 134 Lu Y. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners‟ L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing. Applied Linguistics and English as a Second Language Dissertations. Paper 13. 2010. Naibaho J and Sibarani B. Correlation of metacognitive performance and grammatical achievement towards writing ability. andgrammatical-achievement-to--writing-ability-788.html. 2009. Paziraie ME. The Effect of Textual Metafunction on the Iranian EFL Learners‟ Writing Performance. English Language Teaching; Vol. 6, No. 2;pp 71-83. 2013. Saeidi M and Sahebkheir F. The Effect of Model Essays on Accuracy and Complexity of EFL Learners' Writing Performance.Middle- East Journal of Scientific Research 10 (1): 130-137, 2011. 2011. Sawir E. Language difficulties of international students in Australia: The effects of prior learning experience.International Education Journal. 6(5), 567-580. 2005. Viakinnou-Brinson, L., Herron, C., Cole, S. P. and Haight, C. The Effect of Target Language and Code-Switching on the Grammatical Performance and Perceptions of Elementary-Level College French Students. Foreign Language Annals, 45: 72–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-9720.2012.01170.x 2012. C. JOURNALS AND PUBLICATION Fulkerson, Richard. Relations, Locations, Positions: Composition Theory for Writing Teachers. Technical Report Series. 1990 Matsuda, P.K. (1997). Contrastive rhetoric in context: A dynamic model of L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6 (1), 45-60. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 135 Phung, T. K. D. A Study on Teacher‟s Written Feedback on the Writings by the Second-year Students at the English Department, College of Foreign Languages, Vietnam National University, Hanoi. Retrieved November 15, 2007 from journal.com/Thesis_Kim.pdf 2004. Pritchard, R. J. & Honeycutt, R. L. “The Process Approach to Writing Instruction: Examining Its Effectiveness”, excerpted from Handbook of Writing Research, edited by MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S. & Fitzgerald, J. Guilford Press. Retrieved January 4, 2008 from 2005. Proett J and Gill K. The Writing Process in Action. Paperback. 59p. 1986. Roberts, Paul. Patterns of English. Harcourt, Brace & World.,Inc. (1956) Prototyping Definition. PC Magazine, Retrieved 2012-05-03 Wang X. Second Language Theories and Their influences on EFL in China. English Language Teaching.Vol. 2, No. 4.p149-153. 2009. D. ON LINE REFERENCES Agwu, as cited in www.doublegist.com/instructional-materials education/ seattlepi. com/ic – college -english- requirements-1224 html. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammar. english-language/lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/importance-of grammar- 10946.html every-day life.global pointt.com/ basic-college-English requirements 6092, html. grammar.about.com/od/yourwriting/a/fresh.com.tips/htm. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 136 %20Skills. Ideboen, Alyssa, www. com/ how- 7489732 -learn -basic-college. english.html. Importance of Grammar. [Internet]. 2013 importanceenglish.blogspot.com/2012/09/blog-post.html www.doublegist.com/instructional-materials-effectiveness-teaching- writingguide.geneseo.edu/?pg=topics/grammarusage.html. www. 5 minuteenglish.com / basic-english-lang.htm THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 137 APPENDICES THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 138 Appendix A. Letters of Request THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 139 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 140 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 141 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 142 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 143 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 144 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 145 Appendix B. Questionnaires Questionnaire on PROTOTYPE LESSONS IN DEVELOPING TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF TNU Guide in answering the questionnaire. Welcome! You are currently participating in a descriptive research on PROTOTYPE LESSONS IN DEVELOPING TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF TNU. Below you will find a list of questions that will test your TEXTUAL SKILLS. Follow carefully the instructions for each test section. Do not forget to fill in your personal data. Do not leave any questions unanswered as this will invalidate your answer sheet. If you need further clarification, do not hesitate to ask your examiner. Thank you! ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Personal Data Respondent‟s Name: ________________________________________ Age: ___________________ Gender: __________________________ Parent‟s Educational Attainment:_______________________________ Place of origin: ______________ Type of High School: _____________ Exposure to English media: (Please put a check mark corresponding to the rating of your choice.) Rating Least exposed (1) Moderately exposed (2) Highly exposed (3) Extent of exposure Type of media Television Radio Internet Newspaper Magazines Books Pamphlets Others, specify THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 146 II. STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN VOCABULARY, PARTS OF SPEECH ANDSENTENCE CONSTRUCTION. II.1. Vocabulary Test Choose the letter of the correct meaning of the underlined word. Write your answer on the space provided before each number. _____ 1. The old man was benevolent with his fortune. A. secretive B. stingy C. kind D. careful _____ 2. The prince abdicated the crown and return to his castle. A. gave up B. sold C. reinvested into D. auctioned _____ 3. The cathode of a battery was removed. A. positive pole B. negative pole C. neutral pole D. opposite pole ______ 4. The winning team of the World Series often has a jovial attitude. A. merry B. sad C. somber D. laborious _______5. The official exhibited a heedless attitude when dealing with the dignitaries. A. thoughtless B. pleasant C. friendly D. bitter _______6. The general tried to instill in his troops the hope of victory. A. infuse B. delay C. inscribe D. indict _______ 7. The convicted criminal absconded prior to the sentencing phase of the trial. A. touched the jury B. left after discussion C. reported immediately D. departed secretly _______8. The extra dirt was a key buttress to the foundation. A. limiting factor B. overwhelming condition THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 147 C. support D. obstacle ________ 9. The detective was able to derive facts of the case. A. desist B. deter C. devise D. deduce _______10. The judge was fallible during deliberation. A. careful not to error B. loyal to his supporter C. falsely accused D. capable of mistakes II.2. Parts of Speech Write the correct parts of speech of the underlined words. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided before each number. __________ 1. Should I stay in the hotel or in the tavern? A. preposition B. conjunction C. interjection ___________2. The warm bath will feel good on my back. A. adverb B. adjective C. verb ___________3. They left early. A. pronoun B. noun C. adjective ___________4. The film started late. A. adjective B. adverb C. preposition ___________5. It‟s a lovely film! A. adjective B. pronoun C. noun ___________6. She lives in the city. A. interjection B. preposition C. conjunction ___________7. Mother went to town. A. verb B. adverb C. noun ___________8. Wow! It‟s a nice dress. A. interjection B. preposition C. conjunction THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 148 ___________9. The boy climbed the stairs. A. adverb B. verb C. adjective ___________ 10. Herman easily lifted the barbell. A. adjective B. pronoun C. adverb II.3. Sentence Construction Construct sentences with the following verbs, filling the subject position with the given nouns. Feel free to add articles and prepositions. Write your answer in the space provided. A. Spill: baby, a glass of milk, on the table _________________________________________________________ B. Hide: robbers, money, in the garbage can _________________________________________________________ C. Choose: city folks, officials, by votation _________________________________________________________ D. Discuss: student teacher, topic, with the group _________________________________________________________ E. Accept: we , proposal , with reservation _________________________________________________________ F. Decrease: President , allowances, of the employees, with this decree _________________________________________________________ G. Insert: she , note, in his folder _________________________________________________________ H. Open: door, janitor , key _________________________________________________________ I. Wake up: I , daughter , an explosion _________________________________________________________ J. Break: burglar , window , with a hammer _________________________________________________________ THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 149 III. STUDENTS’ TEXTUAL PERFORMANCE III.1. Combining Sentences Combine each group of sentences into a single sentence by choosing the letter of the correct combined sentence from the given options. ______1. Mosquitoes bother Mon when he is out camping. Other insects also annoy him. A. Mosquitoes bother Mon when he is out camping though other insects also annoy him. B. Mosquitoes and other insects annoy Mon when he is out camping. C. Mosquitoes bother when Mon is out camping while other insects also annoy him. _____ 2.The audience applauded for fifteen minutes. They shouted for an encore. A. The audience applauded for fifteen minutes and shouted for an encore. B. The audience applauded for fifteen minutes for they shouted for an encore. C. The audience applauded and they shouted for fifteen minutes for an encore. _____ 3. The weather-beaten house needed a good paint job. It was at the end of our block. A. The weather-beaten house needed a paint job as it was at the end of our block. B. The weather-beaten house needed a paint job when it was at the end of our block. C. The weather-beaten house at the end of our block needed a good paint job. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 150 ______4. The prominent lawyer represented us in court. She is a close friend of the family. A. The prominent lawyer, a close friend of the family, represented us in court. B. The prominent lawyer represented us in court for being a close friend of her in the family. C. For being a prominent lawyer, she is a close friend who represented us in court. _______5. Follow these instructions. Assemble the radio. A. Follow these instructions whenever assemble the radio. B. Follow these instructions as far as assemble the radio. C. Follow these instructions to assemble the radio. _______6. Balloonists must fly safely. They will lose their licenses. A. Balloonists must fly safely so that they will lose their licenses. B. Balloonists must fly safely or they will lose their licenses. C. Balloonists must fly safely while they will lose their licenses. ________7. Hydrogen gas has great lifting power. It is dangerous. A. Hydrogen gas has great lifting power, but it is dangerous. B. Hydrogen gas has great lifting power, or it is dangerous. C. Hydrogen gas has great lifting power, before it is dangerous. ________8. I heard the screams. I did not know the cause. A. I heard the screams, yet I did not know the cause. B. I heard the screams, nor I did not know the cause. C. I heard the screams, but I did not know the cause. ________9. We must obey the rules. We shall be dismissed. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 151 A. We must obey the rules or we shall be dismissed. B. We must obey the rules but we shall be dismissed. C. We must obey the rules if we shall be dismissed. _________10. Wealth may seek us. Wisdom must be sought. A. Wealth may seek us whenever wisdom must be sought. B. Wealth may seek us while wisdom must be sought. C. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought. III.2. Connecting Ideas Underline the correct conjunctive adverbs to connect ideas in the following sentences: 1. The city was unprepared for the big snow storm. (Similarly, Consequently, Otherwise), all major highways were closed. 2. John was tired after a long day at school. (Conversely, Therefore, Accordingly), he immediately took a nap when he got home. 3. I‟ve finished my work. (However, Finally, Next), I can go home. 4. The dog was rewarded a treat, (subsequently, then, anyhow), to the cat‟s delight, he dropped it. 5. The company president will be in the building today (next, indeed, so), please act accordingly. 6. Paul didn‟t go to the baseball practice yesterday. (Moreover, Conversely, Hence), the missed play. 7. I didn‟t go shopping today. I didn‟t have the money and I have plenty of clothes (anyhow, subsequently, thus). 8. The resort doesn‟t allow pets. (Otherwise, Accordingly, Besides ), we would have brought our precious puppy with us. 9. James finished her science essay; (otherwise, nevertheless, meanwhile), Eric worked on his Math problems. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 152 10. Alice is a clever girl (finally, indeed, still). III.3. Using words effectively Replace the underlined word with a simple but effective word. Write your answer on the space provided before each number. _______________ 1. My Mrs. is on vacation. _______________ 2. The driver was compensated for his work. _______________ 3. Our canine got sick. _______________ 4. He perused the magazine. _______________ 5. Chito was the cat‟s cognomen. _______________ 6. The rich go to their winter abodes in Hawaii. _______________ 7.Gerry copped first place in the examination. _______________ 8. My little sister is ashamed to enter the living room because there are many visitors. _______________ 9. How much did you buy your shoes? _______________ 10. You have many furniture. III.4. Developing Paragraphs 1. In one paragraph write an informal definition of an educated man. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 153 2. Write a paragraph using the pattern of comparison or contrast about two of your classmates. ... THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 154 Questionnaire on Teacher’s Assessment of the TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF TNU I. Demographic profile of the teachers. Respondent‟s Name: _______________________________________ Age: _________ Gender: __________ Place of origin: _____________ Civil Status: ________________Educational qualification: __________ Years of teaching experience: _________________________________ II. Assessment of the TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF TNU (Validation). Please indicate whether the following student skills are examples of TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS. Place a check-mark on the space corresponding to the rating of your choice. Student Skills Do you agree or disagree that the following skills are Strategic competence skills? Agree (1) Disagree (2) I. Students Performance in Vocabulary, Parts of Speech and Sentence Construction Vocabulary Test 1. The student is able to recognize that the correct meaning of the underlined word in the sentence: _____ 1. The old man was benevolent with his fortune with the following choices: A. Secretive, B. Stingy, C. Kind and D. Careful; is letter C. Kind. 1a.The student is able to correctly select the meaning of a word in a given set of choices. Parts of Speech THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 155 2. The student is able to identify that the underlined word in the sentence: _____ 1. Should I stay in the hotel or in the tavern? is a conjunction. 2a. The student is able to recognize what parts of speech is a given word in a sentence. Sentence Construction 3. The student is able to construct the sentence from the given set of words - Spill: baby, a glass of milk, on the table; as follows: The baby spilled/spills a glass of milk on the table. 3a. The student is able to correctly construct sentences from a given choice of words. II. Students Textual Performance Combining sentences 4. The student is able to correctly select combined sentences from a set of choices. Connecting Ideas 5. The student is able to correctly select conjunctive adverbs to connect ideas in a sentence. Using words effectively 6. The student is able to correctly supply the most effective words to replace a given word or set of words in a sentence. Developing Paragraphs 7. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph using an informal definition approach. 8. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph using the pattern of comparison or contrast approach. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 156 III. Assessment of the TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF TNU (Frequency of use). Rate the frequency by which you think the students‟ use their TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS. Place a check-mark on the space corresponding to the rating of your choice. Student Skills Frequency of Assessment Always (5) Often (4) Sometimes (3) Rarely (2) Not at all (1) I. Students Performance in Vocabulary, Parts of Speech and Sentence Construction Vocabulary Test 1. The student is able to recognize that the correct meaning of the underlined word in the sentence:_____ 1. The old man was benevolent with his fortune with the following choices: A. Secretive, B. Stingy, C. Kind and D. Careful; is letter C. Kind. 1a.The student is able to correctly select the meaning of a word in a given set of choices. Parts of Speech 2. The student is able to identify that the underlined word in the sentence:_____ 1. Should I stay in the hotel or in the tavern? is a conjunction. 2a. The student is able to recognize what parts of speech is a given word in a sentence. Sentence Construction THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 157 3. The student is able to construct the sentence from the given set of words- Spill: baby, a glass of milk, on the table; as follows: The baby spills a glass of milk on the table. 3a. The student is able to correctly construct sentences from a given choice of words. II. Students Textual Performance Combining sentences 4. The student is able to correctly select combined sentences from a set of choices. Connecting Ideas 5. The student is able to correctly select conjunctive adverbs to connect ideas in a sentence. Using words effectively 6. The student is able to correctly supply the most effective words to replace a given word or set of words in a sentence. Developing Paragraphs 7. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph using an informal definition approach. 8. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph using the pattern of comparison or contrast approach. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 158 IV. Assessment of the TEXTUAL SKILLS of FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF TNU (Degree of importance). Rank the following students skills in terms of degree of importance. Place a check-mark on the box corresponding to the rating of your choice. Student Skills Degree of Importance Very Important (5) Moderately Important (4) Slightly Important (3) Less Important (2) Not Important (1) I. Students Performance in Vocabulary, Parts of Speech and Sentence Construction Vocabulary Test 1. The student is able to recognize that the correct answer to the question:_____ 1. The old man was benevolent with his fortune with the following choices: A. Secretive, B. Stingy, C. Kind and D. Careful; is letter C. Kind. 1a.The student is able to correctly select the meaning of a word in a given set of choices. Parts of Speech 2. The student is able to identify that the underlined word in the sentence:_____ THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 159 1. Should I stay in the hotel or in the tavern? is a conjunction. 2a. The student is able to recognize what parts of speech is a given word in a sentence. Sentence Construction 3. The student is able to construct the sentence from the given set of words- Spill: baby, a glass of milk, on the table; as follows: The baby spills a glass of milk on the table. 3a. The student is able to correctly construct sentences from a given choice of words. II. Students Textual Performance Combining sentences 4. The student is able to correctly select combined sentences from a set of choices. Connecting Ideas 5. The student is able to correctly select conjunctive adverbs to connect ideas in a sentence. Using words THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 160 effectively 6. The student is able to correctly supply the most effective words to replace a given word or set of words in a sentence. Developing Paragraphs 7. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph using an informal definition approach. 8. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph using the pattern of comparison or contrast approach. THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 161 Appendix C. Documentations Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry Thai Nguyen University of Education Thai Nguyen University of Information and Communication Technology Thai Nguyen University of Technology THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 162 Photographs of the study sites Thai Nguyen University of Technology Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry Thai Nguyen University of Information and Communication Technology Thai Nguyen University of Education THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 163 Photographs of Students Respondents Thai Nguyen University of Information and Communication Technology Thai Nguyen University of Technology THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 164 Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 165 Thai Nguyen University of Education THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 166 Photographs of Teacher Respondents Thai Nguyen University of Technology Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 167 Thai Nguyen University of Information and Communication Technology Thai Nguyen University of Education THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 168 CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Hoang Huong Ly THAI NGUYEN, VIET NAM Mobile phone: 0983687775 Email: lyhoanghuong1982@yahoo.com PERSONAL INFORMATION Date of birth: 13/ 09/ 1982 Birth place: Thai Nguyen, Viet Nam Age: 32 Nationality: Vietnam Religion: No Sex: Female Spouse: Pham Hong Thai Children‟s name: Pham Hoang Minh EDUCATION BACKGROUND 2000 - 2004: Bachelor of Arts Major in English Thai Nguyen University of Education 2005 - 2009: Master of Arts Major in English – Applied Linguistics La Trobe University, Australia WORK EXPERIENCE 2004 - 2006: Lecturer of Department of Foreign Languages. Thai Nguyen University of Education THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines 169 2006 – now: Lecturer of Department of Foreign Languages. Thai Nguyen University of Technology

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