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HUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH ------***------ NGUYEN VAN TUAN TRANSLATION 1&2 HUE - 2006 1 INTRODUCTION An increasing number of universities in Vietnam have added courses in translation to their curricula; however, the textbooks available for such courses are few. This unit has been written with these courses in mind. The unit is designed to provide the learners with some basic principles of translation which will be generally useful to translation courses in universities and colleges, to help the learners avoid some errors they may encounter when they translate a text, to provide the learners with essential English sentence patterns that could be very useful for the learners in learning and practicing translating and to provide the learners 20 assignments related to the theory they have learned. The desire of the author is to make available the principles of translation which have learned through personal experience in translation and teaching translation, and through interaction with colleagues involved in translation projects in many universities in Central Vietnam. Since it is assumed that the students will be speakers of Vietnamese language, many of these exercises involve translating from or into their mother tongue. The material is presented in a way that it can be used in a self-teaching situation or in a classroom. An attempt has been made to keep technical terms to a minimum. When technical vocabulary is used, every effort is made to clarify the meaning of such vocabulary or to provide its meaning in Vietnamese. This has been done so that the unit can be used by any student translator, even though his exposure to linguistic and translation theory has been minimal. This is an introductory unit. The lessons give an overview presenting the fundamental principles of translation and the rest of the unit illustrates these principles. The overriding principle is that translation is meaning-based rather than form-based. Once the learner has identified the meaning of the source text, his goal is to express that same meaning in the receptor/target language. Many examples of cross-language equivalence are used to illustrate this principle. Since the coursebook has been written for the students to learn either by themselves in their distant learning course or in class with a teacher, there will be a coursebook and 20 assignments. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: 1. obtain general knowledge of the principles of translation . 2. get familiar with and effectively use the English sentence patterns in their translations. On the completion of this coursebook, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages and the English Department for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this coursebook. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, June 24th, 2001 Nguyen Van Tuan 2 CHAPTER 1: THEORY OF TRANSLATION LESSON 1: FORM AND MEANING 1.What is translation? 1.1. Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving semantic and stylistic equivalencies. (By Roger T. Bell). 1.2. Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language. (By Roger T. Bell). The author continues and makes the problems of equivalence very plain: Texts in different languages can be equivalent in different degrees (fully or partially different), in respect of different levels of presentation (in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (word-for-word, phrase-for-phrase, sentence- for-sentence). However, languages are different from each other; they are different in form having different codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical stretches of language and these forms have different meanings. To shift from one language to another is, by definition, to change the forms. Also, the contrasting forms convey meanings which cannot but fail to coincide totally; there is no absolute synonym between words in the same language, why should anyone be surprised to discover a lack synonym between languages. Something is always „lost‟ (or might one suggest „gain‟?) in the process and translators can find themselves being accused of reproducing only part of the original and so „betraying‟ the author‟s intentions. Hence the traitorous nature ascribed to the translator by the notorious Italian proverb: “ Traduttore traditore”. Faced by a text in a language, we are able to work out not only the meaning of each word and sentence but also its communicative value, its place in time and space and information about the participants involved in its production and reception. We might take, as a light-hearted model of the questions we can ask of the text, the first verse of a short poem by Kipling. I keep six honest serving men; (They taught me all I knew); Their names were What? And Why? And When? And How? And Where? And Who? What? is the message contained in the text; the content of the signal. Why? orients us towards the intention of the sender, the purpose for which the text was is used. (Informing, persuading, flattering, etc.) When? is concerned with the time of communication realized in the text and setting in its historical context; contemporary or set in the recent or remote past or future. 3 Where? is concerned with the place of communication, the physical location of the speech event realized in the text. How? refers to whether the text is written in a formal or informal way. Who? refers to the participants involved in the communication; the sender and receiver. 1.3. Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text. (By Bui Tien Bao- Hanoi National University) “ Translators are concerned with written texts. They render written texts from one language into another language. Translators are required to translate texts which arrange from simple items including birth certificates or driving licences to more complex written materials such as articles in journals of various kinds, business contracts and legal documents.” (Bui Tien Bao- Hanoi National University). 1.4. Translation, by dictionary definition, consists of changing from one state or form to another, to turn into one‟s own or another‟s language. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1974). Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of a language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc. The forms are referred to as the surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor/target language. But how is this change accomplished? What determines the choices of form in the translation? The purpose of this lesson is to show that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by a way of semantic structure. It is meaning that is being transferred and must be held constant. Only the form changes. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon, grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. Let us look at an example. Assume that we are translating the Vietnamese sentence ‘‘ C¸m ¬n b¹n ®· gióp ®ì t«i tËn t×nh.’’ into English. This Vietnamese sentence has the verb ‘gióp ®ì tËn t×nh’, but to convey the same meaning in English one would use a noun phrase: „ your kind help‟. To do effective translation one must discover the meaning of the source language and use the receptor language forms which express the meaning in a natural way. It is the purpose of this unit to familiarize the learners with the basic linguistic and sociolinguistic factors involved in translating a text from a source language into a receptor language, and to give them enough practice in the translation process for the development of skills in cross-language transfer. 4 2. Characteristics of language which affect translation There are certain characteristics of languages which have a very direct bearing on principles of translation. First, let us look at the characteristics of meaning components. Meaning components are packaged into lexical items, but they are packaged differently in one language than in another. In most languages there is a meaning of plurality, for example the English -s. This often occurs in the grammar as a suffix on the nouns or verbs or both. In Vietnamese, however, plurality is expressed in an isolated word ‘ nh‚ng/c¸c’. Many times a single word in the source language will need to be translated by several words. For example, a projector was called the thing that shows pictures on the wall by the Chipara Bolivia. Second, it is characteristic of languages that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items. In English, the word „sheep‟ occurs. However, the words „lamb‟,‟ ram‟ and „ewe‟ also include the meaning „sheep‟. They include the addition meaning components of young (in „lamb‟, adult and male in „ ram‟ and adult and female in „ewe‟. In Peru, „lamb‟ would need to be translated by „sheep its child‟, „ram‟ by „ sheep big‟ and „ewe‟ by „sheep its woman‟. Third, it is further characteristic of language that one form will be used to represent several alternative meanings. This again is obvious from looking in any good dictionary. For example, the Reader‟s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary gives 54 meanings for the English word „run‟. Most words have more than one meaning. There will be a primary meaning-the one which usually comes to mind when the word is said in isolation-and the secondary meaning- the additional meanings, which a word has in context with other words. In English, we can say „ the boy runs‟, using „run‟ in its primary meaning. We can also say „ the motor runs, the river runs, and his nose runs‟, using runs in its secondary meanings. This principle is not limited to lexical items for it is also true that the same grammatical pattern may express several quite different meanings. For instance, the English possessive phrase „my house‟ may mean „the house I built‟, „ the house I rent‟, „the house I live in‟, or the house for which I drew up in my plans.‟ Only the larger context determines the meaning. Notice the following possessive phrases and the variety of meanings: my car ownership my brother kinship my foot part-whole my singing action my book ownership or authorship ( the book I own, or, the book I wrote) my village residence ( the village where I live) my train use 5 (the train I ride on) Whole sentences may also have several functions. A question form may be used for a non- question. For example, the question: “ Mary, why don‟t you wash the dishes?” has a form of a question, and may in some context be asking for information, but it is often used with the meaning of command rather than a real question. A simple English sentence like “ He made the bed.” May mean either “He made (as a carpenter would make) the bed”, or “ He put the sheets, blanket, and pillows in neat order on the bed.” Just as words have primary and secondary meanings, so grammatical markers have their primary function and often have other secondary functions. The preposition „on‟ is used in English to signal a variety of meanings. Compare the following uses of „on‟ with the corresponding form used in Vietnamese. John found the book on the floor. John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch trªn sµn nhµ. John found the book on mathematics. John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch viÕt vÒ m«n to¸n. John found the book on Tuesday. John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch vµo thø Ba. John found the book on sale. John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch ®ang bµy b¸n. Compare also the following uses of ‘ by’ John was stopped by the policeman. John was stopped by the bookstand. In the first, by is used to signal the meaning that the policeman is the agent of the action. In the second, by is used to signal that the bookstand is the location. We have seen that one form may express many meanings. On the other hand, another characteristic of languages is that a single meaning may be expressed in a variety of forms. For example, the meaning “ the cat is black” may be expressed by the following: the cat is black, the black cat, and, the cat, which is black, depending on how that meaning relates to other meanings. In addition, the meanings of “ Is this place taken?” “Is there anyone sitting here?” and “ May I sit here?” are essentially the same. Also, the meaning is essentially the same in the following English sentences: Others blamed John because of the difficulty. Others blamed John for the difficulty. Others blamed the difficulty on John. Others said John was responsible for the difficulty. 6 Others accused John of being responsible for the difficulty. We have seen that even within a single language there are a great variety of ways in which form expresses meaning. Only when a form being used in its primary meaning or function is there a one-to-one correlation between form and meaning. The other meanings are secondary meanings or figurative meanings. Words have these extended meanings and in the same way grammatical forms have extended usages (secondary and figurative function). This characteristic of “skewing”; that is, the diversity or the lack of one-to-one correlation between form and meaning is the basic reason that translation is a complicated task. If there were no skewing, then all lexical items and all grammatical forms would have only one meaning and a literal word-for-word and grammatical structure-for- grammatical structure translation would be possible. But the fact is that a language is a complex set of skewed relationship between meaning (semantics) and form (lexicon and grammar). Each language has its own distinctive forms for representing the meaning. Therefore, in translation the same meaning may have to be expressed in another language by a very different form. To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language. Meaning must, therefore, have priority over form in translation. It is meaning that is to be carried over from the source language to the receptor language, not the linguistic forms. For example, to translate the English sentence “ he is cold hearted” i.e. His heart is cold (meaning „he is unfeeling, has no emotional sympathy.‟) literally into Mambila in Nigeria would be understood to mean, “ he is peaceful, not quick-tempered.” And if translated literally into Cinyanja in Zambia, it would mean, “ he is frightened.” The nature of language is that each language uses different forms and these forms have secondary and figurative meanings which add further complications. A word-for-word translation which follows closely the form of the source language is called a literal translation. A literal translation does not communicate the meaning of the source text. It is generally no more than a string of words intended to help someone read a text in its original language. It is unnatural and hard to understand, and may even be quite meaningless, or give a wrong meaning in the receptor language. It can hardly be called a translation. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text (a translation) which is idiomatic; that is one which has the same meaning as the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language. The meaning, not form is retained. The following is a literal translation of a story first told in the Quiche language of Guatemala: “It is said that being one man not from here, not known where the his or the he comes where. One day the things he walks in a plantation or in them the coastlands, he saw his appearance one little necklace, or he thought that a little necklace the very pretty thrown on the ground in the road. He took the necklace this he threw in his mouth for its cause that coming the one person another to his behind ness, for his that not he encounters the one the following this way in his behindness not he knows and that the necklace the he threw in his mouth this one 7 snake and the man this one died right now because not he knows his appearance the snake or that the he ate this not this a necklace only probably this snake.” Now compare the above with the following less literal translation of the same story: “ It is said that there once was a man not from here, and I do not know his town or where he came from, who one day was walking in a plantation (or in the coastlands). He saw a little necklace, or rather, what he thought was a very pretty little necklace, lying on the road. He grabbed this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was someone coming along behind him, and he did not want the other person to see it. He did not know that the necklace he threw into his mouth was really a snake. The man died in short order because he did not recognize from its appearance that it was a snake. He did not know that what he had put in his mouth was not a necklace, but rather a snake.” In the first, each quiche word was replaced by the nearest English equivalent. The result was nonsense. In the second translation, the natural forms of English lexicon and grammar were used to express the meaning of the Quiche story. Below the story is again rewritten in a more idiomatic English style. “I am told that there once was a stranger from some other town who was walking in a plantation along the coast. As he walked along he suddenly saw a very pretty little necklace lying on the road. He snatched up this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was another person walking behind him and he did not want him to see the necklace. The stranger did not know that the necklace was really a snake. The man died immediately. He died because he did not realize that it was a snake. He did not know he put a snake into his mouth rather than a necklace.” Anything which can be said in one language can be said in another. It is possible to translate. The goal of the translator is to keep the meaning constant. Wherever necessary, the receptor language form should be changed in order that the source language meaning should not be distorted. Since a meaning expressed by a particular form in one language may be expressed by quite a different form in another language, it is often necessary to change the form when translating. 3. Notes Form-based translation: dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc hay cÊu tróc Meaning-based translation: dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa, dùa vµo néi dung cÇn chuyÓn t¶i Source language: ng«n ng÷ gèc Receptor language: ng«n ng÷ dÞch Context: v¨n c¶nh/ ng÷ c¶nh Principle of translation: nguyªn t¾c dÞch/kü thuËt dÞch Meaning component: thµnh tè nghÜa 8 Lexical: (thuéc vÒ) tõ vùng Surface structure: cÊu tróc bÒ mÆt Deep structure: cÊu tróc s©u/cÊu tróc ng÷ nghÜa Meaning/ sense: nghÜa Primary meaning: nghÜa chÝnh/nghÜa gèc Secondary meaning: nghÜa ph¸i sinh Literal translation: dÞch tõng tõ mét One-to-one correlation: quan hÖ mét ®èi mét Figurative meaning: nghÜa bãng Function: chøc n¨ng Idiomatic translation: dÞch ®óng, dÞch s¸t nghi· 4. Self-study 4.1 Questions for discussion 1. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. What is a literal translation? Can you give some examples of literal translations? 3. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. 4. What characteristics of language affect translation? 5. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 6. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a primary sense. 4.2 Exercises A. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. Some differ in meaning. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Example: They robbed the old man. The old man was dropped by them. Answer: Change of form 1. The students like to study translation. The students like studying translation. 2. I bought a pair of horseshoes. I bought a pair of leather shoes. 3. He saw the bird. He heard the cat. 9 4. Phillip went walking. Phillip took a walk. 5. Go to bed. I want you to go to bed. 6. I came; I saw; I conquered. I came, saw, and conquered. 7. Two weeks later he came. After two weeks he came. 8. There is a table in the book. There is a book on the table. 9. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. 10. He was awaken by a thunderclap. A thunderclap awakened him. B. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can. Example: the cat is black the black cat the cat, which is black 1. the jug water 2. John bought a car 3. a hot day 4. mother‟s long blue dress 5. Peter‟s house C. All of the following have the same grammatical form. With the change of lexical items, there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item, apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car - the man owns the car The man‟s eye - the eye is part of the man 1. the doctor‟s office 2. the doctor‟s patient 3. the doctor‟s book 4. the doctor‟s brother 10 5. the doctor‟s hand 6. the doctor‟s house D. For each pair of sentences, state whether the two sentences are 1. the same in meaning or 2. different in meaning. Example: (a) It rained all night. (b) Rain fell all night. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) There is a table on the book. 1. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. 2. (a) It was a hot day. (b) The day was hot. 3. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter 4. (a) He remained silent. (b) He did not say anything. 5. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. 6. (a) I bought vegetables in the market. (b) I bought tomatoes and onions in the market. 7. (a) My parents are well. (b) My mother and father are well. 8. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) John is very ill indeed. 9. (a) There are four rooms in the house. (b) The house has four rooms and a kitchen at the back. 10. (a) In my opinion, the government is doing well and making many improvements in the country. But there are many people who do not agree that this is so. (b) Opinions are divided concerning the government. Some say they are doing well and making many improvements in the country. Others do not agree. LESSON 2: KINDS OF TRANSLATION 1. Literal versus idiomatic 11 Because a given text has both form and meaning, as discussed in the previous lesson, there are two main kinds of translation. One is form-based and the other is meaning-based. Form-based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language and are known as literal translation. Meaning-based translations make every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Such translations are called idiomatic translations. An interlinear translation is a completely literal translation. For some purposes, it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic features of the source text, as for example, in a linguistic study of that language. Although these literal translations may be very useful for purposes related to the study of the source language, they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the source language text. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value. For example: Vietnamese: Mêi b¹n vÒ nhµ t«i ch¬i Literal translation: Invite friend about house me play. This literal translation makes little sense in English. The appropriate translation would be: Would you like to come to my home? If the two languages are related, the literal translation can often be understood, since the general grammatical form may be similar. However, the literal choice of lexical items may the translation sounds foreign. The following bilingual announcement was overheard at an airport ( Barnwell 1980:18) Literal English: Madame Odette passenger with destination Domda is demanded on the telephone. This English version is a literal translation of the French. French: Madame Odette, passager µ destination de Domda, est demandeÐ au telefon. An idiomatic translation into English would be: Miss Odette, passenger for Domda. You are wanted on the phone. Except for interlinear translation, a truly literal translation is uncommon. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a partially modified literal translation. They modify the order and grammar enough to use acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. However, the lexical items are translated literally. Occasionally, these are also changed to avoid complete nonsense or to improve the communication. However, the result still does not sound natural. Notice the following example from a language in Papua New Guinea: Ro abombo ngusifu pamariboyandi. I my heart fastened-her. (literal) I fastened her in my heart. (modified literal) 12 The modified literal translation changes the order into English structure. However, the sentence still does not communicate in clear English. An idiomatic translation would have used the form: “ I never forgot her.” Or “ I‟ve kept her memory in my heart.” A person who translates in a modified literal manner will change the grammatical forms when the constructions are obligatory. However, if he has a choice, he will follow the form of the source text even though a different form might be more natural in the receptor language. Literal and modified literal translations consistently err in that they choose literal equivalents for the words, i.e. lexical items being translated. Literal translations of words, idioms result in unclear, unnatural, and sometimes nonsensical translations. In a modified literal translation, the translator usually adjusts the translation enough to avoid the nonsense and wrong meanings, but the unnaturalness still remains. Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language, both in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. It sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language. Therefore, a good translator will try to translate idiomatically. This is his goal. However, translations are often a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some idiomatic translation of the meaning of the text. It is not easy to consistently translate. A translator may express some parts of his translation in very natural forms and then in other parts fall back into a literal form. In one translation, the source text said, ‘‘ NhiÒu du kh¸ch n•íc ngoµi ®· giíi thiÖu cho chóng t«i vÒ kh¸ch s¹n H•¬ng Giang.’’ It was translated, “ Many foreign tourists have introduced us about Huong Giang Hotel.” It would have been translated idiomatically, “ Huong Giang Hotel has been recommended to us by a number of foreign tourists.” The translator‟s goal should be to reproduce in a receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source language but using the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor language. The basic overriding principle is that an idiomatic translation reproduces the meaning of the source language in the natural form of the receptor language. 2. Translating grammatical features Parts of speech are language specific. Each language has its own division of the lexicon into classes such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and so on. Different languages will have different classes and subclasses. It will not always be possible to translate a source language noun with a noun in the receptor language. For example, English has many nouns which really refer to actions while Vietnamese prefers to express actions as verbs rather than nouns. In one translation, the source text said, “ There is a general agreement that the government has given top priority to education.” It was translated, ‘‘ Cã mét sù ®ång ý chung r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu sù •u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc’’. This would 13 have been translated idiomat._.ically, ‘‘Ai còng ®ång ý r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu •u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc.’’ Similarly, a translator in Papua New Guinea was asked to translate the Eight Point Improvement Plan for Papua New Guinea. One point reads, “Decentralization of economic activity, planning and government spending, with emphasis on agricultural development, village industry, better internal trade, and more spending channeled through local and area bodies.” Such sentences are very difficult for translators who want to translate into the native language of the country. Words such as Decentralization, activity, planning, government spending, emphasis development, trade would have to be rendered by verbs in most languages. When verbs are used, then, the appropriate subject and object of the verb may need to be made explicit also. The form in the receptor language is very different from the source language form and yet this kind of adjustment, using verbs rather than using nouns, must be made in order to communicate the message. An idiomatic translation was made which used verbs as in the following. “The government wants to decrease the work it does for businesses and what it plans and the money it spends in the capital, and wants to increase what people and groups in local area do to help farmers and small businesses whose owners live in the villages, and help people in this country buy and sell things made in this country and to help local groups spend the government‟s money.” Most languages have a class of words which may be called pronouns. Pronominal systems vary greatly from language to language and the translator is obliged to use the form of the receptor language even though they may have very different meanings than the pronouns of the source language. For example, if one is translating into Kiowa (USA), the pronouns will have to indicate a different between singular, dual and plural person even though the source language does not make this three-way distinction. Or if a translator is translating into Balinese, he must distinguish degrees of honor even though nothing in the source language indicates these distinctions. He will need to understand the culture of the Balinese and the cultural context of the text he is translating in order to choose correctly. In English, the first plural pronoun we is often used when the real meaning is second person you. The reason for the use of we is to show empathy and understanding. The nurse say to the sick child, “ It‟s time for us to take our medicine now.” Or the teacher says, “We‟re not going to shout, quietly to our we‟ll walk places.” Clearly , the pronouns do not refer to the nurse or the teacher but to the children whom she is addressing you. In translating these pronouns into another language, a literal translation with first person plural would probably distort the meaning. The translator would need to look for the natural way to communicate second person and the feeling of empathy carried by the source language. Grammatical constructions also vary between the source language and the receptor language. The order , for example, may be completely reserved. The following simple sentences from Vietnamese is given with a literal English translations: ChÞ sèng ë ®©u? You live where ? 14 C« Êy th•êng mÆc ¸o s¬ mi v¶i silk mµu xanh cì nhá. She often wears a shirt silk blue small. It will readily be seen that understandable translations into English requires a complete reversal of the order: She often wears a small blue silk shirt. It is not uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated with an active construction or vice versa, depending on the natural form of the receptor language. For example, Vietnamese people tend to use active constructions to express their ideas whereas English people prefer to use passive constructions. English: Nguyen Du is considered to be a great poet. ( passive) Vietnamese: Ng•êi ta xem NguyÔn Du lµ mét nhµ th¬ vÜ ®¹i. (active) English: A: What has happened to all your money after the will was settled and the business was sold? (passive) B: The usual thing, false friends, fast-living style and bad investment. Vietnamese: A: ChuyÖn g× ®· x¶y ra víi toµn bé sè tiÒn mµ b¹n cã ®•îc sau khi gi¶i quyÕt xong chuyÖn chóc th• vµ b¸n ®i c¶ s¶n nghiÖp. (active) B: Còng lÏ th•êng t×nh th«i, b¹n bÌ gi¶ dèi, ¨n ch¬i hoang ®µn vµ ®Çu t• sai chç. The above translated sentences are only examples to show some types of grammatical adjustments which will result if a translator translates idiomatically in the source language. Certainly, there will be times by coincidence they match, but a translator should translate the meaning not concern himself with whether the forms turn out the same or not. 3. Translating lexical features Each language has its own idiomatic way of expressing meaning lexical items. Languages abound in idioms, secondary meanings, metaphors, and other figurative meanings. For example, notice the following ways in which a fever is referred to ( literal translations are given to show the source language form): Greek: The fever left him. Aguaruna: He cooled. Vietnamese: He cooled. Or: The fever was no more in him. 15 Ilocano: The fever was no more in him. The English translations of all six would be : His fever went down, or His temperature returned to normal. All languages have idioms, i.e. a string of words whose meaning is different than the meaning conveyed by the individual words. In English to say that someone is bullheaded means that the person is „stubborn‟. The meaning has little to do with bull or head . Similarly, in Vietnamese to say that someone is cøng ®Çu cøng cæ means that the person is „stubborn‟. The meaning has little to do with ®Çu or cæ. Languages abound in such idioms. The following are a few English idioms using in and into: run into debt, rush into print, step into a practice, jump into a fight, dive into a book, stumble into acquaintance, fall in love, break into society. In spite of all these combinations, one cannot say the following break into debt, fall into print, rush into a fight, dive into debt, etc. The combinations are fixed as to form and their meaning comes from their combination. A literal word-for-word translation of these idioms into another language will not make sense. The form cannot be kept, but the receptor language word or phrase which has the equivalent meaning will be the correct one to use in the translation. The following idioms occur in Vietnamese. In the first column is a literal translation from Vietnamese. In the second is an idiomatic translation. The literal English is misleading. LITERAL IDIOMATIC I don‟t have my eye on you. I don‟t remember you. He is as strong as a buffalo. He is as strong as a horse. I have buried my head into my business. I have been busy with my work. Translators who wants to make a good idiomatic translation often find figures of speech especially challenging. A literal translation of strong as a horse might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a strong person and a horse has never been use as a figure of speech. In Vietnamese it would be more natural to say strong as a buffalo. Similarly, a literal translation of blind as a bat might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a blind person and a bat has never been use as a figure of speech. In Aguaruma it would be more natural to say blind as a fox. There is a legend in which the sun borrowed the fox‟s eyes and then returned to heaven taking the fox‟s good eyes with him and leaving the fox with the sun‟s inferior eyes. That is why they say, when the fox is trying to see, he stretches back his head and looks with his throat. Figures of speech are often based on stories or historical incidents. Names of animals are used metaphorically in most languages. But the comparison is often different and so the figure will be misunderstood unless some adjustment is made. For example, when someone is called a pig in English, it usually means he is dirty or a greedy eater. In Vietnamese, it has different meanings. It could means that the person is stupid or that the person is a greedy. Care would need to be taken if pig were used metaphorically or a wrong meaning might result in the receptor language. 16 Some lexical combinations of the source language may be ambiguous. The meaning is not clear. For example, “ It is too hot to eat,” could mean any of the following: The food is too hot to eat; the weather is too hot for us to feel like eating; the horse is too hot after running a race and does not want to eat. In the process of making an idiomatic translation, such ambiguities must often be resolved and only the intended meaning communicated. 4. Conclusion It is obvious that translation is a complicated process. However, a translator who is concerned with transferring the meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired meaning can be expressed even though it may be very different from the source language form. Considering the complexity of language structures, how can a translator ever hope to produce an adequate translation? Literal translation can only be avoided by careful analysis of the source language: by, first of all, understanding clearly the message to be communicated. A translator who takes the time to study carefully the source language text, to write analysis of it, and then to look for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor language, will be able to provide an adequate, and some times brilliant translation. His goal must be to avoid literalisms and to strive for a truly idiomatic receptor language text. He will know he is successful if the receptor language readers do not recognize his work as a translation at all, but simply as a text written in the receptor language for their information and enjoyment. 5. Notes Form-based translation : dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc Meaning-based translation: dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa Literal translation: dÞch tõng tõ mét Idiomatic translation: dÞch ®óng nghÜa Interference : sù can thiÖp Mother-tongue interference: sù can thiÖp cña tiÕng mÑ ®Î To make adjustments: hiÖu ®Ýnh/ ®iÒu chØnh Translating grammatical features: ®Æc tr•ng ng÷ ph¸p dÞch Parts of speech: tõ lo¹i Subclass: nhãm nhá Indo-European language: ng«n ng÷ Ên-¢u Pronominal system: hÖ thèng ®¹i tõ 6. Self-study 6.1 Questions for discussion 1. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. What should you do to translate a text idiomatically? 17 3. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 4. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 5. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? 6.2 Exercises A. In each of the following pairs of sentences, which is more idiomatic English, a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1.(a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. (b) The storekeeper promised to refund our money. 2.(a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. (b) He is one boy. He told the one little story. This is a game he said. 3.(a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform ,too. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4.(a) He then reported his misfortune to the police, who are searching diligently for the thief. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police, who are the thief searching intensively B. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. All of these examples are from published translated material. 1. The third-year students often visit the schools in the city for the attendance of the class. 2. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. 3. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam, many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 4. After saying lies many times, he lost our belief in him. 5. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 6. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. 7. Every time my mother goes to work , I feel my house absent anybody. 8. One thing makes me proud of my village is a large green field that provides one part of life for people. 9. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. 10. I left my village for three years, a time not long but like a century. C. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language 18 structures have been carried over into English. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. 1. Sir, the problems of before don‟t forget. ( Sir, please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before.) 2. If there is any means, send me a letter to Saigon. (If there is any way to do so, send a letter to me in Saigon.) 3. I will think you time to time day and day. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.) 4. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.) 5. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years.) D. Translate the following Vietnamese sentences as idiomatically as possible. 1. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n•íc s«ng Hång, s«ng §µ, s«ng Cöu Long vµ ®· sèng chÕt víi s«ng n•íc nµy. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh• tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. Trong tiÕng ViÖt, th× ‘‘n•íc’’ (trong s«ng, trong hå, trong biÓn....) l¹i ®ång nghÜa, ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n•íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h•¬ng. - cha «ng: ancestors - thèng nhÊt : uniformity - ®ång nghÜa : synonym/ synonymous - ®ång ©m : homonym - trong ý nghÜa : to mean/ to signify - tæ quèc quª h•¬ng: homeland/ fatherland/ motherland - sèng chÕt: to try hard to protect them/ to spare no pain to protect them 3. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn, xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. - chiÕm cø : take up/ to be situated/ to occupy - cao nguyªn : plateau - xung quanh: to be surrounded by/ with 4. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®•îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra 19 nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh• c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. - sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ : the economic development - ®•îc xÐt : to be viewed/ to be considered/ to be taken into account - hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi : in the context of the long period of war - g©y ra thiÖt h¹i : to cause damage to - tµi s¶n : property - c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng : public facilities - tµi nguyªn : resources 5. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b•íc tiÕn kú diÖu, nh•ng ng•êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ, dinh d•ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. - ®Þa vÞ : status - cã nh÷ng b•íc tiÕn kú diÖu: to be dramatically improved - dinh d•ìng : nutrition 6. M¹ng l•íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n•íc. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t•¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i, cã tõ l©u ®êi nh• ®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh, cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®•îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch•¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung •¬ng vµ ph¸t ch•¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. - m¹ng l•íi : network - ®µi truyÒn h×nh : television station - l©u ®êi: long-standing - thµnh lËp : to establish/ set up - truyÒn nh÷ng ch•¬ng tr×nh : to relay the transmissions - ph¸t: to broadcast 7. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®•ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b•íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc, c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè, ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n•íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. - ®•¬ng ®Çu : to face - vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng : serious problem - cã nhiÒu b•íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ : to take great strikes 20 - sù bïng næ d©n sè : population explosion/ population boom - t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n : to grow in geometric progression - t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng : to grow in arithmetic progression - s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ : the production of goods 8. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi, thuéc tr•êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t•¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t• s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l•u vµ h¹ l•u ë Lu©n §«n. - nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt : novelist - tr•êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n : the school of critical realism - ®¸nh gi¸ cao : to value/ highly appreciate - sù phª ph¸n : criticism - téi ¸c : evil - sù t•¬ng ph¶n : contrast - giµu vµ nghÌo : wealth and poverty - x· héi t• s¶n Anh : the English boutgeois society - giai cÊp trung l•u vµ h¹ l•u : the middle and lower classes 9. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam ®•îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi vµ chñ tÞch héi ®•îc quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th•êng kú cña Héi §ång Bé Tr•ëng ®Ó bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn phô n÷. - Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam : The Vietnam‟s Women Union - cö ®¹i diÖn : to be represented - Quèc Héi : the National Assembly - ®•îc quyÒn lµm g× : to have the right to do something - cuéc häp th•êng kú : regular meeting - Héi §ång Bé Tr•ëng : the Council of Ministers - bµy tá quan ®iÓm : express one‟s points of view - ®iÒu lÖ : regulations 10. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h•áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa, nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy, tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam. - chÞu ¶nh h•áng : to be affected by 21 - nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp : agricultural civilization - chÝnh s¸ch më cöa : the open-door policy - t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy tõng giê : to have daily and hourly impact /influence on LESSON 3: STEPS IN A TRANSLATION PROJECT Before beginning an actual translation, it is important to have in mind the total translation project and what is involved in producing a good translation. Each of these steps will be elaborated on in more detail in the last section of the book. 1.Establishing the project Before one considers beginning a translation project, there are a number of matters which need to be clearly understood by all who will be involved. These can be summarized under four T‟s- the text, the target, the team, and the tools. The text refers to the source language document which is to be translated. The desirability of translating a particular text must be determined. Texts are chosen to be translated for various reasons. Most often it is to communicate certain information to people speaking another language, or it may be to share the enjoyment of the source text. The translator should examine his reasons for choosing the text and the potential for its use by the receptor language audience. The target refers to the audience. For whom is the translation prepared? The form of translation will be affected by questions of dialect, educational level, age level, bilingualism, and people‟s attitudes towards their languages. Will it be used in school, in business, or read orally in a meeting or at home? The team refers to the people who will be involved in the project. If a person is a competent speaker of both the source language and the receptor language, it may be that the project can be done completely by one person. But even so there should be other available for evaluation and consultation. Most translation projects require a team, a number of people who are going to contribute to the translation at some stage in the project. The working relationship between these people needs to be established before the project gets underway. It may, however, also change as the project moves along and new factors come into focus. There are certain essentials to any translation project. Not all these need to be found in one person. There are various kinds of programs which may be set up depending on the abilities and backgrounds of those who will be involved. The team may consist of 1. co-translators, where one is a specialist in the source language and the other a specialist in the receptor language, or 2. a translator with capability to handle both source language and receptor language matters and an advisor or consultant, or 3. a committee working together with specific responsibilities delegated to each one. Which kind of program is developed will depend on who is available and qualified to determine the meaning of the source language, who is most skilled at drafting in the receptor language, and who has an understanding of translation principles. The team may include the translators, a consultant, testers, and reviewers. 22 Tools refer to the written source materials which will be used by the translators as helps. These include, in addition to the document to be translated, any dictionaries, lexicons, grammars, cultural descriptions. etc.. .. of both the source language and receptor language which are available. The team will want as much in formation available as possible while translating. All of these tools should be brought to the translation site in preparation for the project. For some projects, there will be a wealth of materials that can be used to help in interpreting the source language text and in finding equivalents in the receptor language. For other projects, there may be a scarcity of such material, but whatever is available should be there to make the work easier. 2. Exegesis Exegesis is used to refer to the process of discovering the meaning of the source language text which is to be translated. It is the step which includes the preparation and analysis which must be done before anything at all can be written in the receptor language. The text must be understood completely. This is the process which takes place in moving from the source language form to the meaning of the text. The translator should begin by reading the text several times, then by reading other materials that may help in understanding the culture or language of the source text. As he reads the text, he will be looking for the author‟s purpose and the theme of the text. He will look for the larger groupings or sections. He may want to outline the text. The purpose is to understand the text as a whole. Once he has done this, he is ready to work on the material a section at a time. The analysis of the source text will include resolving ambiguity, identifying implicit information, studying key words, interpreting figurative senses, recognizing when words are being used in a secondary sense, when grammatical structures are being used in a secondary function, etc. It will involve doing the kind of analysis which this book is all about. The goal of exegesis is to determine the meaning which is to be communicated in the receptor language text. The translator carefully studies the source language text and using all the available tools, determines the content of the source language message, the related communication situation matters, and all other factors which will need to be understood in order to produce an equivalent translation. 3. Transfer and initial draft After a careful analysis of the source language text, as indicated above, the translator begins drafting piece by piece, section by section. The transfer results in the initial draft. In preparing this draft, the translator is transferring from the source language into the receptor language. As he does so, he must always keep his target audience in mind. Before any extensive drafting can be done, the key terms must be determined. Every text has a set of words which re crucial to the content and correct communication of the theme. These need to be decided upon and may need to be checked with other speakers of the receptor language. There are two ways of approaching the transfer and initial draft. Some translators prefer to do a quick rough translation so that the material flows naturally. Then they go back and tighten up the details to be sure that there is no wrong information, and no omissions or additions. In this way, the receptor language text is more apt to be in the natural style of the receptor language. Others prefer to prepare a proposition-like semantic draft, being sure that all the information all the information is accounted for, and then reword it for naturalness; that is, 23 reword it in the idiomatic form of the receptor language. Either method will lead to an idiomatic translation if careful work is done. It may be necessary to rework the initial draft several times before the team is satisfied that all the adjustments needed have been made, that no information is wrong or omitted, that the text communicates clearly in the receptor language, and that the form chosen will communicate to the desired audience. While making and reworking this draft, the audience must always be kept in mind. Once the translation team has sufficiently reworked the initial draft, they arrange for copies to be made so that adequate evaluation. 4. Evaluation The purpose of evaluation is threefold: accuracy, clearness, and naturalness. The questions to be answer are: 1. Does the translation communicate the same meaning as the source language? 2. Does the audience for whom the translation is intended understand it clearly? 3. Is the form of the translation easy to read and natural receptor language grammar and style? Those helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language. There are a number of kinds of evaluations which need to be done. The translator will want to compare the translation with the source text at several points during the translation process to be sure no additions, deletions or change of in formation have crept in . Others may help with this work. It is especially advantageous to have a consultant check over the material. The translator will want to have receptor language speakers read the text and then tell back what the text communicated to them. As they read, there will be parts that are hard to read or hard to understand. Any time there is an indication of a problem in reading , this should be noted for further checking . Another way to check is by asking questions of those who read the text , or to whom it is read. Questions need to be carefully formed so that they bring out the theme, the author‟s purpose , and the relevant facts of the text. Any wrong understanding should be noted and then checked with others as well. It is best to have someone who has not worked on the translation, but know both the source language and receptor language, translate back from the receptor language into the source language without the reference to the original source language text. Does the back translation carry the same information as the original source language text? Any difference will need to be checked further. It is very important that sufficient time and effort be given to evaluation. If many of the people who will eventually be using the receptor language text can be involved in the evaluation process, this will also create interest in the translated material when it is finally published. 5. Revised After evaluation is done carefully, there will need to be a revised draft made on the basis of the feedback received. Those with whom the translator has checked may have suggested many rewordings, may have expressed misunderstanding, etc. The translation team now works through this material , honestly accepting the evaluation , and rewording the material accordingly. If any key words are changed, the text will need to be checked carefully for consistency in the change made. If some parts were hard for people to read, they may need to be made easier by more redundancy( or less redundancy in another language), by adding more information to clarify participants or theme or whatever. How much re-drafting will be needed will vary depending on the results of the evaluation. 6. Consultation 24 In many translation projects, there are advisors or consultants who are willing to help the translator. The translator(s) will expect that the consultant is interested in three matters:1.accuracy of content 2. naturalness of style, and 3. effect on the receptor language audience. It is important that translators check their materials with a trained consultant after completing a section or two of a ._.ay cÇn nh÷ng kho¶ng ®Çu t• theo chiÒu s©u ®Ó thay thÕ c¸c kÜ thuËt cñ, më réng x©y dùng nhiÒu nhµ m¸y h¬n n÷a. 114 Tuy nhiªn phã bÝ th• §¶ng uû thµnh phè Hµ Néi cÇn nh¾c nhë c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng cÇn ph¶i næ lùc h¬n n÷a ®Ó gi÷ v÷ng sù ph¸t triÓn theo h•íng ‘‘nÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr•êng’’ theo ®Þnh h•íng x· héi chñ nghÜa. ¤ng cßn nãi ‘‘chÝnh quyÒn thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®· thÊt b¹i trong viÖc x©y dùng sù ®oµn kÕt c¸c quan hÖ s¶n xuÊt kinh doanh x· héi chñ nghÜa’’. Trong khi bé m¸y hµnh chÝnh c¸c cÊp cßn yÕu vµ ‘‘vai trß cña §¶ng trong c¸c tæ chøc kinh tÕ x· héi kh¸c nhau vÉn cßn h¹n chÕ’’. Nh÷ng tham vÊn cña «ng Tïng cßn ®•îc Tæng bÝ th• §æ M•êi còng cè thªm, «ng Tïng chØ ph¸t biÓu víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Bªn c¹nh nh÷ng thµnh c«ng ban ®Çu Hµ Néi cßn chó ý ®Õn viÖc ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ vµ x©y dùng nguån nh©n lùc. §ång chÝ nãi 6% nh©n d©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi thÊt nghiÖp lµ mét th¸ch thøc mµ thµnh phè cÇn ph¶i gi¶i quyÕt. Cã thÓ lµ b»ng c¸ch lËp nªn c¸c nhãm s¶n xuÊt ®Ó tõ ®ã h×nh thµnh c¸c c¬ së c«ng nghiÖp nhá vµ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô. §ång chÝ phã bÝ th• Lª Xu©n Tïng nãi r»ng: trong giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 sè l•îng c¸c gia ®×nh giµu t¨ng lªn gÇn 19%. Sè hé nghÌo gi¶m xuèng chØ cßn kho¶ng 2%. ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Lµm v•ên lµ mét nghÒ truyÒn thèng ë ViÖt Nam, nã xuÊt hiÖn ®ång thêi hay sím h¬n nghÒ trång lóa n•íc. Nh•ng VAC ( viÕt t¾t cña v•ên, ao, chuång) lµ mét m« h×nh kinh tÕ hiÖn ®¹i míi ®•îc ®•a vµo hoat ®éng c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m. Ng•êi n•íc ngoµi ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó nghiªn cøu m« h×nh VAC ë ®©y nãi r»ng: Tuy nã kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶ cao trong viÖc thùc hiÖn qui m« s¶n xuÊt nh•ng lµ mét m« h×nh s¶n xuÊt ®ång bé mang l¹i lîi Ých kinh tÕ lÉn lîi Ých vÒ m«i tr•êng.Tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu tiªn cña qu¸ tr×nh ho¹t ®éng, m« h×nh VAC lu«n g¾n chÆt vai trß cña m×nh trong sù ph¸t triÓn cña nÒn kinh tÕ quèc d©n. HiÖn nay VAC cã mÆt trªn kh¾p 53 tØnh víi h¬n 10 triÖu chñ n«ng hé sö dông m« h×nh nµy. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y VAC ®· vµ ®ang ®•îc ph¸t triÓn trªn hÇu hÕt c¸c vïng kh¾p c¶ n•íc. Víi hµng chôc ngµn hecta ®Êt canh t¸c ë c¸c tØnh Trung du vµ miÒn nói, v•ên c©y ¨n qu¶ ®· më réng tõ 350,000 ®Õn 400,000 hecta 115 M« h×nh VAC ®•îc ¸p dông ®· trá thµnh nguån cung cÊp rau qu¶ chÝnh cho c¶ n•íc, ®ång thêi còng ®¸p øng cho nhu cÇu xuÊt khÈu..Theo FAO ( Tæ chøc L•¬ng N«ng ThÕ Giíi) th× s¶n l•îng rau qu¶ ViÖt Nam ®¹t xÊp xØ 4 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m. S¶n l•îng rau qu¶ b×nh qu©n ®Çu ng•êi trªn thÕ giíi lµ 65 Ki l«, ch©u ¸-Th¸i B×nh D•¬ng lµ 31 kg vµ ViÖt nam lµ 61 kg. HiÖn nay VAC cã mét ý nghÜa quan träng trong viÖc xãa ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo ®èi víi c¸c n•íc chËm ph¸t triÓn, tæ chøc ho¹t ®éng t¹i chç ®Ó ng¨n ch¨n suy dinh d•ìng, t¹o dùng c¸c v•ên c©y hay ®ån ®iÒn trªn khu ®Êt trèng ®åi nói träc, t¹o ra sù ph¸t triÓn mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp l©u dµi vµ æn ®Þnh.møc sèng cña c¸c hé n«ng d©n thùc hiÖn m« h×nh VAC ®· ®•îc c¶i thiÖn ®¸ng kÓ víi møc thu nhËp h»ng n¨m tõ ho¹t ®éng VAC ®¹t 60% tæng thu nhËp. Gi¸ trÞ s¶n phÈm VAC chiÕm 1/3 gi¸ trÞ tæng s¶n phÈm vµ sÏ t¨ng h¬n n÷a. MÆc dï m« h×nh VAC ®· ph¸t triÓn nhanh trong vßng 10 n¨m qua, nh•ng nã ch•a ®•îc thùc hiÖn ®ång lo¹t ë tÊt c¶ c¸c vïng n«ng th«n. NÕu tËp trung më réng th©m canh vµ chuyªn m«n hãa c¸c lo¹i c©y trång tren kh¾p c¶ n•íc, th× s¶n l•îng rau qu¶ ViÖt nam cã thÓ ®¹t ®•îc 8 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m ë thÕ kû 21. VAC nªn ®•îc xem nh• lµ mét ch•¬ng tr×nh n«ng nghiÖp quèc gia. NÕu VAC ®•îc khuyÕn khÝch ®Ó ph¸t huy hÕt mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña nã th× ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ®¹t ®•îc hiÖu qu¶ cao, gãp phÇn vµo viÖc ph¸t triÓn n•íc nhµ vµ gãp phÇn vµo viÖc b¶o vÖ m«i tr•êng. 116 ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English Researchers said on Monday they had conclusive evidence an experimental AIDS treatment using plasma transfusions delays the onset of the disease in HIV positive patients and prolongs the lives of AIDS sufferers. DR. Abraham Karpas of the University of Cambridge's department of haematology said, however, that although Passive Immune Therapy (PIT) was "breakthrough" in treating AIDS and had no known side effects it should not be described as a cure. "It is definitely not a cure. There is no cure in sight, but it looks as if it is the best form of treatment," he said in his presentation to a London conference. Karpas said U.S. and French studies on PIT released at the conference confirmed his original research. "Their double - blind, placebo - controlled studies showed that this treatment benefits AIDS patients and prolonged their sure, survival,'' he stated in a telephone interview. He said the studies, conducted by the Hemacare Corporation of California and two Paris hospitals, also showed that PIT helped to delay the onset of full - blown AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in people tested positive for HIV, the virus that causes the deadly disease. Under PIT, patients receive a monthly transfusion of half a litre of plasma taken from healthy HIV - positive individuals. The blood has the red and white cells removes and is free of HIV but has high levels of neutralising antibodies that kill the virus. Karpas said he first discovered in 1985 that people with HIV who were otherwise healthy had high levels of these antibodies in their blood while AIDS patients lost these neutralising antibodies and their ability to fight infections. Four patients in Cambridge were the first to receive the treatment and subsequently small scale trials were carried out in London in 1988 and 1989. But Karpras said he has failed to receive funding for his research in Britain and studies had therefore been set up in the US and France. The Hemancare trial studied the effect of PIT on 220 AIDS patients over 3 years. It found that in the first 12 months the mortality rate was greatly reduced in the group who received the plasma transfusion while those in the control group, where no treatment was given, had a death rate of five time higher. The treated group had one death in 21 people while the placebo group had six deaths in 30. Moreover, the number of AIDS - linked infections was far lower in the treated group and the blood donors themselves also appeared to benefit. The researchers said donating blood appeared to stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies in the blood of HIV - positive patients. The French studies produced similar results, Karpas said he said the U.S. and French studies represented the "first conclusive evidence that PIT is an effective AIDS treatment". 117 ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English Another day she said she knew a priest who woke one night to find a fellow he didn't recognize leaning over the end of his bed. The priest was a bit frightened -naturally enough - but he asked the fellow what he wanted, and the fellow said in a deep, husky voice that he wanted to go to confession. The priest said it was an awkward time and wouldn't it do in the morning, but the fellow said that last time he went to confession, there was one sin he kept back, being ashamed to mention it, and now it was always on his mind. Then the priest knew it was a bad case, because the fellow was after making a bad confession and committing a mortal sin. He got up to dress, and just then the cock crew in the yard outside, and to and behold! When the priest looked round there was no sign of the fellow, only a smell of burning timber, and when the priest looked at his bed didn't he see the print of two hands burned in it! That was because the fellow had made a bad confession. This story made a shocking impression on me. But the worst of all was when she showed us how to examine our conscience. Did we take the name of the Lord, our God, in vain? Did we honour our father and our mother? (I asked her did this include grandmothers and she said it did.) Did we love our neighbours as ourselves? Did we cover our neighbour's goods? (I thought of the way I felt about the penny that Nora got every Friday.) I decided that, between one thing and another, I must have broken the whole ten commandments, all on account of that old woman, and so far as I could see-,, 9-n long ac, he remained in the house, I had no hope of ever doing anything else. I was scared to death of confession. The day the whole class went I let on to have a toothache, hoping my absence wouldn't be noticed; but at three o'clock, just as I was feeling safe, along comes a chap with a message from Mrs. Ryan that I was to go to confession myself on Saturday and be at the chapel for communion with the rest. To make it worse, Mother couldn't come with me and sent Nora instead. Now, that girl had ways of tormenting me that Mother never knew of. She held my hands as we went down the hill, smiling sadly and saying how sorry she was for me, as if she were bringing me to the hospital for an operation. "Oh, God, help us!" she moaned. "Isn't it a terrible pity you weren't a good boy? Oh Jackie, my heart bleeds for you! How will you ever think of all your sins? Don't forget you have to tell him about the time you kicked Gran on the shin." "Let me go!" I said, trying to drag myself free of her, "I don't want to go to confession at all." "But sure, you'll have to go to confession, Jackie," she replied in the same regretful tone. "Sure, if you didn't, the parish priest would be up to the house, looking for you. Isn‟t God knows, that I'm not sorry for you. Do you remember the time you tried to kill me with the bread knife under the table? And the language you used to me? I don't know what he'll do with you at all, Jackie. He might have to send you up to the bishop." I remember thinking bitterly that she didn't know the half of what I had to tell - if I told it. I knew I couldn't tell it, and understood perfectly why the fellow in Mrs. Ryan's story made a bad confession, it seemed to me a great shame that people wouldn't stop criticizing him. I remember that steep hill down to the church, and the sunlit hillsides beyond the valley of the river, which I saw in the gaps between the houses like Adam's last glimpse of Paradise. 118 Then, when she had maneuvered me down the long flight of steps to the chapel yard, Nora suddenly changed her tone. She became the raging malicious devil she really was. "There you are!" she said with a yelp of triumph, hunting me through the church door." And I hope he'll give you the penitential psalins, you dirty little baffler.' I knew then I was lost, given up to eternal justice. The door with the coloured-glass panels swung shut behind me, the sunlight went out and gave place to deep shadow, and the wind whistled outside so that the silence within seemed to crackle like ice under my feet. Nora sat in front of me by ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. Nh×n chung sau mét thêi gian ho¹t ®éng tr× trÖ, nÒn c«ng nghiÖp dÖt thªu t• nh©n cña Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®· ®•îc kh«i phôc vµ ph¸t triÓn ë møc ®é nhÊt ®Þnh kÓ tõ n¨m 1991.Tuy nhiªn sù ph¸t triÓn kh«ng æn ®Þnh bëi v× hÇu hÕt c«ng viÖc cña c¸c xÝ nghiÖp t• nh©n ®Òu phô thuéc vµo ®¬n ®Æt hµng cña n•íc ngoµi.Do vËy, hä kh«ng thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®•îc kÕ ho¹ch s¶n xuÊt, vµ gi¸ lao ®éng cho s¶n phÈm may mÆt bÞ c¸c ®èi t¸c n•íc ngoµi qui ®Þnh rÊt thÊp ( tiÒn c«ng lao ®éng n¨m 1995 chØ b»ng 65%-70% so víi c¸c n¨m 1991 vµ 1992.).Do tÝnh ®Æc thï cña ngµnh nµy, nªn l•¬ng trung b×nh cña c«ng nh©n trong ngµnh may-thªu chØ kho¶ng 400.000 ®ång/th¸ng. Víi sù c¹nh tranh gay g¾t hiÖn nay, b¶o hiÓm x· héi chiÕm ®Õn 15% vµ b¶o hiÓm y tÕ lµ 2% trong tæng sè l•¬ng mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp ph¶i ®ãng, vµ nÕu nh• kÕ ho¹ch dù kiÕn cña b¶o hiÓm x· héi ®•îc phª duyÖt, th× gi¸ thµnh s¶n xuÊt sÏ rÊt cao g©y khã kh¨n cho c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt ViÖt Nam trong vieec c¹nh tranh cã hiÖu qu¶ vµ chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr•êng. §Ó gióp c¸c doanh nghiÖp thªu-may t• nh©n sèng cßn, «ng Nam ®· ®Ò nghÞ nhµ n•íc nªn söa ®æi tû lÖ ®ãng gãp cña c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh ®èi víi chÝnh s¸ch b¶o hiÓm x· héi nh• sau: - B¶o hiÓm x· héi: 10% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 3% ®èi víi c«ng nh©n - B¶o hiÓm y tÕ : 1% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 1% ®èi víi c«ng nh©n Nhµ n•íc còng nªn ban hµnh mét qui ®Þnh cã liªn quan ®Õn ng•êi lao ®éng ®· ®•îc c¸c doanh nghiÖp tuyÓn dông vµ ®µo t¹o buéc ph¶i lµm viÖc tèi thiÓu lµ 2 n¨m. C¸c c«ng nh©n lµm viÖc trong 119 c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh cÇn ph¶i ®•îc cÊp thÎ lµm viÖc. NÕu mét c«ng nh©n nµo ®ã muèn th«i viÖc th× ph¶i ®•îc doanh nghiÖp cñ qu¶n ®ång ý. TÊt c¶ mäi thµnh viªn cña c¸c c«ng ty may-thªu ë Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu ®ång ý thùc hiÖn ®Çy ®ñ viÖc ®ãng gãp mét phÇn l•¬ng vµo b¶o hiÓm x· héi vµ y tÕ, thÓ theo ®óng qui ®Þnh cña luËt lao ®éng. 2. C¸c chñ doanh nghiÖp cña c¸c c«ng ty lín ë TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®· nªu ra nh÷ng khã kh¨n mµ hä ph¶i ®•¬ng ®Çu trong viÖc c¹nh tranh gay g¾t víi c¸c c«ng ty n•íc ngoµi, ®Æc biÖt lµ víi c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå thÕ giíi. T¹i mét cuéc häp bµn vÒ : Lµm thÕ nµo ®Ó khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi vµ ®¶m b¶o s¶n xuÊt trong n•íc ®•îc tæ chøc t¹i TP Hå ChÝ minh tuÇn qua, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt cña c¸c c«ng ty bét giÆt Tico vµ Lux, Mü phÈm P/S, n•íc gi¶i kh¸t Tribeco, dÖt ViÖt Th¾ng, bia Sµi gßn vµ c«ng ty gia cÇm vËt nu«i TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu thèng nhÊt mét ý kiÕn lµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n•íc kh«ng c©n søc trong viÖc c¹nh tranh víi c¸c ®èi t¸c n•íc ngoµi v× hä kh«ng ®•îc h•ëng chÝnh s¸ch •u ®·i thuÕ nh• c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®•îc b·i bá, c¸c c«ng ty n•íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh• Coca-cola, Pep si- Cola ®•îc h•ëng •u ®·i vÒ vèn, chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c •u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T• N•íc Ngoµi, nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nahf s¶n xuÊt trong n•íc. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t•¬ng tù. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n•íc ngoµi. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n•íc, mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n•íc ®Õn n¨m 2000, nh•ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nh• Procter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n•íc, c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n•íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Thø nhÊt, nhµ n•íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n•íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®•îc nh• n•íc gi¶i kh¸t, bét giÆt, giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. Thø hai, viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®•îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn 120 doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã 100% vèn ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn, c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. Thø ba, lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh, ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng•êi tiªu dïng. Thø t• nªn cã chÝnh s¸ch khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t• trong n•íc vµ cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n•íc ®•îc h•ëng chÝnh s¸ch •u ®·i thuÕ nh• c¸c nhµ ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi. Thø n¨m, nªn ph¸t ®éng mét chiÕn dÞch ®éng viªn ng•êi ViÖt Nam dïng hµng néi ®Þa, t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n•íc ph¸t triÓn. ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. More and more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. In some areas, government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. For example, people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. Therefore, they don't receive information about ways to control family size. In general, people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas. Urban people have help with family planning, and they have smaller families. So we can say that geography where people live - plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and, on a larger scale, of nations, is an important factor in determining family size. People with a lot of money have fewer children. On the other hand, poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. They have no insurance, pensions, or government help. When they grow old, where can they get help? The answer is simple. They can and will turn to their children. Their children will be adults then, and they will be working. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. For many poor people, a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies. ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hai c¬ quan l•¬ng thùc cña Liªn Hîp quèc ngµy h«m qua ®· cho r»ng Indonesia sÏ ®èi mÆt víi sù thiÕu hôt l•¬ng thùc trÇm 121 träng trong n¨m nay. §ã lµ hËu qu¶ cña nh÷ng vô mïa thÊt thu vµ cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh ®· lµm t¨ng gi¸ nhËp khÈu. Trong mét b¶n b¸o c¸o chung, tæ chøc L•¬ng N«ng thÕ giíi (FAO) vµ Ch•¬ng Tr×nh L•¬ng Thùc ThÕ Giíi (WFP) cho r»ng viÖc gióp ®ì cña thÕ giíi lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt viÖc thiÕu hôt g¹o t¹m thêi, nguån l•¬ng thùc chÝnh cña ®Êt n•íc. B¶n b¸o c¸o chung cña hai tæ chøc cã v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i Rome th× hai tæ chøc FAO vµ WFP thóc giôc c¸c n•íc tµi trî gióp Indonesia gi¶i quyÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn h¹n h¸n vµ khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh. B¶n b¸o c¸o nãi thªm r»ng gi¸ l•¬ng thùc ngµy cµng t¨ng cao, sè ng•êi thÊt nghiÖp ngµy cµng ®«ng lµm t¨ng thªm sè ng•êi sèng d•íi møc nghÌo ®ãi. Mét b¶n b¸o c¸o vÒ mét n•íc ®«ng d©n thø t• trªn thÕ giíi mµ nÒn kinh tÕ ®· bÞ tµn ph¸ cho r»ng :’’ Vµo kho¶ng 7,5 triÖu ng•êi Indonesia nghÌo khæ ë 15 tØnh cã thÓ ph¶i sèng thiÕu ¨n trong mïa kh«’’. B¶n b¸o c¸o dùa trªn nh÷ng cø liÖu do mét nhãm c«ng t¸c gåm 11 thµnh viªn cña hai tæ chøc nµy. Nhãm nµy ®· ®Õn Indonesia tõ ngµy 9 th¸ng 3 ®Õn 1 th¸ng 4 n¨m 1998. S¶n l•îng n¨m nay chØ •íc ®¹t 47,5 triÖu tÊn, thÊp h¬n 3,6% so víi n¨m ngo¸i. Sù tôt gi¶m nµy do mét trong nh÷ng ®ît h¹n h¸n nghiªm träng nhÊt ë Indonesia trong thÕ kû nµy g©y nªn. B¶n b¸o c¸o cßn cho biÕt mÆc dï chÝnh phñ Indonesia dù ®Þnh nhËp khÈu 1,5 triÖu tÊn g¹o tõ th¸ng 4 ®Õn th¸ng 9, nh•ng n•íc nµy vÉn cßn thiÕu 2 triÖu tÊn n÷a. Kho¶n thiÕu hôt nµy sÏ ®•îc céng ®ång quèc tÕ gióp ®ì ®Ó nh»m cøu v·n nÒn kinh tÕ ®ang l©m vµo c¶nh khèn cïng. B¶n b¸o c¸o cho biÕt th¸ch thøc chÝnh mµ ®Êt n•íc nµy ®ang ®èi mÆt lµ b¶o ®¶m cung cÊp ®ñ l•¬ng thùc cho 7,5 triÖu ng•êi nghÌo ®ãi v× gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c lo¹i l•¬ng thùc kh¸c t¨ng 50% trong vßng 12 th¸ng qua. ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese H«m thø t•, ViÖt Nam tuyªn bè lµ sÏ gia nhËp HiÖp Héi c¸c n•íc §«ng Nam ¸, nh»m xua ®i pháng ®o¸n lµ Hµ Néi muèn lÇn l÷a viÖc trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cho ®Õn khi chuÈn bÞ tèt mäi ®iÒu kiÖn. ‘‘ ViÖt Nam hiÖn giê ®ang tÝch cùc chuÈn bÞ mäi ®iÒu kiÖn cÇn thiÕt ®Ó trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña ASEAN vµo n¨m tíi.’’ Phã Thñ T•íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i ®· tuyªn bè nh• vËy víi c¸c doanh nh©n t¹i mét b÷a ¨n tr•a do DiÔn ®µn Kinh tÕ thÕ giíi (WEF) - 122 trô së ®Æt t¹i Thôy SÜ- tæ chøc. WEF lµ c¬ quan ®øng ra duy tr× cuéc häp kÐo dµi 3 ngµy ë ®©y. Phã Thñ T•íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt ViÖt Nam còng muèn tham gia vµo DiÔn §µn Hîp T¸c Kinh TÕ Ch©u ¸- Th¸i B×nh D•¬ng ( APEC) víi 17 thµnh viªn. khi cã ®ñ ®iÒu kiÖn. T¹i Jakarta, Thø tr•ëng ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam Vò Khoan nãi r»ng n•íc «ng sÏ ®Ö ®¬n xin trë thµnh héi viªn A SEAN vßa cuèi th¸ng nµy hay ®Çu th¸ng 11. Thø tr•ëng Vò Khoan, sau khi gÆp «ng A Jit Singh Tæng th• ký A SEAN- v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i JaKarta, ®· ph¸t biÓu r»ng «ng kh«ng muèn cã mét trë ng¹i nµo trong qu¸ tr×nh gia nhËp A SEAN. Th«ng tÊn x· Antara ®· trÝch dÉn lêi tuyªn bè cña «ng. C¸c thµnh viªn APEC bao gåm c¸c quèc gia thuéc A SEAN- Brun©y, Indonesia, Malaisia, Phillipine, Xingapore vµ Th¸i Lan- cïng c¸c n•íc Mü, Canada, NhËt vµ Trung Quèc. Mét cuéc häp kh«ng chÝnh thøc cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o c¸c n•íc tham giaAPEC sÏ ®•îc tæ chøc t¹i Indonesia vµo th¸ng tíi. ViÖt nam ®· ®¹t ®•îc kÕt qu¶ lµ trë thµnh quan s¸t viªn ASEAN trong cuéc héi nghÞ cña khèi nµy vµo n¨m 1992, ®· tuyªn bè lµ thiÕt tha mong muèn trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña tæ chøc nµy, ®· cã nh÷ng ch•¬ng tr×nh víi nhiÒu hoµi b¶o vÒ sù hîp t¸c, bao gåm c¶ viÖc ph¸t ®éng khu vùc tù do mËu dÞch A SEAN trong vßng 10 n¨m. C¸c viªn chøc ASEAN còng ®· hy väng lµ ViÖt Nam cã lÏ sÏ gia nhËp A SEAN tr•íc khi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña 6 quèc gia thµnh viªn tham dù cuéc häp th•îng ®Ønh tæ chøc t¹i Th¸i Lan vµo th¸ng 12 n¨m 1995. ‘‘ §· s½n cã nh÷ng qui ®Þnh vÒ viÖc hîp t¸c trong khèi A SEAN. Mét khi chóng t«i lµ héi viªn th× chóng t«i sÏ tu©n theo mäi qui ®Þnh. Phã Thñ T•íng nãi thªm r»ng Hµ Néi sÏ lµm viÖc víi c¸c n•íc kh¸c t¹i §ong Nam ¸ ®Ó b¶o ®¶m nÒn an ninh khu vùc. ’’ Phã Thñ t•íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt chÝnh phñ cña «ng sÏ ®Èy m¹nh c¸c næ lùc b»ng nh÷ng viÖc c¶i c¸ch ®Ó hoµn thiÖn c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cho sù ®Çu t• n•íc ngoµi qua sù h×nh thµnh mét c¬ cÊu luËt ph¸p míi vµ c¸c thñ tôc hµnh ch¸nh thÝch hîp h¬n. Phã Thñ t•íng nãi: ‘‘ Chóng t«i hiÓu ®•îc lµ ViÖt Nam ®ang ®èi phã víi nh÷ng thö th¸ch lín lao cña sù c¹nh tranh kinh tÕ toµn cÇu vµ nh• thÕ chóng t«i ph¶i cè g¾ng thËt tÝch cùc ®Ó g¹t bá ®i mèi nguy c¬ tôt hËu ®»ng sau c¸c n•íc l¸ng giÒng.’’ ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into English 123 1. The manufacturing sector expanded significantly during the post-World War II reconstruction of the Philippine economy. Government controls on imports promoted the development of light industries that produced consumer goods for the domestic market. In the 1970s the government created four special economic zones designed to stimulate manufacturing for the export market. Industries in these export-processing zones receive incentives to produce traditional exports. The zones have helped to stimulate foreign investment in the Philippine economy, in part because they are exempt from certain taxes and restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses. The success of these zones has led to the creation of other types of special economic zones, such as large industrial estates. Businesses receive tax exemptions and other incentives in these zones. The former U.S. naval base at Subic Bay, for example, is now a huge industrial-commercial zone in Manila. Its modern facilities and duty-free economic zone have attracted new export-focused industries and foreign investment 2. Vietnam has sought to maintain socio-politic stability, develop economic and diplomatic establishment in recent years. The positive legal changes have had a tremendous influence on the production, financial and commercial situations. Vietnam ranked as the world‟s second- largest rice exporter to Thailand because its agriculture responded dramatically to free market. In manufacturing and service activities the rapid growth and change occurred in and around HCM City. Much economic expansion was partially driven by an influx of investment and technology from some 2 million overseas Vietnamese in many different countries worldwide, most of whom had returned to Vietnam for their investment and contacts with their relatives. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola, which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law, have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Local detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2005, have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. 3. To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First, the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and cigarettes. Second, licenses should be granted only to JVs or foreign-owned enterprises which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced technology or producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. 4. In Vietnamese the word “nuoc” carry a double meaning of “country” and “water”, a linguistic association recognizable after a journey to the most fertile land in Vietnam- the Mekong Delta. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country source of food as well as the local inhabitants‟ riverside lifestyle. For tourists, the Mekong Delta is one of the most fascinating tourist destinations in South-east Asia. It offers the marvel of the glittering waters coupled with the gaiety of a culture demonstrated by the local lifestyle and commercial activities. The big cities such as Can Tho, 124 My Tho and Long Xuyen provide a vantage for the nine provinces of the Mekong Delta while the immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this region. The exciting life in this region is not very similar to that in HCM City. However, it does not suggest any difficulty in reaching the Mekong Delta to escape the excitement of the greatest city in Southern Vietnam. It takes only a three-hour drive( by bus, though) on the National Highway Number 1 to get to My Tho, the capital of Tien giang & an ideal departure point for exploring this delta region. 125 REFERENCES Bolinger, Dwight. 1977. Meaning and Form. Longman, London, UK. Catford, J.C. 1985. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Halliday, M.K.A. 1976. Cohesion in English. Longmans, London, UK. Larson, Mildred L. 1998. Meaning-based Translation.University Press of America. Maryland, USA. Newmark, Peter. 1989. A Textbook of Translation. Prentice Hall International, Hertfordside, USA Palmer, F.R. 1981. Semantics. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. Reyburn, D. 1979. Cultural Equivalences in Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Rose, Marilyn. 1982. Translation Spectrum. State University of NY Press, New York, USA Steiner, G. 1985. Aspects of Language and Translation. Oxford University Press, London, UK. Tosh, Wayne. 1975. Syntactic Translation. The Hague, Mouton, USA CONTENTS Introduction 1 Chapter 1: THEORY OF TRANSLATION 2 Lesson 1: Form and Meaning 2 Lesson 2: Kinds of Translation 11 Lesson 3: Steps in a Translation Project 21 Lesson 4: Strategies for Translators 27 Lesson 5: Patterns and Sources of Errors 34 Chapter 2: ASSIGNMENTS 49 Assignment 1 49 Assignment 2 51 Assignment 3 54 Assignment 4 55 Assignment 5 57 Assignment 6 58 Assignment 7 59 Assignment 8 60 Assignment 9 61 Assignment 10 62 Assignment 11 63 Assignment 12 65 Assignment 13 66 Assignment 14 67 Assignment 15 68 Assignment 16 70 Assignment 17 71 Assignment 18 73 Assignment 19 73 Assignment 20 74 Assignment 21 76 Assignment 22 77 Assignment 23 78 Assignment 24 78 Assignment 25 79 Chapter 2: ASSIGNMENT KEYS 81 Assignment 1 81 Assignment 2 82 Assignment 3 84 Assignment 4 85 Assignment 5 86 Assignment 6 87 Assignment 7 89 Assignment 8 90 Assignment 8 90 Assignment 10 91 Assignment 11 92 Assignment 12 94 Assignment 13 95 Assignment 14 96 Assignment 15 98 Assignment 16 100 Assignment 17 101 Assignment 18 102 Assignment 19 103 Assignment 20 104 Assignment 21 105 Assignment 22 106 Assignment 23 106 Assignment 24 107 Assignment 25 107 References 109 Thông tin về tác giả của giáo trình: - Họ và tên: Nguyễn Văn Tuấn - Sinh năm: 1963 - Cơ quan công tác: Tổ Biên-phiên dịch, Khoa Tiếng Anh, Trường Đại học Ngoại Ngữ Huế - Địa chỉ email: Phạm vi và đối tượng sử dụng giáo trình: - Giáo trình Translation 1&2 chủ yếu sử dụng để dạy cho sinh viên ngành Tiếng Anh, chuyên ngành Biên phiên dịch. Giáo trình này còn có thể dùng để dạy hoặc dùng như nguồn tham khảo cho sinh viên ngành Quốc tế học, Việt Nam học. - Giáo trình có thể dùng cho các trường Đại học ngoại ngữ, Đại học sư phạm ngoại ngữ, Học viện quan hệ quốc tế. - Yêu cầu kiến thức trước lúc học môn này: Để học tốt môn này, người học cần phải có kiến thức cơ bản về ngữ nghĩa, ngữ dụng và diễn ngôn. Ngoài ra người học cần có kinh nghiệm ít nhiều về công tác biên-phiên dịch hoặc là đang tham gia công việc này hoặc là sinh viên đang học các môn biên-phiên dịch thực hành - Các từ khóa để tra cứu: Source language, Target language, Meaning-based translation, Literal translation, Translation errors, Exegesis, Translation evaluation, Strategies for translators, Paraphrase, The 4 T's in translation - Đã xuất bản năm 2001 tại NXB Đại học Huế, tái bản năm 2006 tại NXB Đà Nẵng ._.

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