Leadership styles of university managers toward job satisfaction, work commitment and behavioral outcome

i SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines Socialist Republic of Vietnam LEADERSHIP STYLES OF UNIVERSITY MANAGERS TOWARD JOB SATISFACTION, WORK COMMITMENT AND BEHAVIORAL OUTCOME A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School, Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines and Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Phi

pdf102 trang | Chia sẻ: huong20 | Ngày: 17/01/2022 | Lượt xem: 14 | Lượt tải: 0download
Tóm tắt tài liệu Leadership styles of university managers toward job satisfaction, work commitment and behavioral outcome, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
ilosophy in Educational Management by PHI DINH KHUONG (NADAL) April 2014 ii APPROVAL SHEET This dissertation entitled “Leadership Styles of University Managers Toward Job Satisfaction, Work Commitment and Behavioral Outcome” submitted by PHI DINH KHUONG, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education Management been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval. DR. BELLA MUELLO Adviser Approved by the Oral Examination Committee, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Management by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam DR. ............................................................................................................. DR. ....................................... DR. ............................................... Critic Reader............................................................................................... Chairman Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Management by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam .......................................................................................................... Dean, Graduate School Date _________________ iii ACKNOWLEGDEMENT The researcher wishes to express his heartfelt appreciation and gratitude to: Dr. Cecilia N. Gascon, President of the Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines for permission of training for Doctor of Philosophy in Educatinal Managenent in International training center, Thai Nguyen University; Dr. Dang Kim Vui, President of Thai Nguyen University for allowance the training for Doctor of Philosophy in Educatinal Managenent in International training center, Thai Nguyen University; Dr. Bella R Muello, his research adviser, who from the very preparation of the study had always been there to give valuable suggestions and ideas for the completion of this study; Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa, for sharing her statistical skills in evaluating this study and suggestions; Dr. Tran Thanh Van, head of postgraduate, Thai Nguyen University and Dr. Dang Xuan Binh, director of International training center for their kind support throughout the course of this study; Leaders of universities and colleges in Thai Nguyen for providing respondents and for their untiring support to pursue this study; Dr........................................................................, Prof........................................................... , members of the panel, for their precious suggestions and supports for the completion of this study; Dr.................................................................., who served as critic reader during the oral defense, for his comments and suggestions; Mr................................................................................. for his proficient insights and valuable suggestions in the finalization of this study; iv ITC staff, for providing the necessary research materials; His beloved mother and wife for the encouragement, help and moral support as his sources of strength and inspiration; The teacher – respondents of the study, for their active involvement and cooperation; and To all who have contributed to make this study a success. LXT v TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ............................................................................................................ APPROVAL SHEET ................................................................................................ ACKNOWLEDGMENT .......................................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................... LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................. ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. Chapter I. INTRODUCTIOIN Background of the Study ........................................................................................... Objectives of the Study ............................................................................................. Hypothesis ................................................................................................................ Significance of the Study .......................................................................................... Scope and Limitation of the Study ........................................................................... Definition of Terms .................................................................................................. Chapter II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES Conceptual/ Theoretical Framework ........................................................................ Research Paradigm ................................................................................................... Chapter III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Locale of the Study ................................................................................................... Research Design ....................................................................................................... Population and Sampling .......................................................................................... Instrumentation ......................................................................................................... Data Gathering Procedures ....................................................................................... Statistical Treatment ................................................................................................. Chapter IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .......................................................... Chapter V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary ................................................................................................................... Findings .................................................................................................................... Conclusions ............................................................................................................... Recommendations ..................................................................................................... BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................ APPENDICES...................................................................................... RESEARCHER’S PROFILE .................................................................................... page i ii iii v vi vii viii 2 4 5 5 6 6 23 44 45 46 47 49 49 50 54 60 61 61 62 64 67 73 vi LIST OF TABLES 1. Frequency, Percentage and Distribution of the Respondents............. 2. Mean Distribution of Responses as to Ethical Leadership................ 3. Mean Distribution of the Responses as to Job Satisfaction 4. Mean Distribution of Responses Commitment to work....................... 5. Mean Distribution of Responses Behavioral Outcomes...................... 47 53 54 56 58 vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Research Paradigm ...... 2 Location of Respondent Colleges and University in Thai Nguyen Province.. 49 51 viii AB STRACT Title of Dissertation : Leadership Styles Towards Job Satisfaction, Work Commitment and Behavioral Outcome Researcher : Complete Name (NADAL) Adviser : Dr. Bella R. Muello Academic Year : April 2014 This research determined to find out the most dominant leadership style and to correlate it with job satisfaction, work commitment and behavioral outcome. It answered the following objectives: 1. Determine the most dominant leadership style; 2. Ascertain the level of job satisfaction of the respondents; 3. Find out the degree of work commitment; 4. Find out the behavioral outcome of the subjects; and 5. Correlate the most dominant leadership styles with the three variables. It used the descriptive correlation type of research where 300 respondents from Thai Nguyen University were utilized. Random sampling was used. The gathered data were computed using weighted mean, rank, and chi- square. Based from the interpreted data the following findings were drawn: 1. Transformational leadership style is the most dominant with an AWM of 3.36 (SA). 2. The level of job satisfaction is very satisfied with an AWM of 3.27. 3. AWM of 3.34 was obtained in level of commitment to work (Vc) 4. On behavioral outcomes, it got an AWM of 3:30 (strongly agree) 5. With a chi-square of 3.65, 1.23 and 4.26 consecutively on the three variables, it revealed that the computed value is higher than the critical value at .01 level of significance, thus the null hypothesis is rejected. From the findings, the following conclusions were made: 1. the most dominant leadership style is transformational leadership 2. The respondents are highly satisfied on the level of job satisfaction 3. The degree of work commitment is very evident. 4. The respondents practice good behavior in ix their work. 5. The correlation between transformational leadership and the three variables are positively related. In view of the results of the study, the researcher recommends to use different samples coming from another institution to prove the reliability of the findings. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION In recent years, the leaders in Thai Nguyen University have paid considerable attention to education and university performance as key to sustainable development and stability. Such recognition makes education an indispensable means for effective participation not only in the socio-economic development of the country but also in the on- going rapid globalization. Throughout the years, it has been the goal of the educational system in Thai Nguyen to regard education as instrument for excellence for national development. It follows therefore that the realization of the country’s educational policies and the performance of the administrators, lecturers and students at all levels of the system are intertwined. The kind of education can be reflected on the leadership style of managers. In any organization the leader behavior is partly reflected on how their constituents perform. Their roles and expectations can induce change in the behavior of the members. Their commitment to do their job can also be ascertained on how they accomplished their duties. More so, their job satisfaction can also be observed. As such the success of any work group or organization depends on leadership. A major factor in an effective university is a strong leader who steers the organization toward the achievement of the mission. Background of the study Thai Nguyen University (TNU) established by Decree No. 31 dated on April 4 th 1994 of the Government on the basis of the arrangement, reorganization of the university and vocational training under the Ministry of Education and Training in Thai Nguyen. Currently TNU consists of seven universities, one college and two faculties, a defense 2 education center, a learning resource center, publisher, hospital and high university for practicing, the functional and scientific units for training and research. The establishment of TNU is implementing the guiding ideology of the party expressed through resolutions of the eighth National Party Congress, which is to build training centers for research education and high-quality technology transferring in the region. For over 10 years, the consistent policy of the Party and the State is to build and develop TNU and in fact, TNU has demonstrated the role, his position in the Vietnamese higher education system, particularly with the midlands and mountainous areas of northern Vietnam. Currently, at TNU there are 2587 teaching staff, including 230 doctors, 2 professors, 65 associate professors, over 780 masters and 200 PhD students, percentage of lecturers on the payroll process postgraduate degree from universities accounted for 66%. Facilities, equipment and service of scientific and technological research of TNU are now considered fairly uniform and modern with 03 research institutes, 01 research centers and transferring technology, 07 key laboratories equipped with fairly uniform and modern. In addition, There are Learning Resource Center, Publisher, Hospital Center for practicing and 05 centers, 01 Co., Ltd. belongs to the members. TNU not only contributes positively to the training of highly qualified human resources for the country, but also has an important role in scientific research, technology transferring for training and socio-economic development of the country. At TNU, teaching staff is common to share, teaches at the university and teaching units according to the needs of each unit. Despite this truth, records have shown that students performance in Thai Nguyen among other students in other regions, for example, Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh City is quite below average. Hence, principals and teachers of the university as a whole are held 3 accountable for such malady. The government’s inability to effectively sponsor education and motivate teachers to enhance their productivity is another factor viewed. Additionally, principals’ leadership style might tremendously influence how scholastic performance progresses. Manner and approach of providing values, vision, voice and virtue define what ethical leadership is. With varying extent from authoritarian, participative to delegative (Lewin, 2000), one is not said to be effective over the others. Nevertheless, it depends upon what is more acceptable and workable in the university system. Likewise, leadership, being a factor to the upliftment of university performance, has been at the care of much research and controversy for so many years. Taking leadership and all the variables as a whole, the university performance can be best viewed in a clearer and more thorough perspective. In effect, monitoring of the university’s performance in the locality makes this research even more imperative. Objectives of Study The main purpose of this was to find out the dominant leadership style of the principal which influence the level of job satisfaction, commitment and behavioral outcomes of the respondents at Thai Nguyen University year 2012 – 2013. Specifically, it was conducted to: 1. Determine the dominant leadership style of principals as perceived by the respondents. 2. Find out the level of job satisfaction of the respondents 3. Ascertain the commitment to work of the respondents 4. Find out the behavioral outcomes of the respondents 5. Correlate the dominant leadership style with these three mentioned variables. Null Hypothesis 4 None of the above mentioned variables predict ethical leadership style of school manager. Significance of the Study This study attempts to know the influence of the dominant leadership style toward the level of job satisfaction, work commitment and behavioral outcome. With this is mind, this study will be beneficial to the following: Leaders. It is hoped that the study may contribute in giving a new dimension in the administration and supervision of Thai Nguyen University. The study would provide leaders with a clear idea on how effective and successful the principals are in the work as university administrators. In the same manner, their ethical leadership could give a fresh perspective in terms of its influence to the overall university standing in the academic aspect. Teachers. The outcome of the study is of great help to teachers because they will be made aware of the different leadership styles that would affect changes and improvements of the university. The researcher may contribute to a new avenue in her search for better ways to improve oneself and her work environment. In this way, it would ultimately lead to a better quality performance in the teaching force. Students. They will be benefited by this study since they are the main concerns of educators and any wholesome environment and relationship could create positive effect on the teaching and learning process. The researcher hopes that the results and findings of the study will bring understanding and harmonious relationship among members of Thai Nguyen University . Future Researchers. This study could provide references for future proponents who wish to venture a study similar to the nature of this ongoing research. Thus, basic tenets on ethical leadership and its variables could serve as resources for other studies. 5 Scope and Limitation of the Study This study was concerned on the dominant leadership traits of university managers towards job satisfaction, work commitment and behavioral outcomes of the respondents of Thai Nguyen University. There were 255 teachers used as respondents with questionnaire and interview as the main instruments in gathering the data. Definition of Terms For a better understanding of this study, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally: Behavioral outcomes refer to the attitudinal manifestation of the respondents on any decision or activation of their leaders. Commitment to works refers to the dedication of the respondents to fulfill his/her duties. Charismatic leadership refers to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person. Ethical leadership refers to the proactive efforts to influence followers’ ethical and unethical behavior. Job satisfaction refers to the feeling of fulfillment in the workplace such as security, good working condition and relationship of the leader to his constituents. Leadership is responsible for influencing followers to perform an action, complete a task or behave in a specific manner. Leadership style focuses on identifying personality traits associated with effective leadership and understanding the impact of situational factors on the leadership process (Chemers & Ayman, 1993). Transformational style encourages subordinates to put in extra effort to go beyond what his subordinates expected from him (Burne, 1978). 6 Transactional style focuses mainly on the physical and the security needs of his subordinates. The relation that evolves between the leaders and the follower is based on bargaining exchange or reward system (Bass, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1993). 7 Chapter II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the relevant readings and related literature which bear significance and similarities in this study. This also includes the discussion of variables, theoretical framework, research paradigm that could help the readers to fully understand the context of this study. Leadership Leadership has deep roots in virtue, and leaders are key organizational members who have extensive influence and power (Barling et al., 2010). Leaders have the “potentialto exert moral authority that contributesto the flourishing of organizational members,”and they “can be purveyors of virtue or vice” (Neubert et al., 2009, p. 157). Bass and Steidlmeier (1999) asserted that leadership is a “moral compass”(p. 193) and that a leader’s moral character, ethical values, choices, and actions are the “pillars” of leadership (p. 181). We assert that character strengths provide a comprehensive framework, systematic approach, and a common language (Park & Peterson, 2008) to further assess this potential. Our research uses this scaffolding to test character strengths’ semantic and practical contributions to our existing nomological network regarding leadership.Through their focus on the virtuous, moral, ethical, and relational aspects of leadership, three well - studied models of leadership theory share the greatest conceptual similarities with our proposed construct of leader character: transformational leadership (Bass, 1985), ethical leadership (Brown,Trevino, & Harrison, 2005), and leader - member exchange (Graen & Uhl - Bien, 1995). Ethical leadership is defined by social learning theory and represents “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct”(Brown et al., 2005, p. 120). As such, ethical leaders exert a positive, “virtuous 8 influence” on followers through role modeling and relationship - building (Neubert et al., 2009, p. 165) and contribute to a “win - win” environment for both businesses and employees (Ruiz - Palomino, Ruiz - Amaya, & Knưrr, 2011). Charismatic Leadership Charismatic Leadership is a leadership style that is recognizable but may be perceived with less tangibility than other leadership styles. This reality is likely due to the difficulty associated with directly defining charisma in an individual when only examining the individual. Max Weber’s work in defining charisma led to his categorizing charisma as an untraditional form of influence where the leader possesses exceptional qualities as perceived by his or her followers (Yukl, 2010). Charisma is often a trait that one perceives in another, but difficulty describing that perception without directly referencing particular behaviors, traits, or individual characteristics is common (Conger & Kanungo, 1987). Yukl (2010) notes, “Follower attribution of charismatic qualities to a leader is jointly determined by the leader’s behavior, expertise, and aspects of the situation” (Kindle Location 6939). Exceptional behaviors and expertise aside, contextual factors such as a crisis play a significant role in the attribution of charisma (Conger & Kanungo, 1987). Therefore, the basic premise of this study is that followers will attribute charisma to a leader when that leader possesses exceptional behavior and expertise and when the situational context is conducive. Ronald Reagan is used as an exemplar of charismatic leadership. Reagan’s communication skills, visionary attributes, integrity, humor, expertise, and the situational context of his presidency willbe examined, pertaining to how followers attributed charisma to him. Effective communication is an essential quality in any leadership style. In that regard, charismatic leadership is no different, but charismatic leaders act differently than noncharismatic leaders (Fiol, 1999). For the charismatic leader, effective 9 communication requires more than merely the dissemination of information. To be effective, charismatics often include emotional appeals within their rhetoric (Yukl, 2010). This includes the use of dramatic, symbolic, and metaphoric language that lends credibility to the communication (Conger & Kanungo, 1987). Ideas, thoughts, and concepts must be articulated in an inspirational and motivating manner (Conger, Kanungo, & Menon, 2000). When charismatics communicate with passion, emotion, inspiration, and motivation, followers are likely to attribute charisma. Additionally, charismatics must appear confident and communicate that self-confidence in their rhetorical efforts. This is especially true for distant charismatic leaders who only communicate with followers through media such as television, radio, or Internet (Yukl, 2010). Therefore, it is expected that a charismatic leader would be recognized for exciting and passionate public oratory. The methods of this communication are integral to the attribution of charisma. The message is obviously important, but the importance of the delivery of the message supersedes that of the message itself. Charismatic leaders may be best known and/or remembered for rousing public speeches where the crowd became frenzied with excitement. Charismatic leaders must also bridge the distance gap and effectively communicate through a variety of media in order to be considered charismatic by larger groups of people. The first scholar to discuss charismatic leadership was Max Weber. In particular, he discussed three types of authority as forms of control that people will accept: traditional, legal/rational, and charismatic. Weber (1947, pp. 358 ± 359) defined charisma as being set apart from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities ¼ regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual con- cerned is treated as a leader. Despite the important influence of Webers work on researchers thinking about 10 organizations, his work on charisma lay dormant until the mid 1970s. Robert House (1977) further developed Weber concept in articulating a theory of charismatic leadership that, at its core, argued that followers use an attributional process regarding their leaders. Based on certain behaviors displayed by leaders, followers attribute extraordinary or heroic leadership abilities to those leaders. Based on Houses theory, researchers then began to uncover and identify key characteristics of charismatic leadership. A widely accepted framework is that of Conger and Kanun go (1998), who explain that charismatic leadership is typified by four key characteristics: possessing and articulating a vision, willing to take risks to achieve the vision, exhibiting sensitivity to follower needs, and demonstrating novel behavior. Three interesting conceptual issues are worthy of discussion here. First, much of the work on charismatic leadership has eschewed the Weberian perspective that charismatic leaders are rare or extraordinary. Conger (1989, p. 161), for example, opined that charisma ªis not some magical ability limited to a handful.º As Trice and Beyer (1986) and Beyer (1999) noted, charismatic leadership has been tamed in that it is assumed that charisma is a property possessed by all individuals, to a greater or lesser degree. On the one hand, if we are to empirically study charismatic leadership, we cannot do so based on the assumption that it is a quality held by a handful of individuals (there are not enough such leaders to study). On the other hand, if charisma is seen as relatively prosaic, have we damaged the concept? Clearly, the charismatic qualities of political leaders from Lincoln to Hitler, religious leaders from Martin Luther to Pope John Paul II, and business leaders from Estle Lauder to Jack Welch, do not seem to be a general commodity. Second, some researchers would distinguish charisma as a trait or personal quality from the charismatic leader- ship process. House, for example, argues in favor of the latter (House, 1977). Locke and colleagues, conversely, clearly distinguish a charismatic 11 communication style from other leadership qualities (e.g., see Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1996). This is a topic to which we return later. Finally, though Conger (1990) has often described the dark side of charismatic leadership, judging from the research literature, he seems like a lone voice. As the afore mentioned examples of charismatic leaders suggest, however, charismatic leadership seemingly can be used for either good or bad ends, depending on ones perspective and the hindsight of history. It seems obvious that charismatic leadership is neither inherently good nor evil, but the implicit assumption in the literature has been that it is a positive force in organizations. Transactional style Transactional Leadership, also known as managerial lea dership, focuses on the role of supervision, organisation, and group performance; transactional leadership is a style of leadership in which the leader promotes compliance of his followers through both rewards and punishments. Unlike transformational leadership, leaders using the transactional approach are not looking to change the future, they are looking to merely keep things the same. These leaders pay attention to followers' work in order to find faults and deviations. This type of leadership is effective in crisis and emergency situations, as well as when projects need to be carried out in a specific fashion. Within the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, transactional leadership works at the basic levels of need satisfaction, where transactional leaders focus on the lower levels of the hierarchy. Transactional leaders use an exchange model, with rewards being given for good work or positive outcomes. Conversely, people with this leadership style also can punish poor work or negative outcomes, until the problem is corrected. One way that transactional leadership focuses on lower level needs is by stressing specific task performance (Hargis et al, 2001). Transactional leaders are effective 12 in getting specific tasks completed by managing each portion individually. Transactional leaders are concerned with processes rather than forward-thinking ideas. These types of leaders focus on contingent reward (also known as contingent positive reinforcement) or contingent penalization (also known as contingent negative reinforcement). Contingent rewards (such as praise) are given when the set goals are accom...and Julian, 1969) 1.3 The process of influencing and organized group toward accomplishing its goal (Roach and Behling, 1984) 1.4 Transforming followers, creating visions of the goals they may attaining and articulating the ways to attain those goals (Bass, 1985, Tichy and Devanna, 1986) 1.5 An interpersonal relation in which others comply because they want to, not because they have to (Merton, 1969; Hogan, Curphy and Hogan, 1996) 1.6 Actions that focus resources to create desirable opportunities (Campbell, 1996). When defining leadership, it is but natural to look at the relationship between it and management. Management is associated in many people’s minds with words like efficiency, planning, paperwork, procedures, regulations, control and consistency. Leadership is associated more with words like risk taking, dynamic creativity, change and vision. Leaders manage and managers lead but the two activities are not synonymous. According o classical management theories, the purpose of management is to keep complex human system running optionally in line with established criteria. Thus, managers traditionally have been thought to perform the planning, investigating, coordinating, 27 organizing, and controlling functions in an organization (Davis, 1942; Machenzie ,1969; Mahoney, Jerdee and Carroll, 1965) Management theories have paid relatively little attention to the face to face interactions manager have with followers in order to accomplish organizational goals. This face to face interaction with the followers are generally seen as leadership function; leaders focus more on resolving conflicts in groups, providing emotional support to group members, maintaining group cohesiveness and satisfaction and working with group members to set group goals. (Bales, 1958; Bass, 1990; Mann, 1965) Bennis (1985) characterized managers as people who do things right and leaders as who do right things. Several more follow ( Bennis, 1989). 1. Managers administer; leaders innovative 2. Managers maintain; leaders develop 3. Managers control; leader inspire 4. Managers have a short-term view; leaders, along time view 5. Managers ask how and when; leaders ask what and why 6. Managers initiate, leaders originate 7. Managers accept the status quo; leaders challenge it Leadership styles- are approach a manager use to influence others. These elements of a manager’s leadership style are composed of three parts: how they choose to motivate, their decision making styles and their areas of emphasis (orientation) in the work environment. 1. Positive or Negative Motivation Leaders influence others toward goal achievement through their approach to motivation. Positive leadership style deals in praise and recognition, monetary rewards, 28 increase of security and the addition od responsibility. Negative leadership emphasizes penalties; loss of the job, suspension and public reprimands. Positive leadership styles encourage development of workers through the creation of higher job satisfaction while negative leadership styles are based on threats and the ability to withhold items of value from employees. Autocratic leadership style- the main consideration of this type of leadership style is a strong emphasis on the task (production) and little concern for people. Decision- making is solely made by the manager and announces it to the work group. Participative leadership- a leadership style where there is a large amount of concern for both production and people. This style is characterized by the manager’s involving the subordinates in the decision. The involvement in decision making is a matter of degree and can range from the first to the last four levels of participation that follow: 1. The manager presents a tentative solution subject to change based on employee input. 2. The manager presents a problem to the employees, solicits their input and makes the decision. 3. The manager defines the limit of the problem and the employees make the decision 4. The manager and the employees jointly make the decision. The free-rein style of leadership or laiszes faire is a leadership style in which the leader shares power with subordinates by basically permitting them to establish their own goals and to be responsible for their own performance. It can work with some professionals, but it is too unstructured in most situations. This style is characterized by the leaders’ encouraging the individual or group to function independently. In this style, the 29 leaders’ role is to serve as a logistics specialist or representative of the group outside groups. 2. Task Orientation and Employee Orientation The final element of leadership is the manager’s perspective on the most effective way of getting work done. There are two key areas of orientation: task and employee orientation. A manager who favor a task orientation places emphasis on getting the job done through better methods or equipment, control of the work environment, assigning and organizing work, one-person decision making and monitoring through evaluation of performance. If this is the sole emphasis of a manager, it could lead to turnover, absenteeism, and decreased job satisfaction. Different approaches of management 1. Contingency theories of Leadership by Fred Fiedler- which emphasizes that no one style of leadership is completely effective for all situations. A task-oriented leadership is completely effective for all situations. A task-oriented leader, for example, performs most effectively in situations that are very favorable for the leader, whereas relation- oriented leaders perform most effectively on situations that are moderately favorable to the leader. He holds that the most appropriate style of leadership depends on the situation in which a manager works; Situational favorableness was described by Fiedler in terms of three empirically derived dimensions: 1. The leader-member relationship, which refers to the degree to which the leaders is or feels accepted by the group. 30 2. The degree of task structure concerns the nature of the subordinate’s job or task. It reflects the degree of structure in the job: a structured job would have complexity and variety and room for creativity. 3. The leader position power describes the organizational power based from which the individual manager operates. To what degree can the leader punish or reward within the organization? The power can range from strong (vice president of marketing) to weak (second staff assistant). A close examination of Fiedler’s model will show us that task-oriented leaders perform best with either low or high concentrations of power and influence. Employee-oriented leaders perform best with moderate power, control and influence over a situation. 2. Path Goal Theory of leadership is a situational theory that recognizes that employees are motivated to the extent that the leader helps them to attain their goal. It is concerned with the ways in which a leader can influence a subordinate’s motivation, goals and attempts at achievement. It suggests that a leadership style is effective or ineffective on the basis of how the leader influences the perceptions of: 1. work goals or reward of subordinates 2. paths (behaviors) that lead to successful goal accomplishment According to Robert House and Terrence Mithchell, subordinates are motivated by a leader’s behavior. This behavior influences both goal attractiveness and the paths available to reach the goals. Their theory contains two propositions concerning leader behavior: 1. Leader behavior is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that they view such behavior as either an immediate source of satisfaction or an instrument to future satisfaction. 31 2. Leader behavior will increase subordinates efforts if it links satisfaction of their needs to effective performance, and is supportive of their efforts to achieve goal performance. Briefly, the House version of the theory incorporates four major types or styles of leadership. They are as follows: 1. Directive or instrumental leadership- subordinates know exactly what is expected of them and the leader gives specific directions. There is no participation by subordinates. 2. Supportive leadership- the leader is friendly and approachable and shows a genuine concerns for subordinates. It is concerned for the welfare and needs of subordinates. 3. Participative leadership- it involves using subordinates ideas in decision making. 4. Achievement-oriented leadership- involves both developing a highly challenging climate for an employee and demanding good performance. The leader sets challenging goals for subordinates and shows confidence that they will attain these goals and perform well. 3. Transformational Leadership Theory by Burns and Bass (1994) refers to a leader who is able to touch the needs and values of his/her followers in a way that raises the motivational levels of all concerned and often turns them in a new direction. Burns identified two types of political leadership, transactional and transformational (Howel and Avelis, 1992). The more traditional transactional leadership involves an exchange relationship between leaders and followers, but tarsnformational leadership is based more on leaders’ shifting the values, beliefs, and needs of their followers. 32 On the basis of Bass’ (1990) findings, he conducts that in many instances, transactional leadership is a prescription for mediocrity and that transformational leadership leads to superior performance in organizations facing demands for renewal and change. He suggest that fostering transformational leadership through policies of recruitment, selection, promotion, training and development will pay off in the health, well-being and effective performance of today’s organization. Characteristics and Approaches of Transactional Versus Transformational Leaders Transactional Leaders 1. Contingent reward: contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. 2. Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes coercive action. 3. Management by exception (passive) intervenes only if standards are not met. 4. Laissez faire: abdicates responsibilities, avoid making decision. Transformational Leaders 1. Charisma: provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. 2. Inspiration: communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. 3. Intellectual stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality and careful problem solving. 4. Individual consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises. It must be understood that transformational leadership is an improved modification of transactional leadership. This occurs to meet the challenge of dramatic changes in every 33 organization- as from the traditional ways to more contemporary or modernized aspect in management. 3. Theory X or Theory Y- What is Our Style? Do you believe that the human beings are basically lazy, that they are interested only in their own benefit, and only work because they have to? Do you, therefore, see your leadership role with subordinates as prodding, pushing and checking to see that they do their work? Management theorist, Douglas McGregor, developed theoretical models relating to the management of human enterprise after studying Maslow’s now-famous hierarchy of human needs. McGregor labeled managers as “Theory X” and “Theory Y” managers. He theorized that the day behavior of the immediate superior clearly communicates his or her basic assumptions about human nature to subordinates. To assess whether you are fundamentally a Theory X or a Theory Y leader, answer these four pairs of questions relating to your feelings about the true nature of people: 1. Are people fundamentally lazy so that they must be pushed to work? Or 2. Are people fundamentally willing to work on meaningful tasks? 3. Are people basically shy and interested only in the welfare of others? 4. Do people respond best when they are disciplined and controlled? Or 5. Do people respond best when given a degree of freedom and responsibility? 6. Are people really not interested in their jobs and working primarily because they have to? Or 7. Are people really interested in the quality of their professional and personal lives? If you choose the first question of each fair, you lean toward a Theory X of your managerial role. Those choosing the second question of each pair tend to have a Theory Y perception of their managerial roles. 34 Job satisfaction Leader’s satisfaction is to satisfy the job. People bring mental and physical abilities and time to their jobs. Many try to make a difference in their lives and in the lives of others through working. The reason for wanting a job is often considerably more than just a paycheck. Jobs can be looked at as the means used to achieve personal goals. When a job meets or exceeds an individual’s expectation, the individual often experiences positive emotions. These positive emotions represent job satisfaction. Job satisfaction in turn is a major contributor to life satisfaction (Smith, 1992), a personal goal that many find worth pursuing. Job satisfaction may be compared to another source of life satisfaction— marriage. When people lack marriage satisfaction or experience dissatisfaction in their union, they often get a divorce. It is similar with the relationship between employee and employer. “Take this job and shove it!” is not only a recorded blue-collar anthem by Johnny Paycheck during the 1980s, but also an illustration of the sentiments and actions of many people who are dissatisfied with their jobs overall or with certain aspects of their jobs. To grasp the meaning of a construct like job satisfaction, it seems logical to look at how it is defined in the literature. The search for a universal definition of job satisfaction is not difficult one; it is an impossible one. Even though many researchers define job satisfaction, the definitions vary. Hoppock’s, Locke’s, and Vroom’s. In the thirties, Hoppock’s (1935) response to the question What is job satisfaction?’ was: “any combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, ‘I am satisfied with my job’” (p. 47). Locke’s (1976) answer to the same question in the seventies was: “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (p. 1300). Vroom (1982), who used the terms “job satisfaction” and “job attitudes” interchangeably, defined job satisfaction as “...affective orientations on the part of individuals toward work roles which 35 they are presently occupying” (p. 99). Even though the definitions vary, a commonality among them seems to be that job satisfaction is a job-related emotional reaction. Spector (1997) presented three reasons to clarify the importance of job satisfaction. First, organizations can be directed by humanitarian values. Based on these values they will attempt to treat their employees honorably and with respect. Job satisfaction assessment can then serve as an indicator of the extent to which employees are dealt with effectively. High levels of job satisfaction could also be a sign of emotional wellness or mental fitness. Second, organizations can take on a utilitarian position in which employees’ behavior would be expected to influence organizational operations according to the employees’ degree of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction can be expressed through positive behaviors and job dissatisfaction through negative behaviors. Third, job satisfaction can be an indicator of organizational operations. Assessment of job satisfaction might identify various levels of satisfaction among organizational departments and, therefore, be helpful in pinning down areas in need of improvement. Spector (1997) believed that each one of the reasons is validation enough of the significance of job satisfaction and that the combination of the reasons provides an understanding of the focus on job satisfaction. Spector, of course, is only one of many researchers, scholars, and writers who addressed the importance of job satisfaction. His reasons appear to be representative of many views on the importance of the concept in other major works (i.e., Bruce & Blackburn, 1992; Cranny et al., 1992; Gruneberg, 1976; Hopkins, 1983) dealing with job satisfaction. Commitment to work Organizational scientists have developed many definitions of commitment, especially, organizational commitment, and numerous scales to measure them. Exemplary of this work is Meyer & Allen's model of commitment, which was developed to integrate numerous definitions of commitment that had proliferated in the research literature. 36 According to Meyer and Allen's (1991) three component model of commitment, prior research indicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employee's commitment to the organization: Affective Commitment: AC is defined as the employee's emotional attachment to the organization. As a result, he or she strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. This employee commits to the organization because he/she "wants to". In developing this concept, Meyer and Allen drew largely on Mowday, Porter, and Steers's (1982) concept of commitment. Continuance Commitment: The individual commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of losing organizational membership (cf. Becker's 1960 "side bet theory"), including economic losses (such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) that would have to be given up. The employee remains a member of the organization because he/she "has to". Normative Commitment: The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation. For instance, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels an obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.' It may also reflect an internalized norm, developed before the person joins the organization through family or other socialization processes, that one should be loyal to one's organization. The employee stays with the organization because he/she "ought to". Note that according to Meyer and Allen, these components of commitment are not mutually exclusive: an employee can simultaneously be committed to the organization in an affective, normative, *and* continuance sense, at varying levels of intensity. This idea led Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) to argue that at any point in time, an employee has a "commitment profile" that reflects high or low levels of all three of these mind-sets, and that different profiles have different effects on workplace behavior such as job performance, absenteeism, and the chance that they will quit. The aims of this study is 37 recognition relationship of organizational commitment and that’s component with job satisfaction in manager's, employees, faculty Member, and compare them together to compare manager's organizational commitment, employee and faculty members. As the construct develops and evolves over the years, scholars from the various disciplines give their own conceptual definitions as to how the construct should be conceptually defined. Hall, Scheider and Nygren (1970) define organizational commitment as the “process by which the goals of the organizations and those of the individual become increasingly integrated and congruent”. Sheldon (1971) defines organizational commitment as an attitude or an orientation towards the organizations, which links or attracts the identity of the person to the organizations. Salancik (1977) defines organizational commitment as “a state of being in which an individual becomes bound by actions to beliefs that sustains activities and involvement”. Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian (1974), define organizational commitment as “the strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization”. They characterize it by three psychological factors: desire to remain in an organization, willingness to exert considerable efforts on its behalf and belief in and acceptance of its goals and values hold. Meyer and Allen (1991) hold that organizational commitment is a multidimensional construct comprising three components: affective, continuance and normative. Affective commitment has been defined as an employee’s emotional attachment to identification with and involvement in the organization. Employees with a strong affective commitment will remain in the organization because they want to. Continuance commitment on the other hand has to do with one’s awareness of the costs associated with leaving the present organization. Employees whose commitment is in the nature of continuance will remain in the organization because they have to. The third component, normative commitment has to do with feeling of obligations to the organization based on one’s personal norms and values. 38 Employees whose commitment to the organization is said to be of the normative type remains in the organization simply because they believe they ought to. The factor structure of Allen and Meyer’s (1996) organizational commitment scale has been examined in several studies. Some of these studies include measures from all the three components (affective, continuance, and normative) whilst others focus only on affective commitment measure and/or continuance commitment measure. Studies have provided empirical support to demonstrate that the components are indeed distinguishable from one another (Dunham, Grube & Castaneda, 1994; Mc Gee & Ford, 1987 and Reilly & Orsak, 1991). To date, no empirical effort has been made to test and validate Allen and Meyer’s (1996) organizational commitment scale in a library setting, let alone in a Malaysia academic library setting. Only two studies have been reported in the library and information science literature that dealt with the topic of organizational commitment (Hovekamp, 1994; Rubin & Buttlar, 1992). Rubin and Buttlar (1992) conducted a study to examine the organizational commitment of high school library media specialists in Ohio. They employed Mowday, Porter and Steers’s (1979) organizational commitment questionnaire. Ethical Leader Behavior In the last few years, ethics and integrity have received a growing amount of attention in the leadership field. Both transformational and authentic leadership have been described as containing an ethical component. Related to this, Craig and Gustafson (1998) developed a leader integrity measure that focused more on the negative rather than the positive side of integrity. Integrity shows some conceptual overlap with ethical leadership, yet is only one element of ethical behavior (e.g., Palanski & Yammarino, 2007). Bass (1985) argued that transformational leaders could behave either ethically or unethically and distinguish between authentic (i.e., ethical) transformational and pseudo (i.e, unethical) transformational leadership (Barling, Christie, & Turner, 39 2008; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). Pseudo-transformational leaders have motives or intentions that are not legitimate and aim for undesirable goals. Authenticity, on the other hand, functions as a moral compass emphasizes serving the organization (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). Distinguishing between authentic and pseudo transformational leadership is complicated for followers according to Dasborough and Ashkansy (2002) as the behaviors shown by these two types of transformational leaders are the same, only their intentions vary. A similar distinction is made between socialized and personalized charismatic leadership based on whether leaders act on socialized or personalized power motives (Howell & Avolio, 1992). Price (2003) points out that egoism or personalized motives may not form the only reason why leaders behave unethically. Leaders may, for instance, also behave unethically because (altruistic) values or actions based on (altruistic) values can be inconsistent. To sum up, transformational leadership can be unethical if the motivation is selfish (Bass, 1998), power is misused (McClelland, 1975) or if values do not guide behaviors sufficiently (Price, 2003).27 Chapter 2 Authentic leadership is another form of leadership, which some argue has an ethi-cal element (e.g., Avolio, & Gardner, 2005; May, Chan, Hodges, & Avolio, 2003). However, others do not see morality as a necessary component of authentic leadership (e.g., Shamir, & Eilam, 2005; Sparrowe, 2005). Authentic leadership is described as behaving in line with the true self and to know oneself (e.g., Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005; May, et al., 2003; Sparrowe, 2005). Walumbwa et al. (2008) empirically showed that Brown et al.’s measure of ethical leadership is related, but well distinguishable from authentic leadership. One distinction is that ethical leaders also use transactional forms of leadership and authentic leaders don’t. In other words, ethical leaders discipline and reward (un)ethical behaviors, which is less in line with authentic leadership (Brown et al., 2005; Walumbwa et al., 2008).Researchers have also started to consider ethical leadership as a 40 set of behaviors or a separate leadership style in itself rather than focusing only on the ethical components of other leadership styles (Brown et al., 2005; De Hoogh & Den Hartog, 2008; 2009a; Kanungo, 2001). The fundamentals of ethics according to the Webster dictionary are dealing with what is good and bad, moral duty and moral obligation. This relates closely to how Kanungo (2001) conceptualizes ethical leadership. He takes an altruism approach and addresses ethical leadership as a tension between altruistic and egoistic motives (e.g., Kanungo, 2001; Turner, Barling, Epitropaki, Butcher, & Milner, 2002). This approach suggests that an ethical leader is driven by a system of accepted beliefs and appropriate judgments rather than self-interest, which is beneficial for followers, organizations and society. This way, Kanungo (2001) and Aronson (2001) emphasize the effect of leader’s actions on others as a major concern in ethical leadership. Brown and colleagues (2005) take ethical leadership as a separate style a step further and define ethical leadership as: “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making” (p. 120). Ethical leaders act as role models of appropriate behavior and use reward and punishment to stimulate ethical conduct (Brown et al., 2005; Treviđo et al., 2003). Brown et al. (2005) address ethical leadership from a social learning perspective and suggest that followers will come to behave similar to their leader through imitation and observational learning (cf., Bandura, 1986). In addition to this social learning approach, others view ethical leadership from a social exchange approach (e.g., Mayer, Kuenzi, Greenbaum, Bardes, & Salvador, 2009; Turner et al., 2002). Researchers using a social exchange approach focus more on the norm for reciprocity (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005) and hold that followers are willing to reciprocate when treated fairly and with concern by their leaders (e.g., Mayer 41 et al., 2009). Both views help understand individuals´ reactions to ethical leader behavior. Other perspectives on ethical leadership are also found. For example, Dickson, Smith, Grojean and Ehrhart (2001) focus on the role leaders have in creating an ethical climate and Resick and colleagues (2006) focus on how leaders use their power in decisions and actions. Similarly, De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2009a) emphasize ethical leaders’ socially responsible use of power and see ethical leadership as the process of influencing in a social responsible way others’ activities toward goal achievement. Although Brown and colleagues (2005) suggest a uni-dimensional measure of ethical leader behavior, both Resick et al. (2006) and De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2008) have started to investigate ethical leadership as a multi-dimensional construct. Different leader behaviors have been suggested to be part of ethical leadership, including acting fairly, demonstrating consistency and integrity, promoting ethical conduct, being concerned for people, allowing followers’ voice, and sharing power (Brown et al., 2005; De Hoogh & Den Hartog, 2008; 2009a; Den Hartog & De Hoogh, 2009). De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2009a) argue that ethical leader behavior is multidimensional, and as different ethical leader behaviors are theoretically rather different, they may have different antecedents and consequences. They suggest measuring such dimensions separately is important. Thus, ethical leader behavior may be regarded as an overarching construct composed of multiple distinct, yet related leader behavi.... Leader and managers: International perspectives on managerial behavior and leadership, 36. Tracey, J. B., & Hinkin, T. R. (1998). Transformational leadership or effective managerial practices?. Group & Organization Management, 23(3), 220- 236. Treviđo, L. K., Brown, M., & Hartman, L. P. (2003). A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56(1), 5-37. Trice, H. M., & Beyer, J. M. (1993). The cultures of work organizations. Prentice- Hall, Inc. Tichy N. M., Devanna M. A. 1986. The transformational leader, New York:Wiley. Vroom, V.H. (1982). Work and Motivation, Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company Yammarino, F. J., & Bass, B. M. (1990). Transformational leadership and multiple levels of analysis. Human relations, 43(10), 975-995. 67 Yukl, G.A. (2002) Leadership in Organizations: Fifth Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall. Yukl , Gary A . 2002 . Leadership in Organizations . 5th ed . Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall . B. Periodical, Journal and Magazine Alan F. Coad, (2000) "Not everything is black and white for falling dominoes", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 21 Iss: 6, pp.311 – 318. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of vocational behavior, 49(3), 252-276. Aronson, E. (2001). Integrating leadership styles and ethical perspectives.Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration, 18(4), 244-256. Avolio, B. J., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Bhatia, P. (2004). Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance. Journal of organizational behavior, 25(8), 951-968. Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1988). Transformational leadership, charisma, and beyond. In J. G. Hunt, B. R. Baglia, H. P. Dachier, & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Emerging leadership vistas (pp. 29-49). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath. Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The leadership quarterly,16(3), 315-338. 68 Bass, B. M. (1996). Theory of transformational leadership redux. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(4), 463-478. Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership.Journal of applied psychology, 88(2), 207. Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., & Goodheim, L. (1987). Biography and the assessment of transformational leadership at the world-class level. Journal of Management, 13(1), 7-19. Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., & Goodheim, L. (1987). Biography and the assessment of transformational leadership at the world-class level. Journal of management,13(1), 7-19. Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. The leadership quarterly, 10(2), 181- 217. Barling, J., Weber, T., & Kelloway, E. K. (1996). Effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal and financial outcomes: A field experiment.Journal of applied psychology, 81(6), 827. Barling, J., Christie, A., & Turner, N. (2008). Pseudo-transformational leadership: Towards the development and test of a model. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(4), 851-861. Becker H. S., “Notes on the Concept of Commitment,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 66 (1960), 32–40. Bennis, W. (1959). Leadership theory and administrative behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4, 259–301. 69 Beu, D., & Buckley, M. R. (2001). The hypothesized relationship between accountability and ethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(1), 57- 73. Brosnahan, M. M., & Paradis, M. R. (2003). Assessment of clinical characteristics, management practices, and activities of geriatric horses.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 223(1), 99-103. Butler Jr, J. K., Cantrell, R. S., & Flick, R. J. (1999). Transformational leadership behaviors, upward trust, and satisfaction in self-managed work teams. Organization Development Journal. Bourner, F., & Weese, W. J. (1995). Executive leadership and organizational effectiveness in the Canadian Hockey League. European Journal for Sport Management (EJSM), 2 (1), 88-100. Caramollah Daneshfard and Kokab Elsadat Ekvaniyan, “Organization commmitment and job satisfaction in islamic azad university”. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business. Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 168 january 2012 vol 3, no 9. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations: Perceived behavioral attributes and their measurement. Journal of organizational behavior, 15(5), 439-452. Conger, J. A., Kanungo, R. N., & Menon, S. T. (2000). Charismatic leadership and follower effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 747-767. Coad, A. F., & Cullen, J. (2006). Inter-organisational cost management: towards an evolutionary perspective. Management Accounting Research, 17(4), 342- 369. 70 Chen, J. C., & Silverthorne, C. (2005). Leadership effectiveness, leadership style and employee readiness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(4), 280-288. Craig, S. B., & Gustafson, S. B. (1998). Perceived leader integrity scale: An instrument for assessing employee perceptions of leader integrity. The Leadership Quarterly, 9(2), 127-145. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900. Dasborough, MT., & Ashkanasy, N.M. (2002). Emotion and attribution of intentionality in leader-member relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 615-634. Davidhizar, R., & Shearer, R. (1997). Giving encouragement as a transformational leadership technique. The Health Care Manager, 15(3), 16-21. DE HOOGH, A. H., & DEN HARTOG, D. N. (2009). 1 9 Ethical leadership.Power and interdependence in organizations, 338. Den Hartog, D. N., & De Hoogh, A. H. (2009). Empowering behaviour and leader fairness and integrity: Studying perceptions of ethical leader behaviour from a levels-of-analysis perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18(2), 199-230. Dunham, J., & Klafehn, K. A. (1990). Transformational leadership and the nurse executive. Journal of Nursing Administration, 20(4), 28-34. Dunham, R. B., Grube, J. A., & Castaneda, M. B. (1994). Organizational commitment: The utility of an integrative definition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(3), 370. 71 Dickson, M. W., Smith, D. B., Grojean, M. W., & Ehrhart, M. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: The outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(2), 197-217. Dineen, B. R., Lewicki, R. J., & Tomlinson, E. C. (2006). Supervisory guidance and behavioral integrity: relationships with employee citizenship and deviant behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 622. Dionne, S. D., Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., & Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance. Journal of organizational change management, 17(2), 177-193. Farling, M. L., Stone, A. G., & Winston, B. E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 6(1-2), 49-72. Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. (2005). “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 343-372. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The leadership quarterly, 6(2), 219-247. Hall, D. T., Schneider, B., & Nygren, H. T. (1970). Personal factors in organizational identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15(2). Hollander, E. P., & Julian, J. W. (1969). Contemporary trends in the analysis of leadership processes. Psychological bulletin, 71(5), 387. Hopkins, A. H. (1983). Work and job satisfaction in the public sector. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld. 72 Hovekamp, T. M. (1994). Organizational commitment of professional employees in union and nonunion research libraries. College and Research Libraries, 55(4), 297-308. Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of applied psychology, 78(6), 891. Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1992). The ethics of charismatic leadership: submission or liberation?. The Executive, 6(2), 43-54. Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership (Vol. 3). Sage. Kanungo, R. N. (2001). Ethical values of transactional and transformational leaders. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration, 18(4), 257-265. Kaplan, F. And Owings, J. (2002). What is Instructional Leadership? Journal of Educational Leadership, 65 (4), 56 – 64. Leadership and Vision. Ignite Newsletter September 2007. Khaleelee, O., & Woolf, R. (1996). Personality, life experience and leadership capability. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(6), 5-11. Kuhnert, K. W., & Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and transformational leadership: A constructive/developmental analysis. Academy of Management review, 12(4), 648-657. Lievens Pascal Van Geit Pol Coetsier, F. (1997). Identification of transformational leadership qualities: An examination of potential biases.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 6(4), 415-430. 73 Mahoney, T. A., Jerdee, T. H., & Carroll, S. J. (1965). The job (s) of management. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 4(2), 97-110. May, D. R., Chan, A. Y., Hodges, T. D., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Developing the moral component of authentic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 32(3), 247-260. Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M., & Salvador, R. B. (2009). How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 1- 13. McDaniel, C., & Wolf, G. A. (1992). Transformational Leadership in Nursing Service A Test of Theory. Journal of Nursing Administration, 22(2), 60-65. McGee, G. W., & Ford, R. C. (1987). Two (or more?) dimensions of organizational commitment: Reexamination of the affective and continuance commitment scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(4), 638. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61- 89. Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Human resource management review, 11(3), 299-326. Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of vocational behavior, 14(2), 224- 247. 74 Neubert, M. J., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Roberts, J. A., & Chonko, L. B. (2009). The virtuous influence of ethical leadership behavior: Evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(2), 157-170. Nealey, S. M., & Blood, M. R. (1968). Leadership performance of nursing supervisors at two organizational levels. Journal of Applied Psychology, 52(5), 414–422. Palanski, M. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (2007). Integrity and Leadership:: Clearing the Conceptual Confusion. European Management Journal, 25(3), 171-184. Palanski, M. E. and F. J. Yammarino: 2009, ‘Integrity and Leadership: A Multi- Level Conceptual Framework’, Leadership Quarterly 20, 405–420. Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well- being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619.Vision. Ignite Newsletter September 2007 Posner, B. Z., & Kouzes, J. M. (1993). Psychometric properties of the leadership practices inventory-updated. Educational and psychological measurement, 53(1), 191-199. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59(5), 603. Pillai, R., Schriesheim, C. A., & Williams, E. S. (1999). Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional leadership: A two- sample study. Journal of management, 25(6), 897-933. Reilly, N. P., & Orsak, C. L. (1991). A career stage analysis of career and organizational commitment in nursing. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39(3), 311-330. Rubin, R., & Buttlar, L. (1992). A study of the organizational commitment of high school library media specialists in Ohio. The Library Quarterly, 306-324. 75 Ruiz‐Palomino, P., Ruiz‐Amaya, C., & Knưrr, H. (2011). Employee organizational citizenship behaviour: The direct and indirect impact of ethical leadership. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration, 28(3), 244-258. Yukl, G., & Mahsud, R. (2010). Why flexible and adaptive leadership is essential. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62(2), 81. Salancik, G. R. (1977). Commitment and the control of organizational behavior and belief. New directions in organizational behavior, 1-54. Sashkin, M., & Burke, W. W. (1987). Organization development in the 1980's.Journal of Management, 13(2), 393-417. Shamir, B., & Eilam, G. (2005). “What's your story?” A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 395- 417. Sheldon, M. E. (1971). Investments and involvements as mechanisms producing commitment to the organization. Administrative Science Quarterly,16(2). Smith, J. E., Carson, K. P., & Alexander, R. A. (1984). Leadership: It can make a difference. Academy of Management Journal, 27(4), 765-776. Sparrowe, R. T. (2005). Authentic leadership and the narrative self. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 419-439. Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences (Vol. 3). Sage. Stordeur, S., D'hoore, W., & Vandenberghe, C. (2001). Leadership, organizational stress, and emotional exhaustion among hospital nursing staff.Journal of advanced nursing, 35(4), 533-542. Trice, H. M., & Beyer, J. M. (1991). Cultural leadership in organizations.Organization Science, 2(2), 149-169. 76 Tucker, B. A., & Russell, R. F. (2004). The influence of the transformational leader. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 103-111. Turner, N., Barling, J., Epitropaki, O., Butcher, V., & Milner, C. (2002). Transformational leadership and moral reasoning. Journal of applied Psychology, 87(2), 304. Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). The transformational leader. Training & Development Journal. Tichy, N. M., & Ulrich, D. O. (1984). The leadership challenge–a call for the transformational leader. Sloan Management Review, 26(1), 59-68. Waddock, S. A., & Post, J. E. (1991). Social entrepreneurs and catalytic change. Public administration review, 393-401. Wang, Z. M., & Satow, T. (1994). Leadership styles and organizational effectiveness in Chinese-Japanese joint ventures. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(4), 31-36. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic Leadership: Development and Validation of a Theory- Based Measure†. Journal of management, 34(1), 89-126. Zaccaro, S. J., & Banks, D. (2004). Leader visioning and adaptability: Bridging the gap between research and practice on developing the ability to manage change. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 367-380. Zellars, K. L., Tepper, B. J., & Duffy, M. K. (2002). Abusive supervision and subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6), 1068. C. Unpublished Materials 77 Buensseda, Z. M. (2002). “Instructional Variables and Leadership Styles and School Performance of Docesan Catholich Schools System in Laguan”. Dissertation. Technological Universsity of the Philippines. Manila. Lloyd, R., et al. (2008). “The Impact of Leadership on student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Differential Effects of Leadership Types.” Unpublished master’s Thesis. Anadolu University: Eskisehir. Logan, T., et all (2001). “Effects of Instructional Variables on Engaged Behavior of Students with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms.” Unpublished. Marks, S. and Printy, f. (2007). “Principal Leadership and School Performance: An Integration of Transformational and Instructional Leadership”. Unpublished Dissertation. University of Santo Tomas, Manila. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization science,4(4), 577-594. Locke, E. A. (1976). The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction1. Niehoff, B. P., Enz, C. A., & Grover, R. A. (1990). The impact of top-management actions on employee attitudes and perceptions. Group & Organization Management, 15(3), 337-352. Kabacoff, R.I. (1998), ``Gender differences in organizational leadership: a large sample study’’, paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, San Francisco, CA, August. Mintzberg, H. (1994). ‘Rounding out the managerial job’. Sloan Management Review, Fall, 11–26. D. Electronic References 78 Ali Mohammadi, Hassan Rahgozar and Azadeh Bagheri Department of Psychology, Research and Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran Department of Education, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran Department of Psychology, Arsenjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsenjan, Iran. “Evaluating the Relationship between High School Managers' Thinking Styles with their Job Satisfaction in Shiraz”. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 5(12): 3336-3340, 2013 ISSN: 2040-7459; e-ISSN: 2040-7467 © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013 Submitted: July 26, 2012 Accepted: October 19, 2012 Published: April 10, 2013 Balliett Thun* and E. Kevin Kelloway. “Virtuous Leaders: Assessing Character Strengths in the Workplace”. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences Revue canadienne des sciences de l’administration 28: 270–283 (2011) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/CJAS.216 Bradley, K. (2007) “Effective Leadership and Its Impact on Teacher Retention: A Personal Perspective”. Education Articles. essays- on-teaching/effective-leadership. Bushman, M. (2007). “Leadership Style Theories – Which Leadership Style is the Most Effective”. Yahoo! Contributor Network Januaryn 15, 2007. CARE (2005). “Center for Applied Research in Educational Technology.” Knsubuga, Y. K. “Analysis of Leadership Styles and School Performance of Secondary Schools in Uganda”. Article (1). 79 Lewin, K. (2000). “Leadership Styles”. Retrieved July 22, 2010 from 80 APPENDIX “A” COMMUNICATION LETERS Letter to the Colleges’ Rectors Republic of the Philippines Southern Luzon State University GRADUATE SCHOOL Lucban, Quezon Dated, 2013 Dear, Mr. Rector ..Teachers’ Training College .. City, Province Sir: The undersigned have the honor to request permission from your good office to administer questionnaire to your teachers as his respondents. The title his dissertation is “Leadership Styles of University Managers Toward Job Satisfaction, Work Commitment and Behavioral Outcome of Teachers” Rest assured that the administration of the questionnaires will not affect the smooth flow of their activities and the information that will be gathered shall be treated with utmost confidentiality. He hopes for your favorable consideration and approval. Respectfully yours, PHI DINH KHUONG (NADAL) Graduate Student Noted: Research Adviser Approved: 81 APPENDIX “B” Questionnaire Directions: This survey questionnaire consists of two (2) parts. The first one deals with the influence of the leadership styles of the manager and the second focuses on the variables. Rate them by checking a mark that corresponds to your perception in each item using the scales below Part I – Leadership Style Strongly Agree (SA) - 4 Agree (A) - 3 Disagree (D) - 2 Strongly Agree (SD) - 1 Statements (Charismatic Leadership) SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) WM DA 1. Possesses communication skills where his ideas, thoughts and concept are articulated in a motivating manner 2. Is endowed with supernatural. Superhuman or at least exceptional power or qualities 3. This leadership style is rare and extraordinary 4. This can be used for either good or bad ends 5. Ordinary people can possess this type of leadership 6. This leadership style can be perceived with less tangibility compared with other leadership style AWM Statements (Ethical Leadership) SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) WM DA 1. Possesses integrity, honesty and trustworthiness 2. Is fair and a principled-decision makers 3. Cares about people and the broader society in general 4. Is a role model using ethical conduct through rewards and discipline 5. Is positively related to affective trust and negatively related to abusive supervision 6. His subordinates are willing to report problems to management with this type of leadership AWM 82 Statements (Transformational Leadership) SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) WM DA 1. Motivates his followers from a lower level to a higher level of needs 2. Inspires and fosters commitment to a shared purpose of the organization 3. Generates or reinforces the established sets of beliefs, shared values, norms and practices of the organization 4. Stimulates followers to perform beyond the level of expectations 5. Helps subordinates discovery of who they are and what part they play in helping the organization achieve its mission 6. Promotes a compelling vision of the future that can change and raise the organization to new and exciting possibilities. AWM Statements (Transactional Leadership) SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) WM DA 1. Is based on a system of rewards and penalties. 2. Promotes compliance of his followers through both rewards and punishment 3. Is effective in crisis and emergency situation as well as when projects need to be carried out in a specific manner 4. Is concerned with processes rather than forward-thinking ideas 5. Is based on bargaining exchange system in which the leader and subordinates agree together to accomplish the organizational goals 6. It closely monitors mistakes and errors and takes corrective action asquickly as needed AWM Part II –Variables Strongly Agree (SA) - 4 Agree (A) - 3 Disagree (D) - 2 Strongly Agree (SD) - 1 83 Job Satisfaction SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) 1. Feels pleasurable with job 2. Secures salary. 3. Has good relationship with employees. 4. Appreciate good results 5. Reserves awards when work is well 6. Feels secured with the job. 7. Creates good working condition. 8. Considers what is ask for. 9. Satisfies what is asked for. 10. Pays timely. Commitment to Work SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) 1. Keeps promises. 2. Follows school regulations. 3. Keeps track with the vision of the school. 4. Complies with the laws. 5. Obeys his/her leader. 6. Arranges with a suitable job. 7. Pays what he/she believes is right. 8. Is consistent with what he/she is right. 9. Is strict with himself/herself as with others. Behavioral Outcomes SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) 1. Accessible 2. Helpful 3. Innovative 4. Attentive 5. Polite 6. Friendly 7. Thoughtful 8. Enthusiastic 9. Careful 10. Punctual 84 APPENDIX “C” Statistical Computations Average Weighted Mean (AWM) 1. Ethical Leadership Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation 1. Economical 255 1 4 3,31 ,577 2. Hardworking 255 1 4 3,33 ,654 3. Incorruptible 255 1 4 3,37 ,632 4. Straight 255 1 4 3,33 ,608 5. Knowledgeable 255 1 4 3,38 ,639 6. Fair 255 1 4 3,32 ,620 7. Open-minded 255 1 4 3,24 ,641 8. Kind 255 1 4 3,27 ,636 9. Exemplary 255 1 4 3,35 ,639 10. Responsible 255 1 4 3,35 ,603 Average Weighted Mean 3.32 85 2. Job satisfaction Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation 1. Feels pleasurable with job 255 1 4 3,25 ,600 2. Secures salary. 255 1 4 3,27 ,653 3. Has good relationship with employees. 255 1 4 3,31 ,611 4. Appreciate good results 255 1 4 3,29 ,557 5. Reserves awards when work is well 255 1 4 3,29 ,557 6. Feels secured with the job. 255 1 4 3,22 ,603 7. Creates good working condition. 255 1 4 3,27 ,576 8. Considers what is ask for. 255 1 4 3,24 ,597 9. Satisfies what is asked for. 255 1 4 3,28 ,631 10. Pays timely. 255 1 4 3,31 ,564 Average Weighted Mean 3.27 86 3. Commitment to work Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation 1. Keeps promises. 255 1 4 3,33 ,562 2. Follows school regulations. 255 1 4 3,37 ,614 3. Keeps track with the vision of the school. 255 1 4 3,38 ,608 4. Complies with the laws. 255 1 4 3,39 ,591 5. Obeys his/her leader. 255 1 4 3,35 ,603 6. Arranges with a suitable job. 255 1 4 3,36 ,611 7. Pays what he/she believes is right. 255 1 4 3,28 ,656 8. Is consistent with what he/she is right. 255 1 4 3,31 ,649 9. Is strict with himself/herself as with others. 255 1 4 3,30 ,638 Average Weighted Mean 3.34 87 4. Behavioral Outcomes Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation 1. Accessible 255 1 4 3,26 ,600 2. Helpful 255 1 4 3,29 ,611 3. Innovative 255 1 4 3,32 ,626 4. Attentive 255 1 4 3,22 ,616 5. Polite 255 1 4 3,32 ,614 6. Friendly 255 1 4 3,35 ,608 7. Thoughtful 255 1 4 3,31 ,628 8. Enthusiastic 255 1 4 3,27 ,611 9. Careful 255 1 4 3,34 ,624 10. Punctual 255 1 4 3,30 ,657 Average Weighted Mean 3.30 88 Regression Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change 1 ,657 a ,431 ,429 3,489 ,431 191,891 1 253 ,000 a. Predictors: (Constant), Job satisfaction 89 Curriculum Vitae RESEARCHERS’S PROFILE PHI DINH KHUONG English name: NADAL A. PERSONAL DATA Status Age Date of Birth Place of birth Address Phone/ Mobile Father Mother : married : 38 : December 20, 1975 : Yen Bai Province, Vietnamese : Hoang Van Thu Ward, Thai Nguyen City : (084)2803.759.063/ 0915.459.453 : Phi Ngoc Khanh : Hoang Thi Nhi B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Degree MA. EM. University Upper secondary Secondary Elementary School Le Quy Don Technical University Thai Nguyen University Of Education Upper Secondary School Van Chan Tan Thinh Secondary School Tan Thinh Elementary School Year Graduated 2005 1999 1994 1991 1987 C. ELIGIBILITIES D. WORK EXPERIENCES 2005-2013 Teacher Thai Nguyen University Of Sciences 90 1999-2004 Teacher Industrial Economic – Technology College APPENDICES EVALUATION OF THE QUESTIONAIRE FOR CONTENT VALIDATION Sum Survey Results I. REVIEW OPINION OF MR / MRS Scale Description Code 1 Always SA 2 Usually A 3 Frequently D 4 Seldom SD II. STATUS OF TRAINING QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL Goals/Tasks Ethical Leadership 4 SA (Strongly Agree) 3 A (Agree) 2 D (Disagree) 1 SD (Strongly Disagree) 1. Economical 91 155 6 3 2. Hardworking 107 130 14 4 3. Incorruptible 111 131 9 4 4. Straight 100 140 13 2 5. Knowledgeable 114 127 10 4 6. Fair 101 137 15 2 7. Open-minded 87 145 20 3 91 8. Kind 93 142 17 3 9. Exemplary 109 127 17 2 10. Responsible 105 137 11 2 Job Satisfaction 1. Feels pleasurable with job 82 157 13 3 2. Secures salary. 94 140 17 4 3. Has good relationship with employees. 96 147 8 4 4. Appreciate good results 87 157 10 1 5. Reserves awards when work is well 87 157 10 1 6. Feels secured with the job. 79 156 18 2 7. Creates good working condition. 85 155 14 1 8. Considers what is ask for. 81 156 16 2 9. Satisfies what is asked for. 93 143 16 3 10. Pays timely. 91 155 7 2 Commitment to Work 1. Keeps promises. 94 153 6 2 2. Follows school regulations. 110 133 9 3 3. Keeps track with the vision of the school. 110 134 8 3 4. Complies with the laws. 111 136 5 3 5. Obeys his/her leader. 104 140 8 3 92 6. Arranges with a suitable job. 109 130 15 1 7. Pays what he/she believes is right. 96 138 17 4 8. Is consistent with what he/she is right. 102 135 14 4 9. Is strict with himself/herself as with others. 97 141 13 4 Behavioral Outcomes 1. Accessible 85 155 12 3 2. Helpful 93 147 12 3 3. Innovative 102 135 16 2 4. Attentive 80 155 17 3 5. Polite 99 142 11 6 6. Friendly 104 139 9 3 7. Thoughtful 97 143 11 4 8. Enthusiastic 89 150 13 3 9. Careful 104 136 12 3 10. Punctual 101 134 16 4 2

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • pdfleadership_styles_of_university_managers_toward_job_satisfac.pdf
  • docThong tin LA NCS Phi Dinh Khuong 05-2014.doc
  • pdfTom tat Enlish NCS Phi Dinh Khuong 5-2014.pdf
  • pdfTom tat Tieng Viet NCS Phi Dinh Khuong 5-2014.pdf
Tài liệu liên quan