Luận án Sự hài lòng và hiệu suất công việc của cán bộ, viên chức trường đại học Hùng vương, Phú thọ, Việt Nam: Chương trình phát triển chiến lược

Southern luzon STATE University Republic of Philippines ThAi nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam JOB SATISFACTION AND WORKING PERFORMANCE OF PERSONNEL AT HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY, PHU THO, VIETNAM: A PROPOSED STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Advisor: Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa Name of Student: Nguyen Nhat Dang English Name: Michael Date of Birth: 20-3-1959 Course: SLSU-DEd.M Thai Nguyen, 2014 ii JOB SATISFACTION AND WORKING PERFORMANCE OF PERSONNEL AT HUNG

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VUONG UNIVERSITY, PHU THO, VIETNAM: A PROPOSED STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines In Collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management by NGUYEN NHAT DANG (MICHAEL) Thai Nguyen, 2014 iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT Grateful acknowledgement is hereby extended to the following individuals who have provided the researcher much needed support in the completion of this work: Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa, his adviser, whose wisdom and knowledge, perseverance and patience, courage and optimism, constructive criticizing led to the final completion of this study; Dr Cecilia N. Gascon, and other professors of the panel of examiners, for their valuable suggestions and recommendations; Dr. Teresita V. dela Cruz, Dr. Walberto A. Macaraan, and other professors of the Southern Luzon State University and Thai Nguyen University for their valuable lectures and advice; The Director Board of ITC, Ms. Nguyen Thi Thu Ha and the other teachers and staff of ITC, for their enthusiastic support during the course; Pr. Dr. Cao van, the Rector of Hung Vuong University and other members of the Rector Board, for their encouragement and financial assistance; The Monitor and other classmates, for their help and support; The staff and teacher respondents, for their patience and generosity in answering the questionnaires; All members of my family and friends, for their advice and close concern; This piece of work is humbly dedicated to these respectable persons, for without them this would not be possible. NND iv DEED OF DECLARATION I, Nguyen Nhat Dang (English name: Michael), hereby submit my thesis for oral examination, entitled ―Job Satisfaction and Working Performance of Personnel at Hung Vuong University, PhuTho, Vietnam: A Proposed Strategic Development Program‖, truthfully declare that the said paper is a product of my original research investigation. Signed this 01 May, 2014 at Thai Nguyen University NGUYEN NHAT DANG DEdM Candidate v TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS . ABSTRACT .. Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION Background of the Study. 1 Objectives of the study Hypothesis .................................................................................................... . Significance of the Study .............................................................................. . Scope and Limitation of the Study ... Definition of terms Chapter 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature and Studies 10 Research Paradigm ... Chapter 3. METHODOLOGY Locale of the Study ....................................................................................... 29 Research Design ........................................................................................... Population and Sampling .............................................................................. Research Instrumentation ............................................................................. Validation of Instrument ............................................................................... Data Gathering Procedures ........................................................................... Statistical Treatment ..................................................................................... Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS . 37 vi Chapter 5. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary .................................................................................................... 66 Findings ...................................................................................................... Conclusions ................................................................................................ Recommendations ...................................................................................... BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 74 APPENDICES ......................................................................................................... 76 RESEARCHER’S PROFILE ................................................................................ 87 vii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HVU Hung Vuong University HRM Human resource Management CSE Core self-evaluations . ABSTRACT TITLE OF RESEARCH Job Satisfaction and Working Performance of Personnel at Hung Vuong University, PhuTho, Vietnam: A Proposed Strategic Development Program RESEARCHER NGUYEN NHAT DANG (MICHAEL) DEGREE CONFERRED Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management NAME/ADDRESS OF INSTITUTION Southern Luzon State University and Thai Nguyen University ADVISER Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa YEAR WRITTEN 2013-2014 This study intended to investigate the relationships of job satisfaction and working performance of Hung Vuong Personnel with an end view of proposing a strategic development program. It specifically sought to determine the level of job satisfaction of Hung Vuong Personnel in terms of the nature of work, salary and benefits, professional growth/ promotion, quality of supervision, interpersonal relationship, self-actualization and fulfilment, working environment, and employee recognition. It also sought to find out the working performance of the personnel in terms of productivity, knowledge and skills, communication, problem solving, attendance and punctuality, and teamwork. In addition, it also pursued to determine whether the perceptions of the managers and staff differ from each other; ascertain which of the job satisfaction variables best predict the working performance of respondents; viii and propose a strategic development program that could improve the working performance of the personnel. The descriptive survey research was employed in this study. There were three hundred and fifty eight (358) respondents to answer the questionnaire, among them, 296 respondents were ordinary staff and teachers and 62 respondents were managers. The measuring instruments utilized in this research were the frequency, percentage distribution, the weighted means, Regression and the One – way ANOVA. Based on the data gathered, it was found that the perception of both managers and ordinary staff and teachers on job satisfaction and working performance falls in the "Good" category. Salaries and benefits and employee recognition are the best to predict the employees' working performance. There are also differences in working performance between the groups of respondents in terms of ages, gender and positions. The findings are indicative that the employees' satisfaction and working performance still need further improvement since most of the difficulties identified were seen related to individuals of both managers and ordinary employees. The proposed solutions generally are to adjust the school policies which lead to the key to successful implementation of the employees’ performance evaluation and job satisfaction and job performance improvement. Management effort and initiatives must be required to efficiently implement the job satisfaction and job performance improvement. Thus, it was recommended that the school's improvement on the employees' job satisfaction and working performance must be continuously given attention by all the managers, staffs and teachers of the school by producing a long term concrete and detailed plan to make the employees' job satisfaction and working performance get on well. In order to increase the employees’ job satisfaction and working performance, the school must design and implement the strategic development program to help staffs improve their knowledge and skills, create fair opportunities for the staff and teachers on promotion etc, so that they would feel safe and happy at work. Finally, the strategic development program must be carried out with the enthusiastic participation of all the teachers and staff. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The development of an organization, an area or a country depends on many factors, and conditions, but mainly on the human factor. Therefore, more important than any other factors, the human resource always occupies a central position and plays a key role in the development of the organization, the area or the country. Hence, for an organization or business to develop, it has to focus much on human resource management (HRM). Among many factors of human resource management, job satisfaction and working performance of the personnel are the most important issues that every manager has to give attention. Job satisfaction focuses on factors such as the nature of work, salary and benefits, professional growth/promotion, quality of supervision, interpersonal relationship, self- actualization and fulfillment, working environment, and employee recognition. The high level of job satisfaction can help the employees feel safe and happy at work. This would make the organization develop in a good way. Meanwhile, working performance focuses on factors such as productivity, job knowledge and skills, communication, problem solving, attendance and punctuality, and teamwork. The employees' working performance always plays a decisive role in the successes of an organization. Therefore, this issue is always one of the most important tasks of an organization. Job satisfaction and working performance of the personnel are closely related to each other. Therefore, the improvement of these two issues can lead to the improvement of the HRM in particular and the development of the whole organization in general. For Vietnam in general and Phu Tho province in particular, exploiting and using the human resource effectively are very important matters. The human resource must bring into play the diversity and richness of the eastern cultural tradition such as: fondness for learning, 2 respect to talents, knowledge, and science. However, up to now, the important potentials have not been fully exploited because the human resource may not have been effectively used. Nowadays as the world becomes a knowledgeable economy, the problem of high- qualified human resource is a very pressing one. For a country like Vietnam, which has newly overcome the threshold of poverty, it is very important to take a short cut for the development to fill the gap between the rich and the poor, the high land and the low land areas, and the countryside and the cities to make Vietnam become a developed country. This aim can only be achieved if Vietnam has a high-qualified workforce. In order to achieve this goal, Hung Vuong University (HVU) was established based on decision 81/2003 by the Vietnamese Prime Minister on April 29, 2003 with a mission of training the high qualified human resource and transferring new technology to serve the socio-economic development in Phu Tho and other Northern mountainous provinces. Phu Tho is a northern mountainous province in Vietnam. It is located east of Vinh Phuc, south east of Ha Noi, south of Hoa Binh, south west of Son La, and northwest of Yen Bai and Tuyen Quang. In terms of culture, Phu Tho is considered the birth place of Vietnam, where the first kingdom of Vietnamese people named Van Lang was established more than 4,000 years ago. The two famous cultural heritages originating from Phu Tho, having been recognized by UNESCO, are Xoan folk song and ancestor worshipping that speak out the old cultural traditions in Vietnam in general and Phu Tho in particular. For a new university like Hung Vuong University, human resource management in general and job satisfaction and working performance in particular are among the most important issues that the school must pay attention to. However, there haven't been any studies about these problems in Vietnam. This is the reason which compelled the researcher to conduct his research on this field. 3 Background of the Study Hung Vuong University is a disciplinary university. It was established on the foundation of a College of Education located in Phu Tho province. It has 432 staff and roughly 7000 students. Like the other mountainous provinces in the north of Vietnam, Phu Tho is still a poor province and is meeting a lot of difficulties in comparison with the big cities and low land provinces in terms of socio-economic conditions. The investment on education is limited and in general, the living standard of local people is still low. Hence, Hung Vuong University is not an exception. Because of the reasons of low salary, poor working conditions etc, some part of HVU's employees do not really keep their minds on their work. Apart from that, about 70% of the staff is young (under 35) therefore their knowledge, working skill, working experience, etc. are still very limited. Many of them need more time to improve themselves to be able to do the two major duties of a university teacher, which are teaching and conducting researches at university level. This fact has led to some problems of human resource management, especially the problems concerning job satisfaction and working performance. Therefore, it is important to find solutions to those problems so that Hung Vuong University can attract the high-qualified employees to come and work permanently. Because of the practical situation of the University, it is believed that it was necessary to conduct a study that would determine the level of the job satisfaction, find out working performance of personnel at Hung Vuong University, Phu Tho, Vietnam to serve as basis for a proposed strategic development program to help the school solve the problems and soon achieve its goals. 4 Objectives of the Study This study intended to investigate the relationships of job satisfaction and working performance of Hung Vuong Personnel during SY 2012 – 2013 with an end view of proposing a strategic development program. Specifically, it aimed to meet the following objectives: 1. Determine the demographic profile of the respondents as to: 1.1 Sex; 1.2. Ages; 1.3. Work unit; 1.4 Occupations, and 1.5. Positions. 2. Determine the level of Job satisfaction of Hung Vuong Personnel in terms of 2.1. The nature of work; 2.2. Salary and benefits; 2.3. Professional growth/ promotion; 2.4. Quality of supervision; 2.5. Interpersonal relationship; 2.6. Self-actualization and fulfillment; 2.7. Working environment; and 2.8. Employee recognition. 3. Find out the working performance of the personnel in terms of 3.1. Productivity; 3.2. Knowledge and skills; 3.3. Communication; 3.4. Problem solving; 3.5. Attendance and Punctuality; and 5 3.6. Teamwork. 4. Determine whether the perceptions of respondents differ from each other in reference to their demographic profile; 5. Identify which of the job satisfaction variables and demographic profile best predict the working performance of respondents; and 6. Propose a strategic development program that could improve the working performance of the personnel. Null Hypothesis None of the job satisfaction variables predict working performance of the personnel of Hung Vuong University. Significance of the Study This study can bring benefits to the following people and organizations: Phu Tho and other Provinces as well as organizations with the same concerns. The results will help provide information on some basic situation of job satisfaction and working performance of employees in the educational area. Managers of Hung Vuong University. The research gives the managers of Hung Vuong University some ideas on employees’ job satisfaction and working performance. The results of the study can be used as bases for the board of rectors of HVU to set up plans to improve its employees' job satisfaction and working performance. Employees. If the results of the study can be applied at HVU, its employees will be more motivated and satisfied with their jobs, which will lead to job involvement and later will result in organizational commitment. 6 Researcher. With the position as the Director of Personnel of HVU, the researcher can apply the results of the study in making strategic plans to improve HVU's personnel's job satisfaction and working performance. Future Researchers. The study may serve as reference for future researchers who will do a study on a topic related to this one. This could serve as a baseline information for more researches along this line in the future. Scope and Limitation The study was conducted at Hung Vuong University in Phu Tho Province from April 2013 to October 2013. It focused on the investigation of employees' job satisfaction and working performance at Hung Vuong University, including the main factors of job satisfaction such as (1) the Nature of work, (2) Salary and benefits, (3) professional growth/promotion, (4) Quality of supervision, (5) Interpersonal relationship, (6) Self-actualization and fulfillment, (7) Working environment, and (8) Employee recognition. Main factors of working performance were also given attention: (1) Productivity, (2) Job knowledge and skills, (3) Communication, (4) Problem solving, (5) Attendance and punctuality, and (6) Teamwork. Measurement of the employees' job satisfaction and working performance was limited to the use of questionnaires, and the answers of 358 respondents who were the managers, teachers and staff of the school. The study was conducted from April 2013 to October 2013. Definition of Terms To ensure common understanding among the readers, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally: Attendance and punctuality means being at the workplace every workday and on time. 7 Age refers to the length of time of the person, from birth to dead. In the company, age is the length of time of the person that works in the company. Benefits are the things concerning personal living condition an organization offers its employees, such as insurance, social and health care, travel allowance, gifts on special occasions, worthy rewards to good employees, etc. Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver needs not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Employee refers to the worker who has to carry out instructions from managers to complete own tasks. Employee Recognition is essentially positive feedback that lets employees know they are valued and appreciated by their coworkers and the organization. To have the greatest impact in the workplace, recognition activities should also reinforce and encourage work that advances employees, departmental, and/or institutional goals and values. Interpersonal relationship in a school is the interpersonal relationship in every area concerning education between teachers and other staff, teachers and students, school and the students' parents, teachers and the supervisors, etc. Job satisfaction is the state of how content an individual is with his or her job at his/ her work place. It is the extent of pleasurable feelings individuals have about their jobs. Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical 8 skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or systematic. Nature of work refers to the job description, the type of things an individual will be doing at a work place if hired. Occupation is a person's usual or principal work or business, especially as a means of earning a living; vocation. Position refers to a social or official rank or status. Problem solving refers to the process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution. Problem solving may include mathematical or systematic operations and can be a gauge of an individual's critical thinking skills. Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. It is a ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. Usually this ratio is in the form of an average, expressing the total output divided by the total input. It is a measure of output from a production process, per unit of input. Professional growth/promotion refers to the equal opportunities of the employees to develop their professional knowledge and skills as well as to stand a fair chance in promotion. Quality of supervision refers to standards of the supervisors in the following fields: professional knowledge and skills, management knowledge and skills, ethical leadership (democracy, being fair, responsibility, enthusiasm, consideration to the inferiors, etc). Skills are personal abilities and talents that help employees carry out work-related tasks. Salary is a form of remuneration paid periodically by an employer to an employee, the amount and frequency of which may be specified in an employment contract. Self-actualization and fulfillment refers to the employees' commitment, motivation, responsibility, dedication and pride for their jobs. Sex refers to a person’s biological sex whether male and female. 9 Strategic development program is the program which aims at developing the organization's employees and the business by dealing with critical problems. The aim of the Strategic Development Program is to develop the employees while at the same time developing the business by focusing on the critical problems that happen in its practical situations. Teamwork refers to the process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal. Working environment can be identified as the place that one works. This refers to the factors in the working environment, such as co-workers, air quality, ergonomic seating, management (the boss), equipment, place of work, childcare, parking, and noise. Working Performance refers to the job-related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed (de la Cruz, 2014). Work unit is a division or department of an organization. 10 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the relevant readings and related literature, which bear significance and similarities in this study. This also includes the paradigm and the definition of terms that could help the readers to fully understand the context of this study. Job Satisfaction There have been many studies about job satisfaction in Vietnam and overseas, including studies by Schemerhon (1993), Spector (1997), Crossman and Bassem (2003), Bowling, Beehr, Wagner, & Libkuman (2005), Thompson and Phua (2012), Trần Thị Kim Dung (2005), Vũ Khắc Đạt (2009) and Nguyễn Trần Thanh Bình (2009), etc. According to them, in general, job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job at the workplace. Scholars and human resource professionals generally make a distinction between affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction. Affective job satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall, and is different to cognitive job satisfaction which is the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, pension arrangements, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs. At its most general level of conceptualization, job satisfaction is simply how content an individual is with his or her job. At the more specific levels of conceptualization used by academic researchers and human resources professionals, job satisfaction has varying definitions. Affective job satisfaction is usually defined as a one-dimensional subjective construct representing an overall emotional feeling individuals have about their job as a whole. Hence, affective job satisfaction for individuals reflects the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general induces. Cognitive job satisfaction is usually defined as being a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. As such, cognitive job 11 satisfaction can be one-dimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one aspect of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to which those job facets are judged by the jobholder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. While cognitive job satisfaction might help to bring about affective job satisfaction, the two constructs are distinct, not necessarily directly related, and have different antecedents and consequences. Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues, which affect an individual's experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, homework interface, and working conditions. However, there is confusion and debate among Human resource professionals and managers on the topic of employee attitudes and job satisfaction—even at a time when employees are increasingly important for organizational success and competitiveness. According to Rynes, Colbert, & Brown (2002), it is important to find: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. One of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to ―the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame.‖ Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under-load which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur 12 when ―an individual receives too many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process. Due to this process, ―given an individual’s style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual’s ability to process them.‖ According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction. If some job satisfaction surveys are to be believed then as many as a third of us are considering a change of job. Clearly many are finding it hard to get that feeling of satisfaction from work. Job satisfaction is important not just because it boosts work performance but also because it increases our quality of life. Many people spend so much time at work that when it becomes dissatisfying, the rest of their life soon follows. Everyone's job is different but here are 10 factors that psychologists regularly find are important in how satisfied people are with their jobs, including: Little hassles. If you ask doctors what is the worst part of their jobs, what do you think they say? Carrying out difficult, painful procedures? Telling people they've only got months to live? No, it's something that might seem much less stressful: administration. We tend to downplay day-to-day irritations, thinking we've got bigger fish to fry. But actually people's job satisfaction is surprisingly sensitive to daily hassles. It might not seem like much but when it happens almost every day and it's beyond our control, it hits job satisfaction hard. 13 This category is one of the easiest wins for boosting employee satisfaction. Managers should find out about those little daily hassles and address them. Perception of fair pay. Whatever your job, for you to be satisfied, the pay should be fair. The bigger the difference between what you think you should earn and what you do earn, the less satisfied you'll be. The important point here is it's all about perception. If you perceive that other people doing a similar job get paid about the same as you then you're more likely to be satisfied with your... secondary schools in Phu Tho province. For more than 50 years of construction and development, it has trained thousands of teachers and engineers for Phu Tho and other provinces in the north of Vietnam. At the moment, it has 23 work units, including: 10 faculties of academy, a medical station, 3 centers, and 9 departments of administration. Among the 432 staff, there are 351 full time staff and 81 part time staff. 30 HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY Fig. 2 Campus 1 Head Quarters Building, Nong Trang Ward, Viet Tri City, Phu Tho Province In campus 1, where the Headquarters is located, there are 18 work units, including: Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanisms, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Mathematics and Technology, Faculty of Economics and Business administration, Faculty of Agro-forestry, Department of Personnel, Department of Administration, Department of Equipment, Department of Construction, Department of Inspection, Examination and quality assurance, Department of Research planning and International relations; Department of Students' affairs, Department of Financial Planning and Accounting, Department of Academic 31 affairs, Medical Station, Center of Cooperative training, Center of Foreign languages and Computing, and Center of Information and Library. HUNG VUONG UNIVERSITY Fig. 3 Campus 2, Hung Vuong Ward, Phu Tho town, Phu Tho Province In campus 2, which is located in Phu Tho town, there are 5 work units, including Faculty of Natural sciences, Faculty of Pre-school and Primary Education, Faculty of Arts and Music; Faculty of Political studies, and Faculty of Psychology and Pedagogy; Research Design This study used the descriptive correlation design in analyzing the investigated variables. It is designed to help determine the extent to which different variables are related to 32 each other in the population of interest and state that the critical distinguishing characteristics show relationship, as distinguished from simple description. Population and Sampling Nearly 90% or 388 of 432 employees in the twenty three (23) units under the authority of Hung Vuong University were requested to answer the questionnaires. About 10% of teachers and staff of HVU were busy taking their Master’s and Doctorate courses at other universities inside and outside Vietnam. Table 3.1. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents Work units Location Employees Total Respondents % Faculty of Natural sciences Campus 2, Phu Tho Town 36 33 8.3 Faculty of Pre-school and primary Education Campus 2, Phu Tho Town 20 18 4.52 Faculty of Art and Music Campus 2, Phu Tho town 16 15 3.76 Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanisms Campus 1, Viet Tri city 31 28 7.03 Faculty of Foreign languages Campus 1, Viet Tri city 28 26 6.52 Faculty of Mathematics and Technology Campus 1, Viet Tri city 48 43 10.8 Faculty of Economics and Business administration Campus 1, Viet Tri city 31 29 7.26 Faculty of Agro-forestry Campus 1, Viet Tri city 32 30 7.52 Faculty of Political studies Campus 2, Phu Tho Town 16 16 4.02 Faculty of Psychology and Pedagogy Campus 2, Phu Tho Town 11 10 2.5 Department of Personnel Campus 1, Viet Tri city 06 06 1.5 Department of Administration Campus 1, Viet Tri city 22 20 5.0 Department of Equipment and assets Campus 1, Viet Tri city 22 20 5.0 Department of Construction Campus 1, Viet Tri city 13 12 3.0 Department of Inspection, Examination and quality assurance Campus 1, Viet Tri city 06 06 1.5 Department of Research planning and International Relations Campus 1, Viet Tri city 08 08 2.0 Department of Students' affairs Campus 1, Viet Tri city 14 12 3.0 Department of Financial Planning Campus 1, Viet Tri city 12 11 3.0 Department of Academic affairs Campus 1, Viet Tri city 19 16 4.0 Medical Station Campus 1, Viet Tri city 08 08 2.0 Center of Cooperative training Campus 1, Viet Tri city 07 07 1.75 Center of Foreign languages and Computing Campus 1, Viet Tri city 05 05 1.25 Center of Information, Documents and Library Campus 1, Viet Tri city 21 19 4.76 TOTAL 432 388 100 33 Table 3.1 shows the distribution of employee respondents from each unit. About 90% of the total numbers of staff and teachers in all the departments were requested to answer the questionnaires so as to get a similar proportion for all the departments but some of those requested did not return the questionnaires. There were 358 staff and teacher respondents (about 90% of the respondents) who answered the questionnaire. Among the respondents, there were 296 ordinary staff and teachers, and 6 managers of top level (the Rector Board and the President of the University's council), and 56 managers of mid level (the leaders of 23 work units). Research Instrumentation The researcher developed questionnaires which served as the main tool in gathering data. He consulted the theses of Sr. Mentilla (2007) and Garcia (2011) in the preparation of the questionnaires. It was divided into three (3) parts. Part I deals with the demographic profile of the respondents. Part 2 is about employees' job satisfaction and Part 3 with employees' working performance. The questionnaire focused on the 8 factors concerning employees' job satisfaction, including (1) the Nature of work; (2) Salary and Benefits; (3) Professional growth/promotion; (4) Quality of supervision; (5) Interpersonal relationship; (6) Self-actualization and fulfillment; (7) Working environment; 8) Employee Recognition and the main factors of working performance: (1) Productivity; (2) Job knowledge and skills; (3) Communication; (4) Problem solving; (5) Attendance and Punctuality; (6) Team work. Validation of the Instrument Validation of the questionnaire was done based on the comments of the adviser. The researcher sought the advice of his adviser on the contents of the questionnaire in terms of correctness of language, appropriateness of the statements to find whether the statements were good or not. The questionnaire was pilot tested to 10 respondents. After which, it was tried 34 out in a school not included in the population to determine the suitability of the statements and to determine the validity of the questionnaire before it was submitted to the researcher’s adviser for final approval. Data Gathering Procedure The actual data gathering procedures was done through several processes. After the finalization of the instrument, the researcher asked the permission of the heads and deans to administer the questionnaire by sending them a letter of request for permission to conduct the study. After the request was approved, he made a schedule to visit the departments to distribute the questionnaires. This work was done in the beginning of August. The questionnaires were retrieved until August 12. Data were then consolidated, tabulated and interpreted. Statistical Treatment The following statistical tests were used in the computation of the gathered data. They were as follows: Weighted Arithmetic Mean The formula is: WM = Where: WM = weighted mean ∑fw = sum of the product of the frequency and weight n = total number The researcher adapted the rating scale below and its descriptive/ qualitative interpretation for the questionnaire that was used in the survey. The following table was 35 used to interpret the employees’ performance at Hung Vuong University in Phu Tho province. It was also used for the interpretation of the variables of the personnel's job satisfaction and working performance. 3.25 – 4.00 Strongly Agree/ excellent 2.5 – 3.24 Agree/ good 1.75 – 2.49 Disagree/ poor 1.00 – 1.74 Strongly Agree/ very poor Chi – Square Test of Homogeneity This is used to find out whether a significant difference in the responses exists when they are grouped according to their demographic profile. The formula is: X 2 = ∑ Where: X 2 = chi-square value 0 = observed frequencies E = Expected frequencies Multiple Linear Regressions Multiple regressions were used to find the predictors of employees' working performance. The formula is: Y = A + b1X1 + b2X2 Where: Y = dependent variable being predicted or explained A = constant or intercept bn = expected frequencies 36 X1 = independent variable explaining the variance of Y The statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), now also known as Predictive Analysis Software. 37 Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presented the data on tables with their corresponding analysis and interpretation. The presentation followed the sequence of the specific problem. Table 4.1 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to sex Table 4.1 shows that out of three hundred eighty eight (388) respondents, one hundred forty nine (149) or 41.6 percent are male while the female respondents are two hundred nine (209) comprising 58.4 percent of the population. The reason that the female respondents exceed the male respondents is that teaching is a female dominated profession. At Hung Vuong University, the female occupy nearly 70% of the total employees. Table 4.2 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to age Table 4.2 shows that two hundred forty one (241) or 67.3 percent (%) of the respondents are less than 35 years old. Fifty four (54) or fifteen (15) percent (%) of the Sex Frequency Percentage (%) Male 149 41.6 Female 209 58.4 Total 358 100 Age Frequency Percentage (%) Less than 35 241 67.3 From 36 to 45 54 15 From 46 to 60 63 17.7 Total 358 100 38 population are of age 36 to 45 years while the respondents from 46 to 60 are sixty three (63), comprising 17.7% of the population. Table 4.3 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to work units Table 4.3 shows that there were 241 respondents working in the units of administration among the total respondents of 388, comprising 37.7%. The respondents working in the units of training were 223, comprising 62.3%. Table 4.4 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to occupation Table 4.4 shows that there were 257 respondents working as teachers among the total respondents of 388, comprising 71.8%. The respondents working as staffs were 101, comprising 28.2%. In some work units at HVU, there are some people who work as teachers and administrators at the same time. These people occupy 26% of the total staffs. Work units Frequency Percentage (%) Administration 135 37.7 Training 223 62.3 Total 358 100 Work units Frequency Percentage (%) Teachers 257 71.8 Staffs 101 28.2 Total 358 100 39 Table 4.5 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to position Table 4.5 shows that there were six respondents at the top level of position among the total respondents of 388, comprising 1.7%. The respondents at middle level of position were 56, comprising 15.6%. The respondents who were ordinary staff and teachers were 296, comprising 82.7%. Table 4.6 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of the nature of work Factors (Variables) The Nature of work Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi – square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 3.24 3.25 0.995 0.904 3.25 3.22 3.25 0.543 0.975 3.20 3.28 0.735 0.441 2 2.90 2.78 0.529 0.164 2.78 2.96 2.92 0.401 0.183 2.85 2.82 0.944 0.683 3 3.03 3.01 0.293 0.887 3.03 2.94 3.03 0.782 0.767 3.04 3.00 0.590 0.656 4 3.09 3.17 0.354 0.356 3.19 2.96 3.11 0.491 0.163 3.11 3.16 0.318 0.596 5 3.02 3.10 0.092 0.366 3.12 2.85 3.06 0.421 0.105 3.02 3.09 0.676 0.426 6 2.71 2.84 0.483 0.202 2.76 2.87 2.83 0.879 0.701 2.82 2.77 0.954 0.596 7 3.08 3.11 0.574 0.768 3.11 3.07 3.06 0.941 0.902 3.15 3.06 0.508 0.316 Average weighted mean 3.01 3.03 0.247 0.395 3.03 2.98 3.03 0.339 0.532 3.03 3.03 0.990 0.928 Legend: Work unit: Adm: Administration; Tr: Training Work units Frequency Percentage (%) Top level 6 1.7 Middle level 56 15.6 Ordinary staff 296 82.7 Total 358 100 40 Factors (Variables) The Nature of work Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 3.28 3.18 0.294 0.369 2.83 3.14 3.28 0.180 0.332 2 2.83 2.82 0.971 0.908 3.17 3.02 2.79 0.115 0.082 3 3.02 3.01 0.995 0.889 2.67 3.07 3.02 0.910 0.515 4 3.14 3.15 0.851 0.895 3.50 3.14 3.13 0.864 0.529 5 3.09 3.01 0.785 0.413 3.33 3.07 3.06 0.995 0.727 6 2.79 2.78 0.996 0.945 3.17 3.00 2.74 0.203 0.108 7 3.09 3.10 0.897 0.951 2.50 3.11 3.10 0.223 0.169 Average weighted mean 3.03 3.01 0.944 0.44 3.02 3.07 3.01 0.565 0.363 Legend: Occupation: T: teachers; S: staff Table 4.6 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the nature of their work. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. In general, job satisfaction was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. Therefore, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. 41 Table 4.7 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of salaries and benefits Factors (Variables) Salaries and Benefits Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 2.93 3.08 0.305 0.105 3.01 3.09 2.98 0.309 0.750 3.06 2.99 0.279 0.450 2 2.82 2.73 0.081 0.268 2.73 2.87 2.89 0.267 0.325 2.77 2.77 0.204 0.964 3 2.94 3.03 0.126 0.254 2.95 3.11 3.06 0.692 0.278 3.06 2.96 0.445 0.214 4 2.74 2.92 0.053 0.290 2.83 2.83 3.90 0.107 0.814 2.81 2.87 0.499 0.559 5 2.88 2.82 0.468 0.507 2.80 2.93 2.94 0.846 0.363 2.84 2.85 0.698 0.862 Average weighted mean 2.86 2.92 0.468 0.147 2.87 2.95 2.96 0.351 2.53 2.91 2.89 0.584 0.575 Factors (Variables) Salaries and Benefits Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 2.96 3.16 0.004 0.042 3.00 2.79 3.06 0.024 0.073 2 2.77 2.77 0.895 0.947 3.00 3.00 2.72 0.046 0.220 3 2.96 3.08 0.527 0.19 2.50 2.87 3.03 0.286 0.111 4 2.86 2.82 0.941 0.714 2.33 2.80 2.86 0.013 0.243 5 2.87 2.78 0.504 0.336 3.00 3.07 2.80 0.126 0.055 Average weighted mean 2.88 2.92 0.311 0.351 2.77 2.91 2.89 0.835 0.660 Table 4.7 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the salary and benefits. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. However, the mean on salary and benefits was a little bit low. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. 42 Table 4.8 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Professional growth/ promotion Factors (Variables) Professional Growth/ promotion Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 2.96 2.84 0.279 0.117 2.83 3.15 2.90 0.480 0.010 2.95 2.86 0.223 0.230 2 2.74 2.73 0.953 0.778 2.72 2.70 2.81 0.579 0.523 2.76 2.72 0.346 0.599 3 2.90 2.90 0.440 0.998 2.94 2.83 2.81 0.433 0.330 2.81 2.96 0.082 0.054 4 2.86 2.90 0.839 0.555 2.92 2.76 2.86 0.086 0.244 2.85 2.90 0.201 0.477 5 2.89 2.90 0.702 0.812 2.89 2.96 2.87 0.950 0.757 2.81 2.95 0.075 0.068 6 2.87 2.63 0.209 0.077 2.68 2.57 2.75 0.297 0..292 2.66 2.69 0.034 0.632 Average weighted mean 2.85 2.82 0.707 0.283 2.83 2.83 2.83 0.493 0..996 2.80 2.85 0.167 0.163 Factors (Variables) Professional Growth/ promotion Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 2.89 2.88 0.541 0.867 2.83 3.21 2.83 0.002 0.001 2 2.72 2.77 0.302 0.445 2.83 2.77 2.73 0.757 0.815 3 2.94 2.80 0.172 0.100 2.33 2.89 2.91 0.331 0.136 4 2.90 2.83 0.204 0.343 3.00 2.82 2.89 0.366 0.678 5 2.92 2.84 0.251 0.365 3.17 2.84 2.90 0.579 0.546 6 2.69 2.65 0.007 0.617 2.67 2.73 2.67 0.831 0.769 Average weighted mean 2.84 2.80 0.204 0.142 2.81 2.88 2.82 0.280 0.371 Table 4.8 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the Professional Growth/ promotion. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. However, the mean on Professional Growth/ promotion is a little bit low. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. 43 Table 4.9 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of quality of supervision Factors (Variables) Professional Growth/ promotion Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 2.78 2.92 0.340 0.073 2.87 2.87 2.84 0.902 0.908 2.89 2.85 0.369 0.615 2 2.79 2.87 0.145 0.233 2.87 2.74 2.78 0.1170 0.325 2.70 2.92 0.000 0.002 3 3.00 3.08 0.470 0.314 3.09 3.09 2.84 .0163 0.056 3.04 3.05 0.626 0.953 4 2.91 2.93 0.967 0.740 2.93 2.89 2.94 0.889 0.937 2.92 2.92 0.776 0.949 5 2.75 2.78 0.125 0.707 2.78 2.74 2.71 0.865 0.658 2.79 2.75 0.829 0.616 6 2.68 2.69 0.451 0.943 2.68 2.76 2.67 0.410 0.601 2.61 2.74 0.002 0.04 7 2.95 3.01 0.912 0.483 3.00 2.91 3.00 0.812 0.706 3.06 2.94 0.273 0.151 8 2.89 3.00 0.161 0.206 3.00 2.96 2.78 0.502 0.139 3.01 2.92 0.603 0.269 9 3.02 2.94 0.211 0.376 2.95 3.07 2.98 0.880 0.614 2.96 2.98 0.859 0.877 Average weighted mean 2.86 2.91 0.253 0.068 2.91 2.89 2.84 0.450 0.160 2.89 2.90 0.731 0.726 Factors (Variables) Professional Growth/ promotion Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 2.86 2.86 0.446 0.978 2.67 2.89 2.86 0.663 2.78 2 2.89 2.69 0.000 0.011 3.33 2.77 2.84 0.261 0.14 3 3.06 3.02 0.408 0.663 3.00 2.96 3.06 0.895 0.65 4 2.91 2.94 0.610 0.768 3.00 2.8 2.94 0.611 0.44 5 2.78 2.73 0.799 0.505 2.83 2,77 2.76 0.822 0.96 6 2.72 2.59 0.014 0.054 2.67 2.7 2.69 0.294 0.99 7 2.95 3.09 0.170 0.103 2.50 2.95 3.00 0.583 0.24 8 2.93 3.02 0.661 0.334 3.00 2.86 2.97 0.074 0.60 9 3.00 2.91 0.757 0.403 2.67 3.04 2.97 0.459 0.59 Average weighted mean 2.90 2.87 0.836 0.377 2.85 2.86 2.90 0.825 0.506 Table 4.9 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the Quality of Supervision. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated 44 with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. However, the mean on Quality of Supervision is a little bit low. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. Table 4.10 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Interpersonal relationship Factors (Variables) Interpersonal Relationship Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 3.15 3.24 0.020 0.249 3.23 3.37 2.95 0.021 0.006 3.21 3.20 0.438 0.901 2 2.88 2.88 0.084 0.990 2.88 2.76 2.97 0.923 0.445 2.85 2.90 0.932 0.643 3 2.93 3.05 0.034 0.198 2.96 3.09 3.06 0.497 0.484 3.04 2.97 0.259 0.506 4 3.05 3.20 0.011 0.105 3.17 2.85 3.27 0.033 0.026 3.16 3.12 0.900 0.665 5 2.95 3.06 0.061 0.244 3.01 3.04 3.03 0.953 0.966 3.00 3.03 0.110 0.778 6 3.18 3.08 0.360 0.244 3.15 3.06 3.06 0.362 0.637 3.09 3.14 0.563 0.583 7 2.72 2.94 0..097 0.300 2.85 2.85 2.83 0.786 0.975 2.51 3.05 0.000 0.000 Average weighted mean 2.98 3.06 0.514 0.24 3.04 3.30 3.03 0.749 0.819 2.98 3.06 0.463 0.037 Factors (Variables) Interpersonal Relationship Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 3.21 3.18 0.522 0.714 0.88 3.17 3.14 3.21 0.806 2 2.89 2.85 0.925 0.705 0.86 3.17 2.86 2.88 0.719 3 2.98 3.05 0.670 0.482 0.32 3.50 3.05 2.98 0.310 4 3.12 3.18 0.662 0.581 0.02 2.50 2.98 3.18 0.064 5 3.02 3.02 0.026 0.967 0.73 3.17 3.05 3.01 0..855 6 3.12 3.11 0.460 0.874 0.13 3.50 2.93 3.15 0.104 7 3.02 2.43 0.000 0.000 0.05 2.83 2.96 2.83 0.594 Average weighted mean 3.05 2.97 0.854 0.055 0.61 3.12 3.00 3.03 0.64 Table 4.10 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the Interpersonal Relationship. This suggested that though the 12 45 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. Table 4.11 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Self-actualization and fulfillment Factors (Variables)Self- actualization and fulfillment Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 3.31 2.98 0.194 0.72 3.05 3.09 2.95 0.875 0.588 3.01 3.06 0.514 0.552 2 2.78 2.76 0.592 0.851 2.68 2.89 3.00 0.052 0.2 2.56 2.90 0.004 0.000 3 3.01 3.06 0.556 0.621 3.06 2.98 3.00 0.679 0.746 3.07 3.02 0.791 0.625 4 3.11 3.08 0.868 0.698 3.12 3.09 2.97 0.208 0.473 3.06 3.11 0.518 0.591 5 3.13 3.04 0.679 0.362 3.08 3 3.11 0.919 0.787 2.99 3.13 0.607 0.182 Average weighted mean 3.03 2.98 0.353 0.21 3.00 3.01 3.01 0.757 0.978 2.94 3.04 0.293 0.009 Factors (Variables)Self- actualization and fulfillment Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 3.04 3.04 0.795 0.994 2.83 3.04 3.04 0.572 0.809 2 2.88 2.48 0.001 0 3 3.13 2.70 0.308 0.003 3 3.02 3.08 0.790 0.567 3.33 2.91 3.06 0.013 0.327 4 3.08 3.13 0.540 0.631 3.83 2.88 3.12 0.047 0.22 5 3.1 3.02 0.844 0.47 3.5 3.04 3.07 0.942 0.496 Average weighted mean 3.02 2.95 0.274 0.086 3.3 3.00 3.00 0.194 0.147 Table 4.11 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of Self-actualization and fulfillment. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all 46 agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. Table 4.12 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Working environment Factors (Variables) Working environment Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 2.99 3.03 0.076 0.622 3.01 3.07 3.00 0.864 0.833 2.96 3.05 0.258 0.236 2 2.87 2.78 0.66 0.264 2.78 2.87 2.92 0.406 0.393 2.90 2.76 0.106 0.111 3 2.92 3.08 0.025 0.061 3 3.13 2.94 0.684 0.4 2.81 3.13 0.001 0.000 4 2.99 2.94 0.181 0.577 2.93 3.13 2.94 0.511 0.243 2.96 2.96 0.375 0.930 5 2.89 2.88 0.12 0.896 2.84 3.11 2.86 0.228 0.119 2.76 2.96 0.005 0.280 Average weighted mean 2.93 2.94 0.592 0.835 2.91 3.06 2.93 0.378 0.115 2.88 2.97 0.375 0.013 Factors (Variables) Working environment Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 3.05 2.94 0.125 0.35 3.17 3.02 3.01 0.98 0.888 2 2.79 2.89 0.153 0.271 3.17 2.89 2.79 0.295 0.4 3 3.09 2.81 0.008 0.002 3 2.96 3.02 0.16 0.886 4 2.99 2.87 0.515 0.206 2.83 3.16 2.92 0.551 0.123 5 2.95 2.71 0 0.019 2.67 2.91 2.89 0.002 0.81 Average weighted mean 2.97 2.84 0.06 0.019 2.97 2.99 2.93 0.855 0.463 Table 4.12 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the Working environment. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated 47 with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. Table 4.13 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Employee recognition Factors (Variables) Employee recognition Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 3.03 3.01 0.834 0.81 3.01 3.2 2.92 0.212 0.107 3.01 3.03 0.836 0.768 2 2.75 2.74 0.856 0.906 2.72 2.94 2.68 0.244 0.126 2.62 2.82 0.049 0.021 3 2.83 2.87 0.462 0.652 2.85 2.87 2.87 0.567 0.961 2.68 2.96 0.014 0.001 4 3.06 2.94 0.127 0.169 3.01 2.98 2.9 0.382 0.656 2.92 3.03 0.21 0.213 5 2.83 2.84 0.896 0.91 2.8 3.02 2.83 0.416 0.208 2.72 2.91 0.131 0.031 6 2.68 2.7 0.937 0.878 2.66 2.89 2.67 0.02 0.181 2.62 2.74 0.337 0.221 Average weighted mean 2.87 2.85 0.822 0.713 2.84 2.99 2.81 0.053 0.200 2.76 2.91 0.002 0.000 Factors (Variables) Employee recognition Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 3.05 2.95 0.495 0.253 3.33 3.05 3.01 0.404 0.543 2 2.8 2.61 0.159 0.047 3.5 2.71 2.74 0.204 0.060 3 2.95 2.61 0.003 0 2.83 3.04 2.82 0.561 0.180 4 3.02 2.91 0.272 0.266 3.17 2.88 3.01 0.256 0.482 5 2.89 2.71 0.272 0.069 2.83 2.84 2.84 0.802 1.000 6 2.73 2.59 0.45 0.167 3 2.77 2.67 0.093 0.497 Average weighted mean 2.9 2.73 0.000 0.000 3.11 2.88 2.85 0.183 0.209 Table 4.13 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their job satisfaction in terms of the Employee recognition. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents had some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed 48 and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, job satisfaction was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. Table 4.14 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Productivity Factors (Variables) Productivity Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 2.7 2.57 0.088 0.95 2.59 2.69 2.71 0.739 0.416 2.56 2.67 0.376 0.186 2 2.54 2.59 0.571 0.512 2.55 2.61 2.59 0.788 0.842 2.41 2.66 0.024 0.002 3 2.77 2.62 0.124 0.88 2.6 2.8 2.92 0.032 0.011 2.83 2.60 0.005 0.009 Average weighted mean 2.67 2.59 0.878 0.14 2.58 2.7 2.74 0.432 0.032 2.6 2.64 0.11 0.468 Factors (Variables) Productivity Occupation Top - Managers Mid- Managers Staffs Chi - square p- value T S Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean Mean 1 2.7 2.45 0.015 0.003 3.00 3.05 2.54 0.000 0.000 2 2.63 2.4 0.049 0.006 3.17 2.8 2.51 0.004 0.003 3 2.65 2.77 0.034 0.203 3.33 2.96 2.62 0.013 0.002 Average weighted mean 2.66 2.54 0.032 0.030 3.16 2.94 2.56 0.000 0.000 Table 4.14 exhibit the perception of 12 groups of respondents about their working performance in terms of Productivity. This suggested that though the 12 groups of respondents have some little different mean responses for some of the items, they all agreed and gave a ―good‖ rating for the majority of the items. Therefore, working performance was rated with good rating by 12 groups of the respondents. However, the mean on Productivity was a little bit low. In general, there were no significant differences between the groups' perception on this issue. 49 Table 4.15 Mean distribution for respondents’ perception in terms of Knowledge and skills Factors (Variables) Knowledge and skills Sex Age Work unit M F Chi - square p- value <35 36- 45 46- 60 Chi - square p- value Adm Tr Chi - square p- value Mean Mean Mean 1 2.77 2.67 0.237 0.236 2.64 2.87 2.83 0.074 0.052 2.56 2.67 0.881 0.186 2 2.73 2.64 0.475 0.23 2.62 2.83 2.75 0.209 0.117 2.41 2.66 0.483 0.002 3 2.89 3.11 0.004 0.001 3.05 3.15 2.79 0.000 0.005 2.83 2.6 0.000 0.009 Average weighted mean 2.79 2.81 0.862 0.77 2.77 2.95 2.79 0.003 0.016 2.6 2.64 0.000 0.468 Facto...enerally falls in the "Good" category; 1.5. The level of 12 groups of respondents' job satisfaction on "Interpersonal relationship" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 2.86, Female: 3.06, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 3.04; 36 - 45: 3.30; 46 - 60: 3.03, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.12, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 3.00; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 3.03; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.98, Group 10 (Work units of training): 3.06; Group 11 (teachers) : 3.05, Group 12 (staff) : 2.97. The results showed that the level of Hung Vuong University employees' job satisfaction on "Interpersonal relationship" generally falls in the "Good" category; 1.6. The level of 12 groups of respondents' job satisfaction on "Self-actualization and fulfillment" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 3.03, Female: 2.98, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 3.00; 36 - 45: 3.01; 46 - 60: 3.01, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.30, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 3.00; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 3.00; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.94, Group 10 (Work units of training): 3.04; Group 11 (teachers) : 3.2, Group 12 (staff) : 2.95. The results showed that the level of Hung Vuong University employees' job satisfaction on "Self-actualization and fulfillment" generally falls in the "Good" category. 69 1.7. The level of 12 groups of respondents' job satisfaction on "Working environment" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 2.93, Female: 2.94, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.91; 36 - 45: 3.06; 46 - 60: 2.93, Group 6 (Top level managers): 2.97, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.99; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.93; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.88, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.97; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.97, Group 12 (staff) : 2.84. The results showed that the level of Hung Vuong University employees' job satisfaction on "Working environment" generally falls in the "Good" category; 1.8. The level of 12 groups of respondents' job satisfaction on "Employees' recognition" were: Group 1: Male: 2.87, Group 2: Female: 2.85, (gender), Group 3 : < 35: 2.84; Group 4: 36 - 45: 2.99; Group 3: 46 - 60: 2.81,(Age), Group 3 (Top level managers): 3.11, Group 4 (Mid level managers): 2.88; Group 5 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.85; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.76, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.91; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.90, Group 12 (staff) : 2.73. The results showed that the level of Hung Vuong University employees' job satisfaction on "Employees' recognition" generally falls in the "Good" category. 2. When it comes to working performance, it was found out that: 2.1. The 12 groups of respondents' working performance on "Productivity" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 2.67, Female: 2.59, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.58; 36 - 45: 2.70; 46 - 60: 2.74, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.16, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.94; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.56; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.60, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.64; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.66, Group 12 (staff) : 2.54. The results showed that the Hung Vuong University's working performance on "Productivity" generally falls in the "Good" category; 2.2. The 12 groups of respondents' working performance on "Knowledge and skill" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 2.79, Female: 2.81, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.77; 36 - 70 45: 2.95; 46 - 60: 2.79, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.44, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.90; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.77; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.60, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.64; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.66, Group 12 (staff) : 2.54. The results showed that the Hung Vuong University's working performance on "Knowledge and skill" falls in the "Good" category; 2.3. The 12 groups of respondents' working performance on "Communication" were: Group 1: 2 (Gender): Male: 2.64, Female: 2.64, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.65; 36 - 45: 2.64; 46 - 60: 2.61, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.28, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.80; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.60; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.59, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.67; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.69, Group 12 (staff) : 2.53. The results showed that the Hung Vuong University's working performance on "Communication" falls in the "Good" category; 2.4. The 12 groups of respondents' working performance on "Problem solving" were: Group 1; 2 Gender): Male: 2.92, Female: 2.86, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.87; 36 - 45: 2.89; 46 - 60: 2.94, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.25, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.95; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.87; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.91, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.87; Group 11 (teachers): 2.87, Group 12 (staff) : 2.92. The results showed that the Hung Vuong University's working performance on "Problem solving" falls in the "Good" category; 2.5. The 12 groups of respondents' working performance on "Attendance and punctually" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 2.93, Female: 2.86, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.86; 36 - 45: 2.88; 46 - 60: 2.98, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.06, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.98; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.87; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.92, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.87; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.88, Group 12 (staff) : 2.90. The results showed that the Hung Vuong 71 University's working performance on "Attendance and punctually" falls in the "Good" category; 2.6. The 12 groups of respondents' working performance on "Team work/collaboration" were: Group 1; 2 (Gender): Male: 2.80, Female: 2.72, Group 3; 4; 5 (Age): < 35: 2.73; 36 - 45: 2.79; 46 - 60: 2.81, Group 6 (Top level managers): 3.04, Group 7 (Mid level managers): 2.87; Group 8 (Ordinary staff & teachers): 2.73; Group 9 (Work units of administration): 2.90, Group 10 (Work units of training): 2.66; Group 11 (teachers) : 2.69, Group 12 (staff) : 2.92. The results showed that the Hung Vuong University's working performance on "Team work/collaboration" falls in the "Good" category. 3. The results of regression analysis The results of regression analysis showed that the two variables of job satisfaction: Salary and benefits and Employee recognition (Sig<0.05) could be the predictors of working performance. 4. The results of One - way ANOVA analysis The results of One - way ANOVA analysis showed that apart from the two factors of salary and benefits and employee recognition in the regression analysis model, there were three more factors affecting working performance and were also the predictors of working performance, including: 4.1. The groups of managers and staff, among which the top managers had highest working performance, following was the mid level managers and the lowest was the staff group. 4.2. The group of gender, among which the working performance of the group of male was higher than the group of female. 4.3. The groups of age, among which the highest working performance belonged to the 46 - 60 years old group, following was the 36 - 45 years old group and the lowest was the under 35 years old group. 72 5. Problems and solutions Through the survey, there were some prominent difficulties for the school to find solutions, which were the employees' worries on almost all the factors of job satisfaction and working performance (Over 30% of respondents disagreed with the school's current policies on almost all the factors of Job satisfaction and working performance). Therefore, it is an urgent work now for the school to adjust its policies to improve its employees' living conditions, working environment, staff development, and working and living skills. Conclusions Based on the findings the followings are the conclusions: 1. The perception of the 12 groups of respondents on job satisfaction and working performance had some little differences on some of the items; however they all agreed and gave a good rating for majority of the items. In general, the managers of both levels felt more satisfied than the ordinary staff and teachers. 2. Salaries and Benefits, Employee recognition, Ranking status, Gender issue, and Age issue were the best to predict the employees' working performance. The findings were indicative that the employees' satisfaction and working performance still need further improvement. Since most of the difficulties identified were seen related to individuals of both managers and ordinary employees. 3. The proposed solutions generally are to adjust the school policies which lead to the key to successful implementation of the employee's performance evaluation and job satisfaction and job performance improvement. Management effort and initiatives must be required to efficiently implement the job satisfaction and job performance improvement. 73 Recommendations From the cited summary of findings and conclusions, the following are hereby recommended: 1. The school’s improvement on the employees’ job satisfaction and working performance must be continuously given attention by all the managers, staffs and teachers of the school by producing a long term concrete and detailed plan to make the employees' job satisfaction and working performance get on well, in terms of the Nature of work; Salary and Benefits; Professional growth/promotion; Quality of supervision; Interpersonal relationship; Self-actualization and fulfillment; Working environment; and Employee Recognition for job satisfaction and Productivity; Job knowledge and skills; Communication; Problem solving; Attendance and Punctuality; Team work for working performance. 2. In order to increase the employees’ ''Job satisfaction and working performance, the school must design and implement the strategic development program to develop advanced curricula for the training programs; to develop the staffs and faculty to meet the development of the Higher education nation-wide and world-wide; to modernize the school facilities, and; to improve the Job satisfaction and working performance of Hung Vuong Personnel. In order to carry out the strategic development program effectively, the school has to make a road map for the program, in which it is divided into specific annually plans from 2012 to 2020. Each annual plan contains specific task load relating to each objective. 3. The strategic development program must be carried out with the enthusiastic participation of all the teachers and staffs, and the close monitoring of the managers of all levels to make the school develop in a stable way. 4. The school has to adjust the policies in the fields of salary and benefits, employee recognition, gender, age and ranking status so that they can help improve the employees' job satisfaction and working performance. 74 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: the influence of identity. Academy of Management Review. BAI Xiaojun, ZHOU Fei, (2008) ―The employees’ performance management in View of Psychological Boundaries‖, Master’s thesis, Shenyang Ligong University, P.R. China. Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel Selection in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bowling, N. A., Beehr, T. A., Wagner, S. H., & Libkuman, T. M. (2005). Adaptation-Level Theory, Opponent Process Theory, and Dispositions: An Integrated Approach to the Stability of Job Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology. Bowling, N.A. (2007). ―Is the Job Satisfaction-Job Performance Relationship Spurious: A Meta-Analytic Examination‖. Journal of Vocational Behavior. Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Campbell, J. P., McCloy, R. A., Oppler, S. H., & Sager, C. E. (1993). A theory of performance. In N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel Selection in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cohen, A., & Golan, R. (2007). ―Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes‖. Career Development International. Fisher D. (2000). ―Mood and emotions while working: missing pieces of job satisfaction‖. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Garcia, Maximino Jr. M. Job Satisfaction of Elementary School Teachers in Low Performing Schools of the Division of Lucena City: Basis for Intervention Program. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon (2011) ―How Employee Recognition Programmers Improve Retention‖. (2013). CFO Insight Magazine. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., & Bono, J. E. (1998). The power of being positive: The relation between positive self-concept and job performance. Human Performance. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior. Kacmar, K. M.; Harris, K. J.; Collins, B. J. & Judge, T. A. (2009). Core self-evaluations and job performance: the role of the perceived work environment. Journal of Applied Psychology. Mentilla, Sr. Leonarda C. MCST. (2007). Job Satisfaction of the Teaching Personnel in 75 Selected Missionary of St. Therese Supervised LICEO Schools: A Program on Human Resource Management. Unpublished Master’s Thesis: Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon. Moorman, R.H. (1993). "The influence of cognitive and affective based job satisfaction measures on the relationship between satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior". Human Relations. Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1997). ―Managing emotions in the workplace‖. Journal of Managerial Issues. Mount, M., Ilies, R., & Johnson, E. (2006). ―Relationship of personality traits and counterproductive work behaviors: The mediating effects of job satisfaction‖. Personnel Psychology. Ngo T. M. H. (2005). ―Human resource training and development in state – enterprise in the period of integration‖, Master’s thesis. Pham, T. N. (2005). ―Research and propose solutions to improve efficiency for human resource’s management and use in the process of industrialization and modernization‖, Doctor’s Dissertations, Institute for Human’s Research, Vietnam. Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy- capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology. Saari, L. M., & Judge, T. A. (2004). ―Employee attitudes and job satisfaction‖. Human Resource Management. Sackett, P. R., & DeVore, C. J. (2001). Counterproductive behaviors at work. In N. Anderson, D. Ones, H. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work, and organizational psychology. London, UK: Sage. Schermerhorn, J.R. (1993). Management for productivity, 4th ed. Canada: John Wiley & Sons. Iacob, G.A. , Cuza, A. I. (2010). Factors that determine job performance, University of Iasi, Romania 76 Appendices 77 Appendix A REQUEST LETTER FOR CONDUCTING THE STUDY Letter to Teacher Respondent The Socialist Republic of Vietnam Phu Tho Provincial Committee Hung Vuong University August 02, 2013 Dear SIR/MADAM I am presently conducting my dissertation in the title "Job satisfaction and working performance of personnel at Hung Vuong University, Phu Tho, Vietnam: A proposed strategic development program” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy in Educational management. In connection to this, I would like to ask permission from your department to allow me to distribute the questionnaires to the personnel of your department. The data that will be gathered from them will serve the purpose of the research. Attached here with, is the sample of questionnaire survey form for your reference. I am hoping for your kind approval to this request. Thank you very much. Yours truly, (Sgd.) NGUYEN NHAT DANG MICHAEL), HVU Resercher Noted: (Sgd.) DR. Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa Research Adviser 78 Letter to Teacher Respondent The Socialist Republic of Vietnam Phu Tho Provincial Committee Hung Vuong University June 10, 2013 Dear Sir/ Madam Greetings of peace! The undersigned is presently conducting a study entitled "Job satisfaction and working performance of personnel at Hung Vuong University, Phu Tho, Vietnam: A proposed strategic development program" in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy in Educational management. In this connection, may the researcher request you to share with him your most precious time by accomplishing the attached questionnaires. They are designed to gather information about Job satisfaction and working performance of personnel at Hung Vuong University. Your full cooperation and patience in accomplishing these questionnaires will be of great help to him. Kindly provide all the necessary information as objectively as possible. Rest assured that all information that will be gathered will be held strictly confidential. Thank you in advance. Best wishes to you and family. Yours sincerely, (Sgd.) NGUYEN NHAT DANG (MICHAEL), HVU Researcher Noted: (Sgd.) DR. Apolonia A. Espinosa Research Adviser 79 Appendix B QUESTIONNAIRE The researcher will adapt a questionnaire, which was the main tool in gathering data. The questionnaire is divided into parts namely: Part I, which deals with the employees' job satisfaction, and Part II, which deals with the employees' working performance with the identified variables for each one. Part I: Employee's Job satisfaction 1. The nature of work How employees enjoy their work The right work for right people's professionals, skills and positions The work description of employees The job's clear objectives 2. Salaries and Benefits Being paid a fair amount for the work done Being satisfied with the chances for salary increases The salary policy is suitable or not Good policy of insurance (Social insurance, health care insurance ) Extra income, traveling, presents on special occasions ... Have worthy rewards to the good employees 3. Professional Growth/ promotion: Those who do well on the job stand a fair chance of being promoted The employees are satisfied with the fair chances for promotion The healthy and transparent policy of promotion and professional development 4. Quality of Supervision: The competence of managers in both areas: profession and management The ethics of leaders 80 The leaders' strategy of the organization's development 5. Interpersonal Relationship: How the people to work with (colleagues, co-worker) at work place are How often to do team work The competence of colleagues Collaboration between colleagues Effective communication between the staffs, teachers, students and school about the concerned problems 6. Self-actualization and fulfillment Employees' commitment, pride and motivation with their work Employees' dedication, responsibility and internalization with their work 7. Working environment: The working time is suitable The university provides support strategies by giving people the tools, equipment and information to get the job done The workforce conditions encourage capabilities and emphasize the worth of individuals. 8. Employee Recognition: Receive the recognition if doing the job well. The job is always being appreciated. Receive rewards and appraisals in time. Employees' opportunities to participate in any school's programs 81 PART I. QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT JOB SATISFACTION Name of employee: Sex: .. Age: Work unit: .. Occupation: .................................................................................... Position: . Directions: Read each statement carefully. Please check the column that best corresponds to your answer. Legend: Strongly Agree (SA) 4 Agree (A) 3 Disagree (D) 2 Strongly Disagree (SD) 1 The Nature of work SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) 1 Each employee has a clear job description 2 Employees find their work interesting. 3 Employees are given work appropriate to their academic qualifications. 4 Employees are given work in consonance with their position. 5 The employees are given the opportunity to use their skills in the performance of their work. 6 The work's objectives are clear. 7 Employees use their time wisely. Salaries and Benefits 8 I am given salary that enables me to live a decent life. 9 I am given salary commensurate to the nature of my work. 10 I receive my salary on time. 11 I am given other benefits such as insurance, social and health care. 12 The University has clear and transparent policy on salary. Professional Growth/ promotion 13 Those who do well on the job has a fair chance of being promoted. 14 I am allowed by the school to grow in my work. 15 I participate in decision making. 16 I am engaged in self-development activity. 82 17 I am provided by the school the opportunity to asses my strengths and weaknesses as a school personnel. 18 The University's policy on promotion is fair, healthy and transparent. Quality of Supervision 19 My supervisor (boss or dean) is competent in both profession and management. 20 My supervisor is fair to me. 21 I learn from my administrators. 22 Supervisors always leave the door open for discussion among their employees. 23 My supervisor praises employees for their efforts and accomplishments. 24 I am given freedom to program my activities. 25 I can open up with my superiors. 26 I enjoy the support of my superior in my decisions and plans. 27 I am happy with the environment created by my administrators. Interpersonal Relationship 28 I like the people (colleagues, co-worker) in my office 29 Employees often work in teams with good collaboration. 30 I find I have to improve my professional knowledge and skills because of the competence of people I work with. 31 I conduct conferences with parents regarding the students’ progress and concerns. 32 I get assistance from colleagues regarding problems at work. 33 Employees treat with respect those they work with. 34 I effectively communicate ideas openly with teachers, superiors and other school personnel. Self-actualization and fulfillment 35 I am committed in my profession as teaching personnel. 36 I am motivated by my feelings. 37 I perform my duties as a teacher with dedication. 38 I internalize the vision and mission of my school 39 I feel worthy by accomplishing my assignment. Working environment 40 The working time is suitable to me. 41 The university provides adequate and well functioning devices. 83 42 The university provides adequate supplies and materials. 43 I am provided with a clean and comfortable area. 44 I am provided with time and other work aids necessary to use new skills. Employee recognition 45 I feel that the work I do is appreciated. 46 I am acknowledged by others of my contribution as a school personnel. 47 I have a lot of chances of applying the training and retraining development program 48 I am seen by others as an optimistic individual. 49 I am given awards by the school for services rendered. 50 I am accepted as a person by my superior and my fellow workers. Thank you for your responses 84 Part II: Employees’ working performance 1. Productivity Complete work thoroughly, accurately, neatly, and according to specifications Produce output quickly, in an efficient manner, and with minimal errors. Develop and follow work procedures. 2. Job Knowledge or skills Understand job's duties and responsibilities Have necessary job skills and knowledge. Understand and promote department missions and values. 3. Communication: Effectively convey and receive ideas, information and directions. Interact with others in a helpful and information manner Demonstrate good verbal and written communication Make effective clear and easy oral and written communication 4. Problem Solving: Anticipate and prevent problems. Define problems and central issues Collect and evaluate significant of relevant information Evaluate options, propose and implements the sound solutions Help team solve problems. Suggests innovation to improve operations or streamline procedures 5. Attendance or punctuality Consistently on time at work Attend all scheduled events in a punctual manner Always provides proper request for leave 85 Attend all scheduled staff meetings, staff in-services, coaches meetings Provide accurate contact information when out of the office 6. Teamwork/Collaboration: Work effectively with other employees and departments Contribute to team projects and exchange ideas, opinions. Help prevent, resolve conflicts. Help improve work, possess and accomplish specific tasks 86 PART II. QUESTIONNAIRE ON WORKING PERFORMANCE Directions: Read each statement carefully. Please check the column that best corresponds to your answer. Legend: Strongly Agree (SA) 4 Disagree (D) 2 Agree (A) 3 Strongly Disagree (SD) 1 Productivity SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) 1 I always develop and follow work procedures. 2 I always complete work thoroughly, accurately, neatly, and according to specifications 3 I always produce output quickly, in an efficient manner, and with minimal errors Knowledge and skills 4 I always understand jobs, duties and responsibilities 5 I always possesses sufficient skill and knowledge 6 I always consider the individual’s efforts to learn new skills and maintain up-to-date job related information Communication 7 I always keep and update information of the latest developments in the area of specialization. 8 I always convey and receive ideas, information and directions effectively. 9 I demonstrate good verbal and written communication Problem solving 10 I always define, anticipate and prevent problems. 11 I always collect and evaluate significant and relevant information 12 I always help team solve problems. 13 I always help, prevent, and resolve conflicts. 87 Attendance and punctuality 14 I am always punctual and regular in attendance: arrives on time and ready for the workday. 15 I always attend all scheduled events, staff meetings etc in a punctual manner 16 I always provide proper notification or advance notice of absence or tardiness. Team work/Collaboration 17 Employees always contribute to team work and exchange ideas, opinions 18 Employees always help each other to improve work process and accomplish given tasks. 19 Employees always help each other to prevent and resolve conflicts 20 I always respond clearly and directly Thank you for your responses 88 RESEARCHER'S PROFILE NGUYEN NHAT DANG (MICHAEL) Phu Tho province Phu Tho town Hung Vuong Ward Tel. No. (084) 01688 540 313 A. PERSONAL DATA Status Age Date of Birth Place of birth Address Phone/ Mobile Father Mother Wife First son Second son : Buddhist : 55 : March 20, 1959 : Vietnam, Phu Tho province : Phu Tho province,Phu Tho town, Hung Vuong Ward : born 1919 (dead) : born 1920 (dead) : Pham Le Thuy, born 1968, teacher : Nguyen Nhat Anh, born 1992, student : Nguyen Nhat Phuong, born 1997, student B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Degree Ph.D.Ed.M MAED BAED Secondary School Southern Luzon State University Victoria University, Australia Ha Noi college of Foreign Studies Ha Noi gifted school Year Graduated 2014 2001 1981 1976 PORTRAIT 89 Junior secondary Khai Xuan secondary school 1973 Elementary Khai Xuan primary school 1970 C. ELIGIBILITIES Manager (Professional) Teachers (Professional) D. WORK EXPERIENCES 2010- date 2006-2010 1996-2006 1981-1996 Personnel manager Research Planning manager Teaching manager Teaching Hung Vuong University (Phu Tho, Viet Nam) Hung Vuong University (Phu Tho, Viet Nam) Hung Vuong University (Phu Tho, Viet Nam) Local schools in Phu Tho, Viet nam E. POSITIONS HELD 2010- date 2006-2010 1996-2006 1987-1996 1985-1987 1983-1985 1981-1983 Personnel director Deputy chief of Research Planning Department Vice Dean, Dept of Foreign languages. Teacher at Agro-forestry Vocational school Teacher at Thanh Ba secondary school Teacher at Phong Chau secondary school Teacher at Doan Hung secondary school Hung Vuong University (Phu Tho, Viet Nam) Hung Vuong University (Phu Tho, Viet Nam) Hung Vuong University (Phu Tho, Viet Nam) Phu Tho Agro-forestry vocational school Thanh Ba secondary school, Phu tho, Vietnam Phong Chau secondary school, Phu Tho, Vietnam Doan Hung secondary school, Phu Tho, Vietnam 90 F. SEMINARS ATTENDED Conference on Management in personnel and finance at the state administration organizations Vung Tau, province, Viet Nam April 8, 2014 Seminars on Management in training at local universities in Vietnam Thanh Hoa province, Viet Nam February 11-16, 2012 Workshop on Management in training Otago University, Newzealand May, 2004

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