Assessment of the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Hai phong city: Basis for an intervention program

ASSESSMENT OF THE LEADERSHIP STANDARDS OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEADERS IN HAI PHONG CITY: BASIS FOR AN INTERVENTION PROGRAM A Dissertation Presented To The Faculty of the Graduate School Southern Luzon State University, the Philippines In Collaboration with Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy In Educational Management NGUYEN THI DAT KHOA - (LUCY) April 2014 ii APPROVAL SHEE

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T In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management, this research entitled “Assessment of the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City: Basis for an Intervention Program” has been prepared and submitted by Nguyen Thi Dat Khoa (Lucy) and is hereby recommended for oral examination. ___________________________________ DR. RICARYL CATHERINE P. CRUZ Research Adviser Approved by the Oral Examination Committee, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management offered by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. __________________________ _____________________________ Member Member ____________________________ DR. SUSANA A. SALVACION Chairman Dean, Graduate School Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management offered by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ____________ DR. WALBERTO A. MACARAAN Date Vice President for Academic Afairs iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Writing a doctoral dissertation is a gratifying but difficult and sometimes nerve wrecking endeavor that only few engaged in because it requires a lot of sacrifices and hard work from the researcher. However, at the end of the task, one experiences a wonderful feeling of joy, happiness, relief and fulfillment. The researcher would like to extend her sincerest gratitude and thanks to the following people who were very instrumental in the fulfillment of this research. DR. CECILIA N. GASCON, President of the Southern Luzon State University in the Republic of the Philippines, for her untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is possible thus enabling her to pursue the Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management; DR. DANG KIM VUI, President of Thai Nguyen in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, for his untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is worthy for implementation; DR. NGUYEN THE HUNG, Director of the International Training Center, Thai Nguyen University of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, for his significant concern to provide the Vietnamese people an opportunity to grow through education; DR. RICARYL CATHERINE P. CRUZ, her adviser, for the guidance and endless support for the improvement of this study. DR. APOLONIA A. ESPINOSA, DR. WALBERTO A. MACARAAN, DR. BELLA R. MUELLO, and DR. TERESITA V. DE LA CRUZ who composed the Oral Defense Committee, for their suggestions, comments and corrections to improve this study; ITC STAFF, for providing the necessary research materials; HER FAMILY and FRIENDS, for the love and support in one way or the other; And TO ALL who have contributed to make this study a success. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Page APPROVAL SHEET .......................................................................................... ACKNOWLEDGMENT ..................................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................. LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ LIST OF APPENDICES ..................................................................................... ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ ii iii iv vi viii ix x Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the Study ........................................................ Objectives of the Study ............................................................ Hypothesis ................................................................................ Significance of the Study ......................................................... Scope and Limitation of the Study ..................................... Definition of Terms ................................................................ 3 7 8 8 9 9 Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES 12 Related Literature and Study ............................................... 12 Conceptual Framework ............................................................ 29 Research Paradigm ................................................................... 31 v Chapter III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 32 Locale of the Study .................................................................. Research Design ....................................................................... Respondents of the Study ......................................................... Instrumentation ........................................................................ Data Gathering Procedure ....................................................... Statistical Treatment ................................................................ 32 32 32 33 34 34 Chapter IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 38 Profile of respondents .............................................................. Perception of the Respondents on the Current Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City ........................................................................................... Perception of the Respondents on the Current Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City ..................................................................... Proposed Intervention Program 38 46 55 68 Chapter V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 76 Summary ............................................................................... Findings ................................................................................ Conclusions ........................................................................... Recommendations ..................................................................... 76 76 78 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 APPENDICES 83 CURRICULUM VITAE 123 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Scale of values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Civil Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 5 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Educational Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Monthly Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Length of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Length of Management Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 9 Mean Distribution of the Responses on the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City in terms of Shared Vision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10 Mean Distribution of the Responses on the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City in Terms of Culture of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 11 Mean Distribution of Responses on the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City in Terms of Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 12 Mean Distribution of the Responses on the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City in Terms of Family and Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 13 Mean Distribution of the Responses on the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Hai Phong City in Terms of Ethics . . . . . . 52 14 Mean Distribution of the Responses on the Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Haiphong City in Terms of Societal Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 15. Correlation of the Responses on Shared vision with profile of Respondent 55 vii 16. Correlation of the Responses on Culture of Learning with profile of Respondent 57 17. Correlation of the Responses on Management with profile of Respondent 60 18. Correlation of the Responses on Family and Community with profile of Respondent 62 19. Correlation of the Responses on Ethics with profile of Respondent 64 20. Correlation of the Responses on Societal Context with profile of Respondent 66 viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Input-Process-Output on the Perceived Leadership Standards Of the Secondary School Leaders: Basis for an Intervention 31 2. Administrative Map of Hai Phong City 37 ix LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page A Letter to Respondents and Questionnaire 83 B Raw Data 91 C Weighted mean for Gender, age in leadership standards of Shared Vision; Culture of Learning; Management; Family and Community; Ethics; and Societal Context. 99 D Weighted mean Monthly income, Civil status, Education attainment in leadership standards of Shared Vision; Culture of Learning; Management; Family and Community; Ethics; and Societal Context. 100 E Weighted mean for Length of service, Length of management experiences in leadership standards of Shared Vision; Culture of Learning; Management; Family and Community; Ethics; and Societal Context. 101 F Chi – Square Analysis between Share vision and Profile 102 of the principal asked x Title: ASSESSMENT OF THE LEADERSHIP STANDARDS OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEADERS IN HAI PHONG CITY: BASIS FOR AN INTERVENTION PROGRAM Researcher: NGUYEN THI DAT KHOA – LUCY Degree Doctor of Philosophy, Educational Management Nam/ Address of the Institution Southern Luzon State University Graduate School Lucban, Quezon Date Completed April 2014 Adviser DR. RICARYL CATHERINE P. CRUZ ABSTRACT The primary intent of this study was an assessment of the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Hai Phong City, as a basis for intervention program. The leadership standards of the secondary school leaders essential for analysis are shared vision, culture of learning, management, family and community, ethics, and societal context. This includes the perception of the respondents on the current leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Hai Phong City; determine the problems encountered in the current leadership standards of the secondary school leaders; ascertain the significant difference on the problems encountered when the respondents are grouped according to their profile and propose an intervention program to enhance the leadership standard of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City. This study used correlation in analyzing the variables. Measurement of the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders is limited from the questionnaire. The questionnaire was used as a major data-gathering instrument and the unstructured interview was done to cross check the responses of the respondents. There xi were 203 leaders (principals/headmasters) used as respondents in the study. The weighted mean and the Chi - Square value analysis were used to analyze the data. In the evaluation based on the criteria of leaders, the secondary-school principals in Hai Phong have been good in reviewing the content in general. However, some specific works considered could not have been well-done. For instance: in utilizing researches and/or best practices in improving the educational program aligning and implementing the educational programs, plans, actions, and resources with the district's vision and goals; providing leadership for assessing, developing and improving climate and culture; evaluating staff and providing ongoing coaching for improvement; articulating the desired school culture and showing evidence about how it is reinforced; recruiting, selecting, inducting, and retraining staff to support quality instruction; managing fiscal and physical resources responsibly, efficiently, and effectively; proving and demonstrating appreciation and sensitivity to diversity in the school community; implement appropriate strategies to reach the desired goals. With this, the study has offered improvement of the quality and efficiency of the principals’ activities, aiming primarily on the weak contents focusing on the following issues: management of administrators, teachers, and staff; management of finance and facilities; implementation of the principal evaluation. It is therefore recommended that the principals with their concerted efforts enrich the teacher characteristics so as to arm them better for a positive learning climate, improve their technology adeptness’ and that could enhance students’ motivation and self-regulation. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Education is the key to sustain development in Vietnam. Education is an indispensable means for socio-economic development of the country in the cause of industrialization and modernization. The Party and the State always considered education as a top national policy. To develop education, educational management plays a key role to determine the quality and effectiveness of the educational activities. Haiphong port city is the first center urban type of national level which has an important position in the socio- economic and security and defense of the northern regions of the country. Haiphong has natural area of 1519.2 km2, population of 1842.8 thousand people and 15 administrative divisions. Haiphong (7 urban districts and 8 suburban districts) – a key economic center of the northern region with enormous potentiality. XIVth Party Congress Resolution city has identified development goals of the city in 2015, which is: "To promote comprehensive, the potential advantages of the port city, focus all resources to promote the process of industrialization, modernization and international integration, to create a breakthrough development of Haiphong in 2015, a city to become an industrial port services towards civilization, the university; rapid economic development and sustainability; urban development deserve the grade I-national urban centers; cultural development is the spiritual foundation of society; defense-enhanced security; leadership, the political, the battle of the whole Party and the effectiveness and efficiency of the political system continues to be improved; ensure progress, justice, social security; continue to improve and enhance the quality of life of the people. " The reality of Vietnamese secondary education shows that the educational managers are the ones who lead and manage the overall educational activities at school. This is the all over educational process with the goals of developing over ally the junior secondary students (year 2 6 - year 9 classes) in the direction of forming and enhancing the students’ morality, and broadening the educational scale in a reasonable way. However, in the process of managing the schools, the managers cannot change the school activities themselves because one of the facets of management is the implementation of every activity which can only be done by the efforts of the other people. If the managers would like the staffs to participate in the process, the managers have to make them become aware of the policies and accept them. For a school, the teachers and staffs are the ones who support and create the potential for the head masters to carry out the changes if they are the right ones. It is believed that the teachers and staffs are the people who play the decisive roles for the school successes. If they would like to renovate the educational system to meet the needs of the society, each school has to train and educate the teachers and staffs to become highly qualified ones, who have good political value, good morality, and endless love with the children and the teaching profession. Therefore, one of the heaviest duties of the educational managers is to build up a strong force of teachers and staffs for the schools. So, it is for sure that, if a school would like to increase the quality of education, the first thing it must have is a highly qualified managers, who have good morality, knowledge and skills to lead the school. The managers have to build up a suitable system of managerial policies on the foundation of the good relationship between the school, community and students’ families. This can be a firm foundation for him/her to form his/her strategic plans. In order to achieve those goals, the educational and training programs of Haiphong city need to have the important change. The city has to set up its close administration on education with the first work of building up a strong educational management. It is now an urgent work for the researcher to help the city leaders to find out the best policies to train the good head masters, and to evaluate and manage them. This can be a good foundation for the city to create the strategic plan to develop the education of the city. 3 Background of the Study The Vietnamese inherited a high respect for learning. Under Confucianism, education was essential for admission to the ruling class of scholar-officials, the Mandarinate Under French rule, even though Vietnamese were excluded from the colonial power elite, education was a requisite for employment in the colonial civil service and for other white-collar, high- status jobs. In divided Vietnam, education has continued to be a channel for social mobility in both the North and the South. Before the 1950s, poverty was a major impediment to learning, and secondary and higher education were beyond the reach of all but only a small number of upper class people. Subsequently, however, rival regimes in Hanoi and Saigon broadened educational opportunities. Both governments accomplished this despite the shortage of teachers, textbooks, equipment, and classrooms, as gravitated by the disruptions of war in the 1960s and the early 1970s. The school system was originally patterned after the French model, but the curriculum was revised to give more emphasis to Vietnamese history, language, and literature and, in Hanoi, to the teaching of revolutionary ethics and Marxism-Leninism. ( In Vietnam, children enjoyed 12 years of basic education on a half-day basis before they moved on to college or university or began to work. Education played a central role in Vietnam. Not only was the devotion to study one of society’s core values, but education was, of course, also perceived as a chance of advancement. There were huge education needs for Vietnam’s young ones, and the public school system could not always satisfy them. In general, families invested a lot of time and money to send their children to a good school and ensured they would have a bright future. ( expats/guide/living-in-vietnam-15470/education-in-vietnam-3). Education had always had a central role in Vietnam culture and society. It was seen as the avenue of advancement and families routinely sacrifice much to ensure their offspring get 4 the required education. The government of Vietnam had for some time set the priority of education in terms of its budget. In 2008, the Department of Finance and Planning, MOET reported that education occupied approximately 20 percent of all state budget expenditures and accounted for 5.5 percent of GDP. (Christopher Runckel, President of Runckel & Associates) Dr. Nguyen Van Trang, Director General of the Secondary Education Department, Ministry of Education and Training stated in his writing entitled Secondary Education in Vietnam that “Vietnam's Education Law dated December 11, 1998 had affirmed that the goals of education were to comprehensively develop Vietnam's human resource, with morality, knowledge, good health, and loyalty to the idea of national independence and socialism; to develop individual personality and capacity for the building and protection of the country. The goals set forth for secondary education are students' all-round development in terms of morality, physical body, arts, and basic skills so that they could be prepared to pursue further studies or to become fully responsible citizens contributing to the building of the country. There were specific objectives designed for each level within the secondary education. Basic secondary education strengthened and enhanced students' achievements gained from lower education, developed their basic knowledge and introduced technical and vocational skills so that they could follow their future studies at high schools, vocational college or go to work. High school education further developed students' knowledge after basic secondary education with vocational orientation so that after graduation, high school students could join the university programs or vocational colleges or directly go to work. (Oct 12, 2006, Dr. Sharma (2009) stated that “Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations, they had consistently argued that educational management had to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. 5 These purposes or goals provided the crucial sense of direction to underpin the management of educational institutions. Unless this link between purpose and management was clear and close, there was a danger of “managerialisma stress on procedures at the expense of no super-ordinate goals or values of its own. The pursuit of efficiency may be the mission statement and objectives which others define”. (Educational Management: a Unified Approach of Education, Dr. S.L. Sharma, Global India Publications Pvt Ltd., 2009) School leadership had become a priority in education policy agenda across OECD and partner countries. It has played a key role in improving school outcomes by influencing the motivations and capacities of teachers, as well as the environment in which they worked. At the interface between classrooms, individual schools and the outside world, school leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling. As countries have been seeking to adapt their education systems to the needs of contemporary society, the expectations for schools and school leaders have changed profoundly. The role of school leaders has been evolving in response to shifting expectations for schools and educational policies that stress decentralization, autonomy and accountability, as well as new understandings of teaching and learning. Once limited to the functions of bureaucratic administrator or head teacher, school leadership has now been increasingly defined by a far larger and more demanding set of roles including financial and human resource management and leadership for learning. In many countries today, the men and women who have run schools are overburdened, underpaid and near retirement, whereby there have been only few people lining up for their jobs. Policymakers needed to adapt school leadership policy to new environment by addressing the major challenges that had arisen and intensified over the past decades. As expectations of what school leaders should achieve have been changed, the definition and distribution of tasks, as well as the levels of training, support and incentives need revision. (www.oecd.org/edu/schoolleadership) 6 Haiphong was a coastal city in a distance of 102 kilometers to the Northeast of Hanoi capital, borders with Quang Ninh province to the North, Hai Duong province to the West, Thai Binh province to the South, and Bac Bo Bay in the East Sea and Hai Nam Island to the East. The city was located in the “two corridors and one belt” of economic cooperation between Vietnam and China, and had a significant position in the socio-economic development, national defense and security of the North and the whole country. Haiphong, known as the Red Flamboyant City, was the biggest port and industrial city in the North of Vietnam, located in the Northern delta area. Haiphong was the third largest city of Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi capital. Haiphong was one of the five cities under direct control of the Central Government, the first-rank central city at national level together with Da Nang and Can Tho. As of December 2011, Haiphong population was 1,907,705 people, of which 46.1% live in urban area while 53.9% in rural area, that made Haiphong the 3rd crowded city in Vietnam. Currently, there have been 203 secondary schools in Haiphong City providing education and training for around 88,976 students. There have been some changes and progress in the management of education. However, those achievements have not really met the innovation and development requirements of the society. The education quality in some schools was somehow low. A number of managers had slow and low innovation, little creativeness, careful attention and has not developed strategies for the schools. The coordination between inspection results with professional work, education management and emulation, the appointment, transfer and use of officials and teachers had not achieved the desired results. On October 22, 2009, the Minister of Ministry of Education and Training issued the Circular No. 29/2009/TT-BGDDT regarding the standard system of school leaders of every primary school and secondary schools. The purposes of this circular were to let the school leaders self-assess their skills and capacity, to serve as bases for the governing institutions to 7 assess and rank the quality of school leaders before they were trained, promoted and appointed. Objectives of the study The study was aimed to assess the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City; Specifically, it sought to attain the following objectives: 1. Determine the profiles of the respondents as indicated by: 1.1. Age; 1.2. Gender; 1.3. Civil Status; 1.4. Educational Attainment; 1.5. Monthly Income; 1.6. Length of Service; 1.7. Length of Management Experiences. 2. Find out the perception of the respondents on the current leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City in terms of: 2.1. Shared Vision; 2.2. Culture of Learning: 2.3. Management; 2.4. Family and Community; 2.5. Ethics; 2.6. Societal Context. 3. Ascertain the significant difference on the current leadership standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Haiphong City when the respondents are grouped according to their profile. 4. Develop an intervention program based on the results of the study. 8 Hypothesis There is no significant difference on the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders when the respondents are grouped according to their profile. Significance of the Study Ministry of Education and Training: The results of the study and the proposed solutions of the Department of Education and Training of Haiphong City can serve as a good idea for MOET to consider and request the Department of Education and Training of every Province and City in Vietnam to assess the current status of the leadership standards of the school leaders in general and the secondary school leaders in particular. Moreover, MOET could think of possibilities to conduct further studies to design a complete training program to improve the leadership skills of school leaders. Department of Education and Training of Haiphong City: The results of the study might serve as a good basis for the DET to think of possibility to assess the current leadership standards of the principals of all primary and high schools in Haiphong City. DET could propose proper solutions to the Ministry of Education and Training for the designing of a complete training program to improve the leadership skills of school leaders. Offices of Education and Training: The results of the study and the proposed solutions may serve as a good recommendation/suggestion for the OET of districts and wards in Haiphong City to see the status and problems faced by the secondary school leaders in their area. OETs will then report to DET and request for proper actions. Secondary school leaders: The results of the study and the proposed solutions by the researcher helped the school leaders see their strengths, weaknesses and they themselves thought to adjust the requests for suitable training programs to improve their leadership standards. Secondary school teachers: These are t...re and safety of students and staff D. Develop the capacity for distributed leadership E. Ensure teacher and organizational time is focused to support quality instruction and student learning” Family and Community Standard 4 of Iowa’s School said that an educational leader promotes the success of all students by collaborating with families and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs and mobilizing community resources (Family and Community). The administrator: a). engaged family and community by promoting shared responsibility for student learning and support of the education system; b). promoted and supported a structure for family and community involvement in the education system; c). facilitated the connections of students and families to the health and social services that support a focus on learning; and d). collaboratively established a culture that welcomed and 24 honored families and community and sought ways to engage them in student learning. And, Florida (2011) supplemented in Standard 10: Professional and Ethical Behaviors. “Effective school leaders demonstrate personal and professional behaviors consistent with quality practices in education and as a community leader”. ISLLC supplemented in Standard 4. “A school administrator is an education leader promotes the success of every student by collaborating with faculty and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources. Functions: A. Collect and analyze data and information pertinent to the educational environment B. Promote understanding, appreciation, and use of the community’s diverse cultural, social, and intellectual resources C. Build and sustain positive relationships with families and caregivers D. Build and sustain productive relationships with community partners” In terms of “leading people”, a school leader worked with and through others, building and sustaining effective relationships and communication strategies are important. School leaders sought to improve their own performance through professional development. To enable others to develop and improve by creating a professional learning culture within the school. Through performance management and effective professional development practice, school leaders supported all staff to achieve high standards. School leaders took account of issues surrounding work-life balance and recognized and valued all staff and teams in the school. School leaders were required to have knowledge and understanding of: a). significance of interpersonal relationships, including impact on teacher performance and pupil learning; b). performance management, continuous professional development and sustained school improvement; c). building motivation, including the importance of celebrating achievement; d). building and sustaining a learning community within a diverse workforce; 25 e). own performance, ways of obtaining feedback and how to improve; and f). support and development systems for individuals and teams and skills to: a). created a culture which encouraged ideas and contributions from others; b). developed self-awareness, self- management and self-confidence and use effectively; c). listened, reflected and communicated effectively; d). negotiated and managed conflict, providing appropriate support; e). gave feedback and provided support to improve performance; f). hold people to account and challenge under performance; g). developed a culture of learning and continuous professional development; h). received and acted on feedback to build on strengths and improve personal performance; i). fostered an open, fair and equitable culture; and j). motivated, developed, empowered and sustained individuals and teams. Standard 9: Communication of Florida added “Effective school leaders practice two- way communications and use appropriate oral, written, and electronic communication and collaboration skills to accomplish school and system goals by building and maintaining relationships with students, faculty, parents, and community”. Ethics In Standard 5 of Iowa’s School, An educational leader promoted the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairness and in an ethical manner (Ethics). The administrator: a). demonstrated ethical and professional behavior; b). demonstrated values, beliefs, and attitudinized that inspire others to higher levels of performance; c). fostered and maintained caring professional relationships with staff; d). demonstrated appreciation for and sensitivity to diversity in the school community; and e). was respectful of divergent opinions. Standard 5 of ISLLC said that “A school administrator is an education leader promotes the success of every student by acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner. Functions: A. Ensure a system of accountability for every student’s academic and social success B. Model principles of self-awareness, reflective practice, transparency, and ethical behavior 26 C. Safeguard the values of democracy, equity, and diversity D. Consider and evaluate the potential moral and legal consequences of decision-making E. Promote social justice and ensure that individual student needs inform all aspects of schooling” One of school leaders’ new roles was increasingly to work with other schools and other school leaders, collaborating and developing relationships of interdependence and trust. System leaders, as they were being called, care about and work for the success of other schools as well as their own. Crucially they were willing to shoulder system leadership roles because they believed that in order to change the larger system you had to engage with it in a meaningful way. (Beatriz Pont, Deborah Nusche, David Hopkins, Improving School Leadership - Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership, 2008) School leaders, who had provided guidance throughout this activity, had agreed from the start that effective school leadership was not exclusive to formal offices or positions; instead it should be distributed across a number of individuals in a school. Principals, managers, academic leaders, department chairs, and teachers could contribute as leaders to the goal of learning-centered schooling. The precise distribution of these leadership contributions could vary. Such aspects as governance and management structure, amount of autonomy afforded at the school level, accountability prescriptions, school size and complexity, and levels of student performance could shape the kinds and patterns of school leadership. Thus principals must be not only managers but also leaders of the school as a learning organization. They interacted with teachers to create a productive, cohesive learning community. In terms of “leading in the community”, with schools at the centre of their communities, school leadership had a crucial role to play in working with the community and other services to improve outcomes for, and the well-being of, all children. Placing families at the centre of services, schools and leaders should work with others to tackle all the barriers to learning, health and happiness of every child. School leaders shared responsibility for the leadership of 27 the wider educational system and should be aware that school improvement, community development and community cohesion were interdependent. School leaders were required to have knowledge and understanding of: a). multi-agency work (including the team around the child), benefits and risks of multi-agency working; b). extended service provision, commissioning and contracting; c). the diversity of professional cultures and ways of working; d). diversity and community cohesion issues; e). collaboration and partnership working (including school, home, community and business partnerships); f). strengths, capabilities and objectives of other schools, services and agencies; and g). wider curriculum beyond the school and opportunities it provides and skills to: a). established and engaged in partnerships, including working with multi-agency teams; b). collaborated and worked within and across the community; c). engaged the community in systematic evaluation of the school's work and act on outcomes; d). took a leadership role within and across the community; e). consulted, engaged and communicated with staff, pupils, parents and careers to enhance children's learning; f). engaged in cross phase working and transition issues; g). engaged in school-to-school collaboration and contribute to leadership in the wider education system; h). contributed to achievement of community cohesion; and i). broker and commission services. Societal Context In Standard 6 of Iowa’s School, An educational leader promoted the success of all students by understanding the profile of the community and, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal and cultural context (Societal Context). The administrator: a). collaborated with service providers and other decision-makers to improve teaching and learning; b) advocated for the welfare of all members of the learning community; and c). designed and implemented appropriate strategies to reach desired goals. In Standard 6 of ISLLC, “A school administrator is an education leader promotes the success of every student by understanding, responding to, and influencing the political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context. 28 Functions: A. Advocate for children, families, and caregivers B. Act to influence local, district, state, and national decisions affecting student learning C. Assess, analyze, and anticipate emerging trends and initiatives in order to adapt leadership strategies” Some countries had all types of provision running in parallel, while others provided only one or two types. England, Finland, Northern Ireland, Israel and Slovenia offered leadership development training at all steps in a principal’s career. Chile, Ireland, the Netherlands and Norway have in-service education programs. The remaining countries relied on either pre-service preparation or induction or a combination of the two to ready leaders for their posts. Overall, of the 22 countries/regions analyzed, a majority had pre-service training, in most cases as a pre-requisite for the job. Additionally, twelve countries had induction courses for already selected principals. In most cases, induction programs were at the discretion of the municipality or local area government, except for Austria, where they were part of the national requirements to become a “full-fledged principal”. For in-service training the trends are less clear, with some countries showing the key role it could play and others barely providing opportunities to strengthen practice. The Institute for Educational Leadership's (IEL) Task Force on the Principal ship declares and specifies three key roles that the principals of the 21st century should fulfill: Instructional leadership that focuses on strengthening teaching and learning, professional development, data-driven decision making and accountability; Community leadership manifested in a big-picture awareness of the school's role in society; shared leadership among educators, community partners and residents; close relations with parents and others; and advocacy for school capacity building and resources; and 29 Visionary leadership that demonstrates energy, commitment, entrepreneurial spirit, values and conviction that all children will learn at high levels, as well as inspiring others with this vision both inside and outside the school building. The following sets of standards incorporate, in one form or another, the proposition that all "principals do-establishing a vision, setting goals, managing staff, rallying the community, creating effective learning environments, building support systems for students, guiding instruction and so on-must be in service of student learning." (IEL 2000) Conceptual Framework School leadership had become a priority in education policy agendas internationally. It played a key role in improving school outcomes by influencing the motivations and capacities of teachers, as well as the school climate and environment. Effective school leadership was essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling. There were concerns across countries that the role of principal as conceived for needs of the past was no longer appropriate. In many countries, principals had heavy workloads; many were reaching retirement and it was getting harder to replace them. Potential candidates often hesitated to apply, because of overburdened roles, insufficient preparation and training, limited career prospected and inadequate support and rewards. These developments had made school leadership a priority in education systems across the world. Policy makers needed to enhance the quality of school leadership and make it sustainable. (Beatriz Pont, Deborah Nusche, Hunter Moorman, Improving School Leadership Volume 1: Policy and Practice, 2008). By necessity, then, today’s leaders must define themselves as learners, not just doers, constantly scanning the environment for new ideas, tools, and solutions, and reflecting on the implications. Linda Lambert (2002) argued that this search for learning was becoming a “dominant narrative” for school leaders: Today, leaders attended to the learning of all members of the educational community. Together, they explored current practice, beliefs, and 30 assumptions that serve as a basis for posing inquiry questions. These questions were the signposts in the hunt for evidence and the struggle with dissonance. Dissonance was tackled in dialogue, thereby lowering defenses and increasing shared understanding. This journey resulted in new approaches to student and adult learning, internal school accountability and shared responsibility, and a commitment to the decisions made for school improvement. 31 Research Paradigm INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure 1. Perceived Leadership Standards of the Secondary School Leaders and the Proposed Intervention Program. The research paradigm explains the relationship of the input-process-output of the study. The input covers the respondents’ profile and the perceived leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in the Haiphong City; the process is grouping, findings the weaknesses of the variables, correlation of the variables on the shared vision, culture of learning, management, family and community, ethics and the societal context; while the output is the proposed intervention program of the secondary school in Haiphong City. Respondents' profile 1.1. Gender; 1.2. Age; 1.3. Monthly income; 1.4. Marital status; 1.5. Educational attainment; 1.6. Length of service; and 1.7. Length of management experiences? - Perception of the respondents on the current leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City in terms of: 2.1. Shared Vision; 2.2. Culture of Learning: 2.3. Management; 2.4. Family and Community; 2.5. Ethics; and 2.6. Societal Context Questionnaire Data Collection Analysis Interpretation Development of the Intervention Program . PROPOSED INTERVENTION PROGRAM 32 Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the research locale, the design, and the population of the study. It has also attempted to describe the respondents, the research instrument, the data gathering procedures, and the statistical treatment of data. Locale of the study The study was conducted in Haiphong City, which was a distant of 102 kilometers to the Northeast of Hanoi capital, borders with Quang Ninh province to the North, Hai Duong province to the West, Thai Binh province to the South, and Bac Bo Bay in the East Sea, and the Hainan Island to the East. Research design The descriptive method was employed in this study. A questionnaire checklist was designed to gather data from the respondents. According to Sevilla, et al. (2004), it was designed to help determine the extent to which different variables were related to each other in the population of interest. As stated by Calmorin (2009), the principal aims of this method was to describe the nature of the situation as it existed at the time of the research and explored the cause of the particular event. It involved the collection of data to test the hypothesis and answered the questions on the current status of the subject. The descriptive method of research was used in determining the current status and the existing problems in the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City through evaluation. Respondents of the Study Hai Phong city has 15 districts with 203 junior secondary schools. A total of 203 leaders (principals/headmasters) of 203 junior secondary schools in Haiphong City were selected as the respondents of the study. 33 The researcher with the support from the city department of education and training and the leaders of the 15 districts, invited the head masters of the city to attend 2 meetings; one for the central districts’ schools and one for the suburban schools, In the meetings, she exchanged ideas with them on the concerned educational problems and passed the questionnaires for their opinions. Research Instrumentation The main instrument used in gathering data was the questionnaire checklist to determine the perception of the respondents on the current status and existing problems in the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City. The questionnaire checklist consists of 2 parts. Part I: Consist of personal information such as gender, age, monthly income, marital status, educational attainment, length of service and length of management experiences. Part 2: Consist of the statements on leadership performance of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City which were classified in aspects, namely: shared vision; culture of learning; management; family and community; ethics; and societal context. To respond to each question, the respondents were instructed to check the space provided for in the number corresponding on how they viewed the statements which summarized the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in terms of shared vision; culture of learning; management; family and community; ethics; and societal context. Based on the review of literature and related study, the researcher designed a set of questionnaire checklist to collect data with the following scales. 34 Table 1 Scale of values Scale Choice Description Range Interval Verbal interpretation 4 Strongly Agree 3.25 - 4.00 Strongly Evident (SE) 3 Agree 2.50 - 3.24 Evident (E) 2 Disagree 1.75 - 2.49 Slightly Evident (SLE) 1 Strongly disagree 1.00 - 1.74 Not Evident (NE) Data Gathering Procedures The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and before the respondents completed them, the researcher explained the purpose of the questionnaires and instructed them to complete the questionnaires properly to assure that all questions were answered. The data gathered from the completed questionnaires were then encoded into a computer for analysis and interpretation of results. The following steps were strictly followed. The following steps were strictly followed: 1) Requesting for permission: The researcher asked the permission of the prospective subjects for interview; 2) Reviewing literature and studies: The researcher looked carefully through published materials and the internet to find out the most suitable literature for the scope of the thesis; 3) Prepared the research instrument: The researcher prepared the questionnaire for the thesis; 4) Checked the instrument; 5) Validated the instrument; 6) Made final revision of the instrument; 7) Designed and took the samples; 8) Gathered the data; 9) Encoded the data; and 10) Analyzed and evaluated the data. Statistical Treatment of Data The study applied the following statistical treatment: In order to determine the current status and existing problems in the leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong City, the 4-point scales were be used. 35 To ascertain the significant difference between the problems encountered by the respondents when they were grouped according to the profile using the ANOVA analysis. With the demographic profile, the statistical methods used were be frequency count and percentage to see the diversity of respondents. To evaluate the current leadership standards of the secondary school leaders in Haiphong, the Likert Rating Scale of 1- 4 would be used for the respondents’ evaluation of each item in the research questionnaire, and then summarized them using the weighted mean. Formula: I. Percentage (%) . .100 f X P N  where: P = percentage distribution F = frequency X = scale N = total number of cases II. Weighted Arithmetic Mean 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 ... ... k i i k k i k k i i f x f x f x f x X f f f f             where: X = Weighted Arithmetic Mean 1 k i i i f x   = sum of all the products of f and x, where f is the frequency of each option and x is the weight of each option 1 k i i f   = sum of all the subjects 36 III. Chi-square test Chi-square test, for ascertain the significant difference on the current leadership standards of the Secondary School Leaders in Haiphong City when the respondents are grouped according to their profile. Formulas: χ2 = ∑ Where: χ2 = chi-square value; O = observed frequencies; E = Expected frequencies At 0.05 level, if P-value 0.05 then accept Ho 37 Figure 2. Administreative Map of Hai Phong City 38 Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter includes the different tables which present the data of the findings in this study with their respective interpretations. The data were analyzed and interpreted, so that the findings, conclusions and recommendations could be drawn from the study. Profile of respondents Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Age Table 2 shows frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents' profile in terms of age. Finding reveals that ages 51-56 with 95 or (47percent) is the greatest. According to Article 3 and 187 of Labor Law, the working age is 15-60 years for men and 15-55 years for women. If workers are managers and some other special cases, they can retire at a matured or higher age, but not more than 05 years. Article 18, the Secondary School regulations: About the training level and working time: teachers should have the qualifications standard under the provisions of the Education Law for each grade, must be qualified with the training at the highest level for schools with many grades and taught for at least 5 years (or 4 years in mountains, islands, upland and remote areas, ethnic AGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) 27-32 yrs 1 1 33-38 yrs 20 10 39-44 yrs 51 25 45-50 yrs 36 17 51-56 yrs 95 47 Total 203 100 39 minority areas , areas with the difficult economic conditions); the principal term is 5 years, principal position is no more than 2 terms in a secondary school. It only shows that the principals at secondary schools at Haiphong are not young. The age is good for working Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Gender GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) Female 107 53 Male 96 47 Total 203 100 Table 3 describes frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents' Profile in terms of gender. It shows that majority are female with 107 or (53 percent) while the male respondents are only 96 or 47 respectively. Findings only suggest that the women principals are more than that of the men principals. In secondary schools in Haiphong, the proportion of female teachers is therefore higher than that of male teachers as represented by 78% percent (4845/6210) of teachers of the city (as reported by the Department of Education and Training in 8/2013). Thus, the gender of principals in secondary schools Haiphong is reasonably high Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Civil Status CIVIL STATUS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) Married 197 97 Divorced 6 3 Total 203 100 40 Table 4 illustrates the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents profile in terms of civil status. It explains that married principals are 197 or (97%) of the respondents while only 6 or 3 are divorced. Article 9 of the marriage and family Law prescribes that marriage age for male is from 20 years old and women is from 18 years old. Evaluation of the family condition of the principals in secondary schools of Haiphong city is good. The rate of married principals is high. It could be implied that married individuals are more secured and feeling contented; hence, better committed to work. Table 5 in the succeeding page shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents' profile in terms of educational attainment. Finding reveals that university (bachelor) graduate with 177 or 87 percent of the respondents are university graduates; while the master’s degree holder are 19 or 9 percent; and only 2 are doctorate degree holders or one percent of the respondents. Table 5 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Educational Attainment EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) College graduate 5 3 University (bachelor) graduate 177 87 Master’s degree holder 19 9 Doctorate degree holder 2 1 Total 203 100 According to the regulation, secondary teachers must have the diploma of pedagogy associate-college and over. Principals must meet the criteria specified in Standards for Principals of Secondary School, High Schools, and Multiple-Level Schools. Besides, each 41 district also specifies standards for officers and leading and managing civil servants administered by the district’s committee. For example, according to Decision No 539-QĐ/QU dated 05/4/2012 by People's Committee of Duong Kinh District, the training level of secondary school principals must achieve college level and above. Article 19 of High School Charters prescribes duties and authorities of the principal: a) Building and organizing the school system; b) Implementing the resolutions of the board specified in Clause 3, Article 20 of this charter; c) Setting up a plan of the school development, building and implementing the school-year missions, reporting and assessing the results before the school council and the competent authorities; d) Establishing professional groups, office and advisory board of the school, appointing team leader and associate-leader, proposing members of the School Council Board to the competent authority; e) Managing teachers and staff, managing professional issues, assigning work, test, evaluation of teachers and staff, implementing rewards and disciplines of teachers and staff, complying with the recruitment of teachers and staff, contracting, accepting and transferring of teachers and staff according to the State’s regulations; e) Managing students and students’ activities organized by the school; reviewing assessment results and grading students, certifying transcripts, certifying the completion of primary education for primary school children (if any), and the decision of students’ reward and disciplines; g) Managing financial issues and properties of the school; h) Implementing the policies of the State for teachers, staff and students; and organizing the implementation of democracy in the operation of the school, the socialization of school education; i) Directing the implementation of emulation movements, campaigns of the industry, making public for the school, k) Being trained to improve the level of professional knowledge; and enjoy regulations and policies prescribed by law. The level of training of principals is assessed at good level, meets the standards and exceeds regulated ones. However, there are not many master’s degree holders. 42 Table 6 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents' Profile in Terms of Monthly Income MONTHLY INCOME FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) 2,000,001-4,000,000 VND 1 1 4,000,001-6,000,000 VND 44 22 6,000,001-8,000,000 VND 94 46 8,000,000 above 64 31 Total 203 100 Table 6 illustrates the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents' profile in terms of monthly income. It reveals that 6,000,001VND to 8,000,000VND with 94 or (46 percent) is the highest monthly income of the principals, followed by 8,000,000 and above with 64 or (31 percent) as the second highest income of principals. Salary regulations of officials, civil servants, and secondary-school principals are implemented according to Decree No. 204/2004/ND-CP dated 14/12/2004 by the Government. Accordingly, the salary of secondary-school principals is calculated following their working time and salary grades and ranks. In addition, principals also receive leadership allowances. According to Circular No. 33/2005/TT-BGD dated by 8/12/2005 guiding the implementation of allowances leadership in public education institutions which requires that second... 2 1 4 4 1 4 4 3 1 4 4 3 3 4 1 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 180 2 5 4 1 2 5 2 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 2 181 1 6 5 1 2 6 5 3 2 3 2 3 4 2 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 4 2 182 1 3 4 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 1 183 2 6 5 1 2 5 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 3 3 2 184 1 6 5 1 2 5 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 3 4 3 1 3 3 3 2 4 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 185 1 6 5 1 2 5 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 186 1 6 5 1 2 6 3 4 2 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 4 3 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 187 2 6 4 1 2 5 3 4 2 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 188 2 6 5 1 2 6 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 98 189 1 4 4 1 3 4 1 4 2 3 2 2 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 2 190 2 5 4 1 2 4 2 3 2 3 1 3 4 1 4 4 4 1 4 4 3 2 4 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 2 191 1 6 4 1 3 4 2 4 3 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 1 4 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 1 192 1 5 4 1 2 4 2 3 2 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 4 4 3 2 193 2 5 4 1 2 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 2 3 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 194 2 6 4 1 2 5 3 3 2 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 195 2 6 4 1 2 5 2 3 1 3 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 1 3 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 1 196 2 5 3 1 2 5 1 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 197 2 6 4 1 2 5 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 1 4 2 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 1 198 1 6 4 1 2 5 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 3 2 199 2 3 4 1 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 1 4 3 3 2 4 1 2 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 4 2 200 1 4 3 1 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 2 201 1 6 4 1 2 5 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 1 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 4 4 4 4 1 202 2 5 4 1 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 203 1 6 4 1 2 5 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 2 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 3 2 99 APPENDIX C Weighted mean for Gender. age in leadership standards of Shared Vision; Culture of Learning; Management; Family and Community; Ethics; and Societal Context. Gender Age Male Female 27-32 33-38 39-44 45-50 51-56 3.76 3.55 3.00 3.55 3.76 3.58 3.53 2.72 2.72 2.00 2.45 2.76 2.64 2.71 3.31 3.27 3.00 3.35 3.39 3.25 3.14 2.44 2.57 3.00 2.70 2.37 2.56 2.44 3.48 3.51 2.00 3.55 3.41 3.50 3.44 S h ared vision 3.81 3.61 3.00 3.55 3.65 3.72 3.64 WM 3.25 3.21 2.67 3.19 3.23 3.21 3.15 2.47 2.57 3.00 2.55 2.39 2.61 2.47 3.92 3.75 2.00 3.75 3.84 3.89 3.72 3.83 3.79 3.00 3.80 3.76 3.86 3.69 3.59 3.53 3.00 3.50 3.57 3.69 3.41 2.40 2.59 2.00 2.35 2.35 2.50 2.54 3.90 3.79 2.00 3.75 3.86 3.94 3.71 3.63 3.53 3.00 3.35 3.67 3.67 3.44 3.30 3.27 3.00 3.25 3.25 3.33 3.19 C u ltu re of learn in g 2.54 2.52 2.00 2.35 2.61 2.50 2.46 WM 3.29 3.26 2.56 3.18 3.26 3.33 3.18 3.90 3.70 3.00 3.70 3.69 3.81 3.76 2.42 2.60 3.00 2.45 2.31 2.56 2.54 2.45 2.56 2.00 2.35 2.49 2.44 2.51 3.78 3.69 3.00 3.50 3.76 3.81 3.63 M an agem en t 3.76 3.72 3.00 3.75 3.71 3.72 3.65 WM 3.26 3.25 2.80 3.15 3.19 3.27 3.22 3.85 3.69 3.00 3.65 3.86 3.81 3.61 3.73 3.54 4.00 3.35 3.69 3.75 3.49 3.62 3.58 4.00 3.40 3.78 3.58 3.43 F am ily an d com m u n ity 3.66 3.51 3.00 3.45 3.61 3.72 3.43 WM 3.72 3.58 3.50 3.46 3.74 3.72 3.49 3.89 3.71 4.00 3.75 3.80 3.81 3.67 3.30 3.28 3.00 3.20 3.24 3.19 3.27 3.81 3.66 4.00 3.55 3.73 3.78 3.63 3.73 3.67 4.00 3.65 3.78 3.75 3.53 2.42 2.50 1.00 2.30 2.49 2.44 2.43 E th ics 3.67 3.68 3.00 3.80 3.71 3.72 3.51 WM 3.47 3.42 3.17 3.38 3.46 3.45 3.34 3.59 3.50 4.00 3.25 3.53 3.61 3.47 3.65 3.55 4.00 3.50 3.61 3.58 3.49 3.74 3.58 3.00 3.40 3.67 3.72 3.57 S ocial con text 2.45 2.57 2.00 2.25 2.57 2.53 2.46 WM 3.36 3.30 3.25 3.10 3.34 3.36 3.25 100 APPENDIX D Weighted mean Monthly income. Civil status. Education attainment in leadership standards of Shared Vision; Culture of Learning; Management; Family and Community; Ethics; and Societal Context. Monthly income Civil status Education attainment 2 - 4 million 4-6 million 6-8 million >8 million Married Divorced college university master's doctorate 3.00 3.64 3.63 3.53 3.59 3.83 3.20 3.59 3.68 4.00 3.00 2.59 2.62 2.83 2.65 3.50 2.20 2.67 2.89 3.00 3.00 3.39 3.19 3.22 3.23 3.50 3.00 3.23 3.42 3.50 2.00 2.50 2.39 2.58 2.46 2.83 2.60 2.44 2.79 2.50 3.00 3.55 3.40 3.45 3.44 3.83 3.00 3.46 3.42 4.00 S h ared vision 3.00 3.59 3.67 3.66 3.64 3.83 3.20 3.65 3.68 4.00 WM 2.83 3.21 3.15 3.21 3.17 3.56 2.87 3.17 3.32 3.50 2.00 2.39 2.46 2.61 2.48 2.67 2.60 2.45 2.84 2.00 3.00 3.68 3.84 3.75 3.77 3.83 3.20 3.79 3.79 4.00 4.00 3.80 3.74 3.72 3.75 3.83 3.20 3.74 3.95 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.59 3.39 3.50 3.83 3.00 3.51 3.58 4.00 2.00 2.32 2.46 2.58 2.44 3.17 2.20 2.43 2.84 2.50 4.00 3.70 3.83 3.77 3.78 3.83 3.40 3.79 3.84 4.00 3.00 3.55 3.57 3.45 3.53 3.33 3.00 3.53 3.58 4.00 3.00 3.20 3.22 3.28 3.23 3.50 2.80 3.23 3.42 3.50 C u ltu re of learn in g 3.00 2.52 2.35 2.67 2.47 3.17 2.00 2.48 2.79 2.00 WM 3.11 3.18 3.23 3.25 3.22 3.46 2.82 3.22 3.40 3.33 4.00 3.66 3.74 3.78 3.74 3.83 3.00 3.76 3.74 4.00 2.00 2.43 2.46 2.55 2.47 2.83 2.40 2.44 2.89 2.00 3.00 2.30 2.38 2.72 2.46 3.00 2.40 2.43 2.95 2.00 4.00 3.70 3.69 3.64 3.68 3.83 3.00 3.69 3.74 4.00 M an a gem en t 4.00 3.70 3.68 3.67 3.68 3.83 3.00 3.72 3.53 4.00 WM 3.40 3.16 3.19 3.27 3.20 3.47 2.76 3.21 3.37 3.20 4.00 3.70 3.79 3.59 3.71 3.83 3.20 3.72 3.74 4.00 4.00 3.61 3.65 3.44 3.59 3.17 3.00 3.58 3.68 4.00 3.00 3.66 3.54 3.48 3.54 3.83 3.00 3.55 3.63 4.00 F am ily an d com m u n ity 4.00 3.52 3.60 3.42 3.54 3.17 3.00 3.53 3.58 4.00 WM 3.75 3.63 3.64 3.48 3.59 3.50 3.05 3.59 3.66 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.78 3.67 3.74 3.67 3.00 3.75 3.79 4.00 3.00 3.20 3.24 3.27 3.23 3.50 3.00 3.24 3.26 3.50 2.00 3.70 3.71 3.63 3.68 3.67 3.20 3.66 3.95 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.66 3.55 3.64 3.67 3.00 3.65 3.74 4.00 2.00 2.34 2.34 2.63 2.42 2.83 2.20 2.38 2.95 2.00 E th ics 4.00 3.64 3.65 3.56 3.62 3.67 3.20 3.61 3.79 4.00 WM 3.17 3.40 3.40 3.38 3.39 3.50 2.93 3.38 3.58 3.58 3.00 3.39 3.59 3.44 3.50 3.33 3.20 3.50 3.47 4.00 3.00 3.45 3.55 3.59 3.55 3.33 3.00 3.55 3.58 4.00 3.00 3.59 3.62 3.59 3.60 3.67 3.00 3.60 3.74 4.00 S ocial con text 3.00 2.43 2.35 2.69 2.46 3.17 2.20 2.45 2.89 2.00 WM 3.00 3.22 3.28 3.33 3.28 3.38 2.85 3.27 3.42 3.50 101 APPENDIX E Weighted mean for Length of service. Length of management experiences in leadership standards of Shared Vision; Culture of Learning; Management; Family and Community; Ethics; and Societal Context. Length of service Length of management experiences 6-11 years 12-17 years 18-23 years 24-29 years >30 years 0-5 years 6-11 years 12-17 years 18-23 years 24-29 years >30 years 3.80 3.62 3.67 3.53 3.54 3.66 3.51 3.71 3.61 3.40 4.00 2.20 2.62 2.71 2.40 2.92 2.79 2.63 2.73 3.04 2.60 2.75 3.20 3.38 3.34 2.85 3.31 3.47 3.23 3.13 3.17 3.10 3.25 2.40 2.49 2.43 2.35 2.59 2.74 2.35 2.56 2.74 2.40 2.75 3.60 3.41 3.43 3.40 3.51 3.47 3.42 3.53 3.43 3.10 4.00 S h ared vision 3.80 3.51 3.72 3.55 3.70 3.61 3.67 3.60 3.57 3.80 4.00 WM 3.17 3.17 3.22 3.01 3.26 3.29 3.13 3.21 3.26 3.07 3.46 2.60 2.36 2.48 2.38 2.64 2.61 2.40 2.58 2.96 2.70 2.75 3.60 3.69 3.91 3.63 3.80 3.76 3.83 3.71 3.65 3.80 4.00 3.80 3.74 3.79 3.70 3.74 3.84 3.76 3.82 3.39 3.90 3.50 3.00 3.54 3.64 3.38 3.49 3.61 3.53 3.53 3.30 3.30 3.50 2.00 2.28 2.41 2.43 2.69 2.55 2.28 2.62 3.00 2.50 2.75 3.60 3.74 3.90 3.65 3.80 3.82 3.83 3.78 3.52 3.80 4.00 3.80 3.54 3.62 3.45 3.46 3.58 3.59 3.47 3.43 3.30 3.50 2.80 3.33 3.22 3.08 3.33 3.24 3.22 3.33 3.22 3.30 3.50 C u ltu re of learn in g 2.40 2.38 2.50 2.30 2.69 2.53 2.45 2.67 2.96 2.30 2.50 WM 3.07 3.18 3.28 3.11 3.29 3.28 3.21 3.28 3.27 3.21 3.33 3.00 3.67 3.81 3.73 3.79 3.66 3.72 3.84 3.61 3.90 4.00 2.40 2.36 2.40 2.43 2.67 2.61 2.28 2.60 3.09 2.50 2.75 1.80 2.31 2.43 2.30 2.79 2.61 2.27 2.73 2.96 2.60 2.75 3.80 3.59 3.79 3.53 3.72 3.66 3.71 3.67 3.52 3.80 4.00 M an a gem en t 3.00 3.69 3.79 3.55 3.72 3.71 3.71 3.69 3.52 3.60 4.00 WM 2.80 3.12 3.24 3.11 3.34 3.25 3.14 3.31 3.34 3.28 3.50 3.80 3.74 3.81 3.53 3.70 3.66 3.77 3.76 3.35 3.90 4.00 4.00 3.44 3.74 3.45 3.56 3.55 3.67 3.60 3.22 3.50 4.00 4.00 3.46 3.72 3.38 3.51 3.55 3.61 3.62 3.30 3.30 3.50 F am ily an d com m u n ity 3.80 3.41 3.69 3.40 3.51 3.45 3.64 3.58 3.17 3.50 3.50 WM 3.90 3.51 3.74 3.44 3.57 3.55 3.67 3.64 3.26 3.55 3.75 4.00 3.67 3.88 3.65 3.69 3.74 3.76 3.76 3.57 3.80 4.00 3.80 3.10 3.19 3.23 3.34 3.18 3.24 3.40 3.13 3.00 3.50 4.00 3.56 3.72 3.75 3.62 3.66 3.67 3.80 3.43 3.80 3.50 4.00 3.72 3.71 3.43 3.66 3.74 3.65 3.69 3.26 3.80 4.00 2.00 2.33 2.41 2.30 2.62 2.47 2.36 2.60 2.74 2.40 2.75 E th ics 3.00 3.82 3.66 3.45 3.62 3.76 3.63 3.69 3.30 3.30 4.00 WM 3.47 3.37 3.43 3.30 3.43 3.43 3.39 3.49 3.24 3.35 3.63 3.20 3.49 3.53 3.55 3.44 3.50 3.49 3.49 3.48 3.30 4.00 4.00 3.54 3.52 3.43 3.61 3.66 3.48 3.53 3.43 3.70 4.00 3.80 3.41 3.74 3.50 3.64 3.61 3.57 3.69 3.48 3.60 4.00 S ocial co n text 2.00 2.31 2.50 2.18 2.80 2.50 2.40 2.67 2.91 2.40 2.75 WM 3.25 3.19 3.32 3.16 3.37 3.32 3.23 3.34 3.33 3.25 3.69 102 APPENDIX F Chi – Square Analysis between Share vision and Profile of the principal asked Share vision* Gender Q1-Gender Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (1- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,874a 1 ,171 Continuity Correctionb 1,502 1 ,220 Likelihood Ratio 1,880 1 ,170 Fisher's Exact Test ,198 ,110 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,865 1 ,172 N of Valid Casesb 203 a. 0 cells (,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 38,78. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi -,096 ,171 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,096 ,171 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Gender Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,556a 3 ,669 Likelihood Ratio 1,568 3 ,667 Linear-by-Linear Association ,503 1 ,478 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 2 cells (25,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4,26. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,088 ,669 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,088 ,669 N of Valid Cases 203 103 Q3 * Gender Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,270a 2 ,530 Likelihood Ratio 1,272 2 ,529 Linear-by-Linear Association ,472 1 ,492 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 0 cells (,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 11,35. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,079 ,530 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,079 ,530 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Gender Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 3,288a 3 ,349 Likelihood Ratio 3,309 3 ,346 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,530 1 ,112 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 0 cells (,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 11,35. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,127 ,349 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,127 ,349 N of Valid Cases 203 104 Q5 * Gender Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 4,865a 2 ,088 Likelihood Ratio 5,110 2 ,078 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,814 1 ,093 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 1 cells (16,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4,73. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,155 ,088 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,155 ,088 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Gender Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 3,244a 2 ,198 Likelihood Ratio 3,639 2 ,162 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,351 1 ,245 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 2 cells (33,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,47. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,126 ,198 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,126 ,198 N of Valid Cases 203 105 Share vision* Age Q1*Age Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 9,620a 4 ,047 Likelihood Ratio 10,366 4 ,035 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,365 1 ,124 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 2 cells (20,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,40. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,218 ,047 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,218 ,047 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Age Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 11,167a 12 ,515 Likelihood Ratio 11,990 12 ,447 Linear-by-Linear Association ,518 1 ,472 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 9 cells (45,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,04. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,235 ,515 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,135 ,515 N of Valid Cases 203 106 Q3 * Age Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7,257a 8 ,509 Likelihood Ratio 7,770 8 ,456 Linear-by-Linear Association 4,554 1 ,033 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 5 cells (33,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,12. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,189 ,509 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,134 ,509 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Age Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 10,524a 12 ,570 Likelihood Ratio 9,678 12 ,644 Linear-by-Linear Association ,362 1 ,548 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 8 cells (40,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,12. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,228 ,570 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,131 ,570 N of Valid Cases 203 107 Q5 * Age Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 24,777a 8 ,002 Likelihood Ratio 12,086 8 ,147 Linear-by-Linear Association ,029 1 ,864 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (46,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,05. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,349 ,002 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,247 ,002 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Age Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 9,672a 8 ,289 Likelihood Ratio 8,879 8 ,353 Linear-by-Linear Association ,509 1 ,476 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (46,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,00. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,218 ,289 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,154 ,289 N of Valid Cases 203 108 Share vision* Civil Status Q1*Civil Status Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (2- sided) Exact Sig. (1- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,446a 1 ,229 Continuity Correctionb ,609 1 ,435 Likelihood Ratio 1,623 1 ,203 Fisher's Exact Test ,405 ,223 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,439 1 ,230 N of Valid Casesb 203 a. 2 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2,42. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,084 ,229 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,084 ,229 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Civil Status Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 6,298a 3 ,098 Likelihood Ratio 8,300 3 ,040 Linear-by-Linear Association 5,827 1 ,016 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 4 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,27. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,176 ,098 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,176 ,098 N of Valid Cases 203 109 Q3 * Civil Status Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,076a 2 ,584 Likelihood Ratio 1,749 2 ,417 Linear-by-Linear Association ,981 1 ,322 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 3 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,71. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,073 ,584 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,073 ,584 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Civil Status Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1,720a 3 ,632 Likelihood Ratio 2,273 3 ,518 Linear-by-Linear Association ,951 1 ,329 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 4 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,71. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,092 ,632 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,092 ,632 N of Valid Cases 203 110 Q5 * Civil Status Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 2,826a 2 ,243 Likelihood Ratio 3,240 2 ,198 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,638 1 ,104 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 3 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,30. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,118 ,243 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,118 ,243 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Civil Status Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square ,918a 2 ,632 Likelihood Ratio 1,054 2 ,590 Linear-by-Linear Association ,911 1 ,340 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 4 cells (66,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,03. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,067 ,632 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,067 ,632 N of Valid Cases 203 111 Share vision* Educational Attainment Q1*Educational Attainment Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 5,232a 3 ,156 Likelihood Ratio 5,990 3 ,112 Linear-by-Linear Association 3,777 1 ,052 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 4 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,81. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,161 ,156 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,161 ,156 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Educational Attainment Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7,050a 9 ,632 Likelihood Ratio 8,061 9 ,528 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,777 1 ,096 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 10 cells (62,5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,09. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,186 ,632 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,108 ,632 N of Valid Cases 203 112 Q3 * Educational Attainment Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7,380a 6 ,287 Likelihood Ratio 9,442 6 ,150 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,495 1 ,114 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (58,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,24. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,191 ,287 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,135 ,287 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Educational Attainment Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 8,759a 9 ,460 Likelihood Ratio 9,636 9 ,381 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,173 1 ,279 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 11 cells (68,8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,24. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,208 ,460 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,120 ,460 N of Valid Cases 203 113 Q5 * Educational Attainment Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 14,750a 6 ,022 Likelihood Ratio 15,997 6 ,014 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,462 1 ,227 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (58,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,10. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,270 ,022 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,191 ,022 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Educational Attainment Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 5,881a 6 ,437 Likelihood Ratio 6,407 6 ,379 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,635 1 ,105 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 8 cells (66,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,01. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,170 ,437 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,120 ,437 N of Valid Cases 203 114 Share vision* Monthly Income Q1* Monthly Income Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 3,279a 3 ,351 Likelihood Ratio 3,608 3 ,307 Linear-by-Linear Association ,837 1 ,360 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 2 cells (25,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,40. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,127 ,351 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,127 ,351 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Monthly Income Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 11,490a 9 ,244 Likelihood Ratio 13,350 9 ,147 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,067 1 ,150 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (43,8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,04. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,238 ,244 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,137 ,244 N of Valid Cases 203 115 Q3 * Monthly Income Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 4,124a 6 ,660 Likelihood Ratio 4,593 6 ,597 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,159 1 ,282 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 3 cells (25,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,12. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,143 ,660 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,101 ,660 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Monthly Income Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 6,979a 9 ,639 Likelihood Ratio 7,496 9 ,586 Linear-by-Linear Association ,451 1 ,502 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 4 cells (25,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,12. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,185 ,639 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,107 ,639 N of Valid Cases 203 116 Q5 * Monthly Income Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 5,674a 6 ,461 Likelihood Ratio 6,201 6 ,401 Linear-by-Linear Association ,245 1 ,620 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 6 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,05. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,167 ,461 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,118 ,461 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Monthly Income Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 4,319a 6 ,634 Likelihood Ratio 4,912 6 ,555 Linear-by-Linear Association ,726 1 ,394 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 6 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,00. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,146 ,634 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,103 ,634 N of Valid Cases 203 117 Share vision* Length of service Q1* Length of service Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 3,936a 4 ,415 Likelihood Ratio 4,034 4 ,401 Linear-by-Linear Association 2,252 1 ,133 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 2 cells (20,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2,02. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,139 ,415 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,139 ,415 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Length of service Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 14,854a 12 ,250 Likelihood Ratio 16,081 12 ,188 Linear-by-Linear Association 3,172 1 ,075 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 8 cells (40,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,22. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,271 ,250 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,156 ,250 N of Valid Cases 203 118 Q3 * Length of service Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 21,594a 8 ,006 Likelihood Ratio 22,450 8 ,004 Linear-by-Linear Association 1,276 1 ,259 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 5 cells (33,3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,59. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,326 ,006 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,231 ,006 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Length of service Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 8,063a 12 ,780 Likelihood Ratio 9,383 12 ,670 Linear-by-Linear Association ,386 1 ,534 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 6 cells (30,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,59. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,199 ,780 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,115 ,780 N of Valid Cases 203 119 Q5 * Length of service Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 8,024a 8 ,431 Likelihood Ratio 9,554 8 ,298 Linear-by-Linear Association ,293 1 ,588 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (46,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,25. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,199 ,431 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,141 ,431 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Length of service Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 11,561a 8 ,172 Likelihood Ratio 11,553 8 ,172 Linear-by-Linear Association ,746 1 ,388 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (46,7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,02. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,239 ,172 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,169 ,172 N of Valid Cases 203 120 Share vision* Length of Management Experiences Q1* Length of Management Experiences Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 10,194a 5 ,070 Likelihood Ratio 11,651 5 ,040 Linear-by-Linear Association ,234 1 ,628 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 3 cells (25,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1,62. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,224 ,070 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,224 ,070 N of Valid Cases 203 Q2 * Length of Management Experiences Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 13,803a 15 ,541 Likelihood Ratio 14,669 15 ,476 Linear-by-Linear Association ,198 1 ,656 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 13 cells (54,2%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,18. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,261 ,541 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,151 ,541 N of Valid Cases 203 121 Q3 * Length of Management Experiences Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 23,189a 10 ,010 Likelihood Ratio 25,151 10 ,005 Linear-by-Linear Association 3,689 1 ,055 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 7 cells (38,9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,47. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,338 ,010 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,239 ,010 N of Valid Cases 203 Q4 * Length of Management Experiences Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 14,431a 15 ,493 Likelihood Ratio 15,550 15 ,413 Linear-by-Linear Association ,589 1 ,443 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 11 cells (45,8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,47. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,267 ,493 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,154 ,493 N of Valid Cases 203 122 Q5 * Length of Management Experiences Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 14,762a 10 ,141 Likelihood Ratio 16,262 10 ,092 Linear-by-Linear Association ,019 1 ,889 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 10 cells (55,6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,20. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,270 ,141 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,191 ,141 N of Valid Cases 203 Q6 * Length of Management Experiences Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- sided) Pearson Chi-Square 6,919a 10 ,733 Likelihood Ratio 8,583 10 ,572 Linear-by-Linear Association ,555 1 ,456 N of Valid Cases 203 a. 9 cells (50,0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is ,02. Symmetric Measures Value Approx. Sig. Phi ,185 ,733 Nominal by Nominal Cramer's V ,131 ,733 N of Valid Cases 203 123 CURRICULUM VITAE NGUYEN THI DATKHOA- LUCY Tel. No. 0313 619 973 CP. No. 0913 261 931 e-mail: nguyenthidatkhoa@gmail.com A. PERSONAL DATA Name : NGUYEN THI DATKHOA - LUCY Present Address : 38. Dong An St. Thanh To Ward, Hai An District, Hai Phong City Home Address : 38. Dong An St. Thanh To Ward, Hai An District, Hai Phong City Birthdate : January 01, 1975 Birthplace : Hai An District, Hai Phong City Gender : Female Civil Status : Married Nationality : Vietnamese Languages Spoken : Vietnamese B. EDUCATION M.A Tertiary High School: Secondary: Elementary: Thai Nguyen University - Vietnam Institute of Mathematics Ha Noi Pedagogical University Le Qui Don High School, Hai Phong city Le Loi Secondary School, Ngo Quyen Le Loi Elementary school, Ngo Quyen C.WORK EXPERIENCE 9/1994 to 5/2003 5/2003 to 12/2007 1/2008 to 12/2011 1/2012 to 4/2014 Dang Lam Secondary School, An Hai, Hai Phong Education Department of Hai An, Hai phong Education Department of Dương Kinh, Hai phong Committee of Hai Phong city. 124 D. THE ARTICLE, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Necessary Conditions for Efficiency in Constrained Multiobjective Optimization Problems – Journal of Science and Technique, N138(12 - 2010) – Military Technical Academy. Applying the method of “combining individual activities and small group activities” in teaching mathematics at lower secondary level – Education Review N263 (6 – 2011).

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