Pursuing the english language functions in teaching the basic english course at Thai nguyen university (tnu) system

PURSUING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS IN TEACHING THE BASIC ENGLISH COURSE AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY (TNU) SYSTEM A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of Graduate School Batangas State University Batangas City, Philippines In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Major in English By: LUU THI HUONG (JULIA) December 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE CURRICULUMN VITAE 158 LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 1. Distribution of Sample

doc169 trang | Chia sẻ: huong20 | Ngày: 15/01/2022 | Lượt xem: 332 | Lượt tải: 0download
Tóm tắt tài liệu Pursuing the english language functions in teaching the basic english course at Thai nguyen university (tnu) system, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
Respondents 52 2. Assessment of the teacher respondents' awareness of the seven functions of the English language 58 3. Assessment of the seven functions of the English language according to the degree of importance as perceived by the teacher respondents 59 4. Application of the seven functions of the English language in Reading Error! Bookmark not defined. 5. Application of the seven functions of the English language in Writing Error! Bookmark not defined. 6. Level of students reading performance in the seven functions of language 67 7. Level of students writing performance in the seven functions of language 68 8. T-test comparison of the student's language performance in the seven functions of language 70 9a. List of seven functions of the English language in reading and writing evaluated to be employed in teaching the Basic English course by the respondents 65 9b. List of seven functions of the English language in reading and writing evaluated to be employed in teaching the Basic English course by the respondents Error! Bookmark not defined. 10a. List of seven functions of the English language in reading and writing and their frequency of use according to the respondents Error! Bookmark not defined. 10b.List of seven functions of the English language in reading and writing and their frequency of use according to the respondents 75 11a.List of seven functions of the English language in reading and writing and their degree of importance according to the respondents Error! Bookmark not defined. 11b.List of seven functions of the English language in reading and writing and their degree of importance according to the respondents Error! Bookmark not defined. 12. T-test comparison of the student's language performance and teachers assessment in the seven functions of language in Reading and Writing Error! Bookmark not defined. 13. Parameters used as basis in the design of functional activities for students and teachers 80 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Title Page 1 Research Paradigm 48 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction The increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language shift and even language death, and to claims of linguistic imperialism. English itself has become more open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole. English is a global language. People hear it on television by politicians from all over the world and whenever people travel, they see English sign and advertisement. A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country. These points add to the complexity of the present day world situation, but they do not alter the fundamental point. Because of the three pronged development of first language, second language, and foreign language speakers, it is inevitable that a global language will eventually come to be used by more people than any other language. English has already reached this stage. English is the dominant business language and it has become almost a necessity for people to speak English if they are to enter a global workforce. Research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English. Its importance in the global market place therefore cannot be understated, learning English really can change people’s life. During the last decades, the world has witnessed lots of cultural, social, political, economical and technological changes. In this new, global world, people have had to meet the needs brought about by these changes in order to keep up with them. One of the most important needs is language learning. By the help of the developments in technology and science, people all over the world have to communicate with people from other countries, which require the learning of different foreign languages. The most commonly used language in the world is English. In fact English is known as a key to open the door into bustling world of rapid changes and development. Everyday an increasing number of people are trying to learn English for different purposes with the hope that they can use it effectively. One of the main goals of language teachers is to provide students with the tools to be effective communicators in the teaching language. Often when students are assigned projects and assignments their lack of practical tools to produce the actual language becomes evident. In these cases, students might very well have the necessary resources to accomplish the task, but teachers might need to consider a communicative approach to teaching the language, focusing on the functions of language, to properly equip students to complete assigned tasks. Those functions are namely: Instrumental showing the way an individual satisfies the need by asking for something like “May I use your phone?”; Regulatory stating controlling another’s behavior such as the teacher requests students “stand up!”; Interactional used for maintaining interpersonal like wishing a friend a merry Christmas; Personal is considered as where one talks about oneself “I feel so happy today”; Heuristic is used to find out the world in general, for example: “is there any solution for environment pollution?”; Imaginative focuses on where one talks about one’s imagination like telling stories and jokes; Representational refers to seeking and giving varied types of information like “ How many survivors were there in the terrorism in France last week?”. Many people believe it’s important to have knowledge on the functions of language for specific purposes. Whether they are apologizing, expressing a wish or asking permission, they use language in order to fulfill that purpose. Each purpose can be known as a language function. Savignon (1983) describes a language function as the use to which language is put, the purpose of an utterance rather than the particular grammatical form an utterance takes. By using this idea to structure teaching, the instructional focus becomes less about form and more about the meaning of an utterance. In this way, students use the language in order to fulfill a specific purpose, therefore making their speech more meaningful. The basic communication goals can be expressed in terms of situations, functions and topics. It is up to the teacher to plan the situations within which students will be able to use their language for a purpose in the classroom context. By creating a situation the teacher is providing the necessary context students need to use the language for a function. Language functions have two categories: micro functions which refer to the specific individual use and macro functions which serve more overall aims according to Finch (1998). Micro functions consist of seven functions such as physiological function in terms of releasing physical and nervous energy, phatic function for sociability, recording function, identifying function, reasoning function, communicating function, and pleasure function. Macro functions refer to the ideational function, interpersonal function, poetic function, and textual function. In the study of language, it is of significant importance that students develop their language skills. These language skills are vital tools for complete communication. These are reading, writing, listening and speaking. Writing is one among the basic skills in learning a language. It is both social and cognitive process. Students view writing as a necessity. They are aware that this can improve thinking as well. Students find writing as most difficult among the language skills because of its complexity. Their writing skill is one way to know their academic success or performance and it is also a basic requirement to participate in any endeavor in their personal life as well as in the global economy. The basic level of writing required by colleges or universities for incoming students who want to study is not met since there are large number of adolescent graduates from high school who are not equipped with the basic literacy skills needed like lacking the ability to write to meet the growing demands of the college curriculum. Students who have poor writing skills are also referred to as low performing writer. They are those students whose writing skills do not meet the adequate demands of the class. Writing difficulties like all other learning problems can be frustrating on the part of the students’ education and self -esteem. A student who has problem in writing would experience interference in his learning. He is unmotivated and lacks enthusiasm to write because of his inadequacy of the skill. Problems that confront teachers regarding students’ problems in writing are focused on what students will write and how to motivate them to write about interesting topic. If students do not have the proper or right perspective, writing for them becomes a boring act. So that teachers look for a way to combine other skills in teaching for students to have freedom to meaningfully express them. Reading as a language skill helps students expand their knowledge in large messages or paragraphs. It is one of the most important skills that a person can acquire. It helps the learner to understand the world by enabling them to learn about the past and plan for the future. For academic success, reading is important since it is also considered a critical skill. In the educational system reading is well integrated that either educational or academic success is considered synonymous to reading success. Reading is the key that unlocks the door in the world of enjoyment. Reading is perhaps the most important language skill to develop in all learners, requiring a multi-faceted process. Therefore, reading should become indispensable to learner because if they don’t learn reading especially from the beginning, they would surely find difficulty in learning other skills. Students do not become good readers due to the following reasons: poor ability or for making insufficient effort, unsuitable course books, which do not encourage them to read and do not raise their interest of reading, wrong attitude of the teachers and students about the subject, inappropriate teaching methods and classroom techniques. Reading difficulties become most apparent when the reader is unable to grasp the meaning from a text passage. Reading may be affected by the difficulties of the text, the vocabulary of the words used in the text, and the reader’s familiarity with the subject matter, among other factors. Moreover, reading difficulties have been caused by inadequate instruction, insufficient exposure and practice, deficient word recognition skills, deficient memory capacity and functioning, significant language deficiencies, inadequate comprehension monitoring and self-evaluation, unfamiliarity with text features and task demands, undeveloped attentive strategies and inadequate cognitive development and reading experiences. In the process of integration and development in international economic relations of Vietnam nowadays, one of the decisive factors relating to the society’s economic development of the Nation is to extent the foreign economy, in which learning a foreign language is one of the most important contents to contribute that process. It is really necessary for Vietnamese people to learn foreign languages in general as well as English in particular when Vietnam country enters to integrate the world economy, especially Vietnam becomes an official member of WTO. Cited from the Resolution adopted by the tenth Party Congress, Vietnam is planning to try to become a country where its people could speak English as a second language like the Philippines today in 2020. In April 2009, the Ex - Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr. Ly Quang Dieu visited Vietnam and had a very sincere advice to Vietnamese that Vietnam should train English for unemployed people in order to reduce the rate of the poor. The demand of using English in universities, colleges, banks, restaurants and offices is quickly increasing, so teaching English as a global language is very significant and effective. With this scenario, as an English Language teacher of Thai Nguyen University handling Basic English course, the researcher become interested to look into the writing and reading performance of First Year College students in the seven functions of language and come up with enrichment activities gearing towards enhancement of writing and reading performance. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the reading and writing performance of first year college students taking up Basic English course in the seven functions of language at Thai Nguyen University (TNU) System during the Academic Year 2013-2014 with the end view of proposing functional enrichment activities. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: How are the Basic English course in the seven language functions being carried out in the beginning College English course in terms of: awareness degree of importance, teaching reading; and teaching writing? What is the level of students’ reading performance? relative to: Instrumental Regulatory Interactional Personal Heuristic Imaginative Representational What is the level of students’ writing performance in the seven functions of language? Are there significant differences between reading and writing performance of students? How do the teachers assess the reading and writing performance of students based on the seven functions of language? How do the assessment of teachers and performance of students in reading and writing compare? What functional enrichment activities in the English language may be proposed? Scope, Delimitation and Limitation This study focused on determining the first year college students’ reading and writing performance in the seven functions of language in the Basic English Course at Thai Nguyen University (TNU) System, Vietnam. The study dealt about the student’s writing and reading performance in terms of instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative and representational language functions as well as the teachers’ assessments on the said language functions. The output of the study is in the form of functional enrichment activities to improve students’ weaknesses on Basic English Course along these language functions. The study covered the four (4) Thai Nguyen Universities in Thai Nguyen City and used 53 teachers teaching Basic English course and 1,266 First Year College students who were presently enrolled in the Academic Year 2013-2014. Students who were not enrolled in the Basic English course as well as those in the higher levels were not included in the study. Results of the study were limited on the information from the respondents in the Academic year 2013-2014. Significance of the Study The study was deemed beneficial to the Administrators of Thai Nguyen University, English teachers, First Year students, Parents and Future researchers. Administrators. Results of the study will guide them in the curriculum development by evaluating the different English proficiency enhancing activities. These will also serve as a guide for the realignment of the existing curriculum of Basic English to meet their institutional goals and objectives. Faculty of Basic English. Results of this study will make the faculty, teaching Basic English aware of the student’s performance in writing and speaking. These will provide them insights on what classroom learning activities would be appropriate to enhance the language proficiency of their students. Likewise, the teachers might propose some enrichment activities to improve the student’s writing and reading performance. First Year Students. Findings of this study will make them aware of their present performance in writing and reading. These will give them a challenge to improve their weak points and enhance their over-all performance in Basic English. Parents. Through this study, parents of the first year students will become aware of the English performance of their children which will make them more supportive and cooperative in school activities specifically on the improvement of the skills in the Basic English of their children. Future researchers. Results of this study will serve as reference for their undertaking. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter presents the review of conceptual and research literature which provides the right direction to complete the research study, synthesis, theoretical framework, conceptual framework, hypothesis and definition of terms. Conceptual Literature The concepts reviewed serves as the basis of the study. It included the following: teaching the English language to beginners, English language functions, evaluation of reading and writing performance, and English language enrichment activities. Teaching the English Language to Beginners. English as an international language and the most widely used in the world today is used in international meetings and conferences. It is also the language used in education. Many non-English speakers study the language since learning the language would open doors to many opportunities and success. Teaching the English language to beginners is not an easy task. Numerous problems are encountered from students ranging from mispronunciation of words, wrong spelling, incorrect grammar, and lack of confidence. So, that there are suggestions or tips on how teachers can teach English to beginners. Myers (2014) shared her methodology on teaching English to absolute beginners. These include making sentences out of words on cards and letting students memorize and repeat short dialogues. In teaching students, vocabulary should be the focus instead of grammar especially for production. It is suggested that walls in the classroom should be covered with useful familiar language. Likewise, the teacher must use direct method of teaching using mime, gestures, visual aids and wall charts. Bleyer (2012) on the other hand emphasized that in teaching Basic English to beginners teacher must speak slowly and clearly and makes sure that beginner students understand her lessons. Students’ names and nicknames must be remembered by teacher and students as well as the place where they live as these will serve as basis to practice Basic English structures. Basic things such as sounds of the alphabet, spelling, reading rules and Basic English grammar structures should be the starting point for teaching. In teaching English to beginners, teachers must remember not to overwhelm students with new materials; show students that lessons can be fun, they can participate in the activities and perform well (busy teacher .org/3773 –how-to-teach-english-to-beginners.html). In designing the curriculum, teachers must bear in mind the following: for lesson material, it is important to go slowly in introducing information to students until they are comfortable with what they covered; for teacher talking in the classroom, it should be slowed down as students will never understand if it is done rapidly and for drill exercises teacher must enunciate clearly and talk loudly for the entire class to hear. As for practice, teacher must choose practice that are simple, easy to understand and easy to explain. Demonstration is the best option as using lots of words may confuse students. As they improve, more complex activities may be introduced. For having fun, students must be given opportunity to learn in a different way through language studies as the goal of every language teacher is to let students communicate with her and others in a positive creative environment. Andrews (2005) on the other hand provided tips for teaching ESL beginners and pre-literate adults. These are making sure personal connection comes first; use interruptions as teaching moments that trump whatever lesson the teacher planned; try to minimize; feed students’ stomachs sometimes, not just their minds; try to meet students half way; communicate slowly, clearly and directly; and avoid books that are too childish. In addition, the following are suggested in teaching English for beginners: smiling helps as it is something that can be understood on a universal level especially in building rapport with the students and support capacity; finding an assistant as it creates a great atmosphere in the class where students help each other in the learning process and makes things easier; use of realia such as flash cards and other visuals; knowing of few basic words and phrases in the students’ language; speaking slowly; teaching of all four skills; repeating commands; and chill, relax, be calm, and avoiding stress as well as building a strong rapport with students (busy teacher, org/ 4793-top -8- tips –on- teaching- absolute- beginners. html). English Language Functions. Language is a system of arbitrary symbols used by members of a society to communicate with one another as defined by Clifford Praetor, head of the Second Language Teaching Department of the University of California. It is a system of rules, unconsciously present in the mind, that enables humans to relate sounds and meanings (Delahunty et al, 1994). Language is a means by which sounds and meanings are related. There is some sound symbolism in language, that is , there are words whose pronunciation suggests the meaning (Fromkin et al, 1974). If one has the knowledge about language words to form phrases, phrases to form sentences can be combined. This is because knowing a language means being able to produce new sentences never spoken before and to understand sentences never heard before. This ability according to Chomsky (1972) is referred to as the creative aspect of language. Halliday (1975) stated that language is systemic because it is paradigmatically organized which means any piece of language on any scale can be described as the output of a system of choices and that as the child moves into the mother tongue, language functions give way to the generalized meta-functions of language. In this process, in between the two levels of the proto language system, an additional content is inserted. Instead of one level of content, there are now two: the lexico-grammar and semantics. Function refers to systemic and non- systemic linguistics. There are three particular types of functions in systemic linguistics and these are micro-function which makes use of constituents like subject, actor, or theme; macro-function which deals with the language used in early child-language such as functions of imagination, discovery, interaction and others and meta-function which is the generalized functional principle of linguistic organization. Meta-functions comprised of three types namely: the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual. According to Blor et al (1995) these three functions operate simultaneously in the expression of meaning. In ideational function leaner’s experience is expressed where elements of the external word and that of consciousness are expressed. The two sub-functions in the field of parameters of register which are reflected in ideational function are the experienced and the logical. The experiential functions concern with content or ideas with the system of transitivity as the outcome. The following are the six process types of transitivity systems: material, mental, relational, behavioral, verbal and existential. Logical function is concerned with the relationships between ideas. Functions are expressions of feeling and attitude that do not typically correspond to grammatical categories. Wilkins (1976 ) pointed out that these categories could provide a clear rationale, from the standpoint of learner requirements, for selecting the language to which the learner will be exposed and which the learner will be supposed to acquire. Functions of language promotes the constructive interaction between linguistics and such neighboring disciplines as sociology, cultural studies, psychology, ethnology, communication studies, translation theory and educational linguistics (Mackenzie, 2008). According to Halliday (1978) the seven functions of language is referred to as the functional view of language where the interest lies on what the language can do, or in what the speaker, child or adult can do with it. These language functions are instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, imaginative, heuristic, and presentational. This functional account of language used support the communicative language teaching linguistic theory. The language used by children to satisfy needs and desires, and to make requests, or the language used by older children to persuade is referred to as instrumental function of language which is transmitted when the buying and ordering situations is dramatized by students and is being captured in letters of order and invitation of students. Furthermore, Christodoulou (2009) stated that instrumental function of language is language used to fulfill a need on the part of the speaker which is directly concerned with obtaining food, drink and comfort. Instrumental function of language can also be understood by using language to get things. However, regulatory function of language, is used to control the behavior of others to do what one wants such as instructing and demonstrating and when writing list of directions or memos and classroom rules. Interactional language function on the other hand is used to establish and define social relationship. Mohr et al (2007) explained that interactional language is the language used to build and maintain relationship. It can be compared to transactional language, which normally carries a message and is the language used to get things done. Learners in a multi-lingual group, chatting together before a class begins are using interactional language. Teachers can present elements of interactional language, and raise learners’ awareness of interaction language by exposure to video and authentic conversation. Learner can learn to use paralinguistic features such as gesture, eye contact, and body language, and linguistic features to maintain an interactional conversation including functions such as expressing interest and asking for clarification. The language used to express feelings, opinions, and individuality is covered in personal language. Sharing personal background and in talking about one’s stance on an issue are some areas where this language is manifested and this can best be reflected in the students’ autobiographical essay. Creating a world of one’s own, and expressing fantasy through drama, poetry and stories are avenues where imaginative language can be used. The ability to use and appreciate language as a creative medium is reflected in imaginative language.  It is based on a model where an environment is created to a child through sounds, stories, make-believe, poetry and creative writing. The rubric of this language function allows learner to play with the target language the use of puns, rhyme, alliteration, and other poetic and literary devices. Creating and considering possibilities are the principal purpose of imaginative function. Use of language in exploring the environment, in investigating and acquiring knowledge as well as understanding are the functions of heuristic language. This language of inquiry is utilized in History questions. In transmitting this certain language function effectively the letters of invitation and order are written. Using the language to learn and discover is the heuristic function of language. Learners using heuristic language learn through question and answer and by exploring the environment. Moreover, the uses of language to communicate information, to report facts, synthesize material, and inferences and conclusions are the informational functions of language. The students can convey the informative language through giving of information on current events, general information, and scientific data. This describes the sharing of information to enhance knowledge. Thompson (1994) stated that various kinds of information sharing, whether about one's personal feelings, or about something observed in the real world, may be combined for second language learner. Thus, the informational function, which includes both ideas and feelings, is one of exchanging knowledge. Learning the language is both a social and cultural phenomenon. Becoming literate is a language function as it is tool for literacy and represents thinking. Evaluation of Reading and Writing Performance. One that requires students to demonstrate that they have mastered specific skills and competencies by performing or producing something is termed as performance assessment or evaluation (https:/ /www. /learner.org./ workshops / social studies/ pdf/session7/7 Performance Assessment.pdf). It calls for the assessments of the following: designing and carrying out experiments; writing essays which requires rethinking of students, to integrate, or to apply information; working with other students to accomplish tasks; demonstrating proficiency in using a piece of equipment or a technique of building models; developing, interpreting, and using maps; making collections; writing papers, critiques, poems, or short stories; giving speeches; playing musical instruments; participating in oral examinations, developing portfolios; developing athletic skill or routine. According to Ark (2013) performance assessment refers to the list in which the test taker actually demonstrates the skills the test is intended to measure by doing real-world tasks that require those skills, rather than by answering questions asking how to do them. Meyer (1992) on the other hand pointed out that performance is authentic when ... to relate sounds and meanings (Delahunty et al, 1994). Metafunctions of Language. The term refers to systemic functional linguistics is functional and semantic rather than formal and syntactic in its orientation (Halliday,1973). Performance Assessment or Evaluation. The term refers to one that requires students to demonstrate that they have mastered specific skills and competencies by performing or producing something (https:/ /www. /learner.org./ workshops / social studies/ pdf/session7/7 Performance Assessment.pdf) Reading Performance. Writing Performance. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD This chapter presents the research design, subjects of the study, data gathering instruments, data gathering procedures and the statistical treatment of data. This study is conducted in the following universities in Thai Nguyen. The universities are University of Education, University of Economics and Business Administration, University of Sciences, and University of Agriculture and Forestry. Research Design The study made used of descriptive method of research. According to Calmorin (1994) descriptive method is the study focuses on the present condition. The purpose is to find new truth. The truth may have different forms such as increased quantity of knowledge, a new generation or an increased in sight into factors which are operating, the discovery of a new causal relationship, a more accurate formulation of the problem to be solved and many others. In addition, descriptive method of research as this method support the present facts concerning the nature and status of a group of persons, conditions, system of thoughts, a class of events or any kind of phenomena. Furthermore, the descriptive correlational method of research was used in this study. As pointed out by Estolas (1990) the use of descriptive method of research obtains facts about existing conditions or detects significant relationship between current phenomena, which generate and make available information needed by the researcher. To accomplish the objectives of the study, information were pertinent to the present undertaking through survey questionnaire and teacher – made - test from the respondents of the study. Subjects of the Study The 1,266 First Year College students from the four (4) Thai Nguyen Universities taking up Basic English course and 53 faculty members teaching Basic English in the 4 universities of Thai Nguyen were the subjects of the study. These universities include University of Education, University of Science, University of Economics and Business Administration and University of Agriculture and Forestry. Table 1 Distribution of Sample Respondents Name of Universities Number of respondents Teachers Students Teachers Students University of Education 22 2200 19 327 University of Economics and Business Administration 15 1440 14 302 University of Sciences 10 1400 10 302 University of Agriculture and Forestry 11 2500 10 335 Total 58 7540 53 1266 Purposive sampling method was used in this study as this sampling method is a form of non-probability sampling in which decisions concerning the individuals to be included in the sample are taken by the researcher, based upon a variety of criteria which included specialist knowledge of the research issue, or capacity and willingness to participate in the research, (Oliver, 2000). Some types of research design necessitate researchers taking a decision about the individual participants who were most likely to contribute appropriate data, both in terms of relevance and depth.  Data Gathering Instrument This study utilized the following research instrument: Teacher – made – test and survey questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. The questionnaire was conceptualized based on the readings from books, journals, magazines, online references and other materials. Two sets of questionnaires were used to gather pertinent information about the study. Teacher - Made – Test. This test was conducted to assess the writing and reading performance of the students and it was administered to the 1266 First Year students in Thai Nguyen University. Survey Questionnaire. This questionnaire was made to assess the student’s writing and reading performance and this was administered to the 53 teachers who are teaching Basic English in Thai Nguyen University. The questionnaire was validated by three professors who are expert in the field to ensure the correctness of the instrument. All their suggestions were incorporated to improve the questionnaire. A dry run was also conducted to determine the reliability of the instrument. A teacher – made – test was also conducted to the respondents to ensure of the accuracy of the information gathered from the questionnaire. Data Gathering Procedure In gathering information required in the study, books and other relevant materials and references containing concepts and related literature as well as unpublished theses and journals including online references were utilized by the researcher. The questionnaire was constructed by the researcher and was validated by experts and approved by the adviser. Prior to the administration of the questionnaire, a permit to conduct and to administer it to the teachers and students from the four (4) Thai Nguyen Universities was secured from the TNU Administrators. The researcher sent a letter of request to the Rector or Vice – Rector of the 4 universities for the administration of the questionnaire. The respondents were assured that all the data gathered would be treated with utmost confidentiality. After being accepted to conduct the test with the teachers and students in those universities, the researcher in four weeks completed the process of the questionnaires, collected the photos and the result of the tests. Statistical Treatment of Data Frequency Distribution and Percentage. This was used to provide meaningful description of the respondents’ performance in writing and reading. Weighted Mean. This was used to quantify the student’s performance in writing and reading. Standard Deviation. This was used to determine the level of performance of the students’ writing and reading. Independent t-test. This was used to test the significant difference among the teacher’s assessment and the student’s writing and reading performance. Scores and Intervals. This was used to evaluate the level of students’ performance in writing and reading. Corresponding Interpretation of the Teacher Made test. This was used to CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the summary of the responses gathered from the participants of the study, the data analysis and its interpretation. 1. How Basic Language Functions are being Carried Out in the Beginning College English Course Teacher respondents from four Thai Nguyen Universities were evaluated as to how they carry out the teaching of basic language functions at the beginning College English course. Fifty eight teacher respondents were administered with a survey questionnaire as described in the methodology and the results were tallied and analyzed. The survey questionnaire includes four sets of questions namely: items that pertain to their awareness of the basic language functions, items that evaluate their perception of the degree of importance of the basic language functions, items that assess how they carry out the teaching of the seven functions of language in reading and items that assess how they carry out the teaching of the seven functions of language in writing. The seven functions of language that were being studied are: instrumental function, regulatory function, interactional function, personal language, imaginative language heuristic language, and informative language. This assessment as to what extent; teachers carry out the teaching of each of these language functions since one of the premises in language teaching is that its outcome-based objectives can be realized by example and application. 1.1. Awareness. On the awareness aspect, a set of seven items were included in the survey questionnaire for the teachers to respond. The result of this survey is shown in Table 2. Table 2 Teachers’ Respondents Awareness of the Seven Functions of the English language Items Yes % No % 1. Are you aware of the 7 functions of language according to Halliday (1975)? 53 100.00 0 0.00 2. Did you consider to include them in the design of your current College English course? 53 100.00 0 0.00 3. Do you think they are important to be included in the curriculum of College English course? 53 100.00 0 0.00 4. Do you agree that the first four functions of language help the child to satisfy physical, emotional and social needs? 53 100.00 0 0.00 5. Do you agree that these functions include instrumental, regulatory, interactional, and personal functions? 53 100.00 0 0.00 6. Do you agree that the second three functions of language help the child to come to terms with his or her environment? 53 100.00 0 0.00 7. Do you agree that these functions include heuristic, imaginative, and representational functions? 53 100.00 0 0.00 It can be observed from the table that all of the seven items obtained an affirmative response, which is 100 percent. This means that the teacher respondents are unanimously aware of the seven functions of language. It can also mean that they are knowledgeable about them, appreciate their importance and familiar with their various applications. 1.2. Degree of importance. The teacher respondents were asked to assess the degree of importance of the different functions of language. This ranking provides information on how the teachers prioritize the different functions of language in their teaching. This shows whether the teacher is addressing the widest possible language function applications or are focusing on a limited number of applications. The result is shown in Table 3. Table 3 Seven Functions of the English Language according to the Degree of Importance Functions of Language Average Rating Rank Verbal interpretation 1. Instrumental function 6.2 1 VI 2. Regulatory function 2.4 6 LI 3. Interactional function 2.6 5 I 4. Personal language 4.9 3 MI 5. Imaginative language 4.6 4 MI 6. Heuristic language 5.5 2 VI 7. Informative language 2.2 7 LI It can be noted from the table that instrumental function, heuristic language, personal language, imaginative language, and interactional function got ratings of >2.6 which is verbally equivalent to important. This means that the teachers generally perceived the language functions as important to the students and must be considered in the teaching of beginning English course. The item with the highest score and deemed to be very important is Instrumental function and followed by Heuristic language. This means that the teachers put priority on language functions that pertain to getting things (Christodoulou, 2009) and those involve in inquiry (Halliday et al, 1978). Perhaps, it is the perception of the teachers that these two language functions are the most important ones for the students to survive their tertiary education. Two items had scores below 2.5 and are considered to be less important. These language functions are regulatory function and informative language. This means that the teacher respondents do not consider these language functions to be equally important as the other five. The regulatory function pertains to the language used to control behavior while the informative language is used to provide information (Halliday et al, 1978). It is interesting to understand why the teacher respondents rated these two language functions as least important considering that students would need them in their various class activities. These two language functions are empowering language functions to the students and it can be sensed that the teachers tend to be threatened by empowered students (i.e., a kind of bias that exist in this kind of educational environment). 1.3. Teaching Reading Based on the Seven Functions of the Language. The teacher respondents were made to describe how they carry out the teaching of the functions of language in reading. A list of activities were presented as a checklist for them to choose as to which of these activities they think falls under the seven functions of language. The result is shown in Table 4. It can be noted from the table that five out of the seven activities listed had ratings of >50% in the seven language functions. This means that the teacher respondents generally agree on the relevance of these five activities in seven functions of language. These activities are: Reading the newspaper and discussing the current events (3), Reading a novel or short story (4), Browsing the internet like facebook (5), Reading one’s email (6), and Reading book items (7). The activity with the highest frequency score is activity 3 with 84.91 percent. This means that majority of the teacher respondents believe that this activity is the best example of the Personal function of language. The activities with frequency score below 50 percent are reading a letter and looking at maps and giving or asking directions. This means that these two activities are being used by the teachers as examples for two or more language functions. Looking at the language descriptions based on Halliday et al (1978) and the ideal activity numbers for each of the language functions, it can be observed that only three out of seven language functions were the teachers able to assign at least 2 of the ideal activities correctly (i.e. see the activity numbers as bold and underlined in Table 4). This means that the teacher respondents are able to appreciate and understand the nature of these three language functions (i.e.,Instrumental, Personal and Informative) and appropriately assigned pertinent activities to them. In the remaining four language functions, only one activity was correctly assigned. Table 4 Frequency of Students’ Use Based on the seven functions of English language in Reading Reading Activities Frequency of respondents in % from a total of 58 teachers Instrumental Regulatory Interactional Personal Heuristic Imaginative Informative 1. Reading a letter 1.89 39.62 24.53 1.89 1.89 1.89 41.51 2. Looking at maps and giving or asking direction 41.51 3.77 3.77 3.77 43.40 26.42 3.77 3. Reading the newspaper and discussing the current events 5.66 5.66 26.42 84.91 5.66 5.66 5.66 4. Reading a novel or short story 49.06 28.30 7.55 7.55 7.55 7.55 45.28 5. Browsing the internet like facebook 9.43 50.94 9.43 9.43 9.43 67.92 9.43 6. Reading one’s email 32.08 11.32 11.32 11.32 71.70 30.19 11.32 7. Reading a book 13.21 13.21 69.81 33.96 13.21 13.21 35.85 Language function descriptions Language to get things Control behavior Define Social life Self- expression Language of inquiry Creative medium Deliver information Ideal activity number 1,2,6 1,2,6 1,5,6 3,5,6 3,5,7 4,5,7 1,2,5,6,7 Moreover, the correctly assigned activity was not the major choice of the teacher respondents based on the percent frequency score. It was only in the Imaginative language that the major choice was a correct assigned in ideal activity number list. This means that while the teacher respondents portrayed to have awareness of the seven functions of language (see Table 2), they do not fully understand how this can be applied into concrete activities in their teaching as they cannot even classify correctly the different activities according to their ideal language function assignments. An example of this is Reading one’s email which was considered a heuristic language function by majority of respondents. It appears that they confused the term “heuristic” with computers, electronics and emails when it in fact simply means the use of language to seek for new knowledge or to pursue a knowledge inquiry. In reading emails, one does not always gain new knowledge. Reading emails basically maintains communication to people in a faster way as compared to the conventional mail or snail mail. Thus, this activity is more an example of Interactional or Personal language. Reading a newspaper, Browsing the internet or Reading a book are the more appropriate activities for seeking new knowledge and are the ideal activities for Heuristic language. 1.4. Teaching Writing based on the seven functions of language. The teacher respondents were also made to describe how they carry out the teaching of the functions of language in writing. Six activities were presented in a checklist format for them to assess how these falls under the seven functions of language. The result is shown in Table 5. It can be noted from the table that only two out of the six activities listed had ratings of >50% in the seven language functions. This means that the teacher respondents only see two of these activities as suitable examples of the seven functions of language. These activities are: Writing an instruction or procedure (5) and others such as general messages, like electronic text messages (6). The activity with the highest frequency score is activity 5 with 52.83 percent. This means that most of the teacher respondents consider this activity as the best example of the Informative function of language. Four activities had frequency scores of below 50 percent. These are: Writing an autobiography (1), Writing an essay of any given topic (2), Writing a short story (3), and Writing a letter (4). This means that these activities are not as widely used as examples or as media for the application of the seven functions of language. Looking at the language descriptions and the ideal activity numbers for each of the language functions, it can be observed that five out of seven language functions were the teachers able to assign at least 2 of the ideal activities correctly (i.e. see the activity numbers as bold and underlined in Table 5). This means that the teacher respondents understood the nature of these activities as application areas of the five functions of language. Interestingly, a similar pattern of inadequate understanding as observed in reading, can be noted for two language functions namely Heuristic and Imaginative. These two language functions showed only 1 correct assignment of ideal activities by the teacher respondents. For Heuristic for example, which is a language of inquiry, would ideally apply activities like writing an essay of any given topic (2) and writing a letter (4) but the teachers was only able to assign the latter activity correctly. Meanwhile for Imaginative language, only the Writing an autobiography (1) was correctly assigned. As a creative medium, the assignment of Writing an instruction or procedure could be considered a misunderstanding. Table 5 Frequency of Students’ Use based on the seven functions of English language in Writing. Writing Activities Instrumental Regulatory Interactional Personal Heuristic Imaginative Informative 1. Writing an autobiography 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89 22.64 43.40 39.62 2. Writing an essay of any given topic. 24.53 41.51 26.42 22.64 3.77 3.77 3.77 3. Writing a short story. 24.53 26.42 43.40 28.30 5.66 5.66 5.66 4. Writing a letter. 7.55 30.19 7.55 7.55 45.28 28.30 26.42 5. Writing an instruction or procedure 28.30 9.43 9.43 9.43 9.43 47.17 52.83 6 Others (general messages, e.g. electronic text messages) 11.32 11.32 30.19 50.94 33.96 11.32 30.19 Language function descriptions Language to get things Control behavior Define Social life Self- expression Language of inquiry Creative medium Deliver information Ideal activity number 2,4,5 2,4,5 1,2,3,6 1,2,3,4,6 2,4 1,2,3,6 1,2,4,5,6 2. Level of Students’ Reading Performance in the Seven Functions of Language The freshman student respondents of the study were assessed in terms of their reading performance in the seven functions of language. A set of test questions was administered to 1,266 freshman students of four Thai Nguyen Universities and their correct answers were tallied and analyzed. The test questions include 10 items each for the Instrumental function, Regulatory function and Interactional function, eight items for Personal language, twenty items for Imaginative language, five items each for Heuristic language and Informative language. The results of this test are shown in Table 6. Based on the table, the reading performance of the students in the seven functions of language were all above 50 percent with equivalent ratings of average. The highest percentage of correct items is obtained in Heuristic language with a score of 65.25 percent. This is followed by Informative language and Personal language. This indicates that the students gave the performance on the application of Heuristic language or the language of inquiry makes sense because among the different functions of language, this is the one that the students are expected most to develop and apply as they pursued more knowledge in their tertiary education. It also follows that their next best performance should be on the aspect of informative language as this is the offshoot of heuristic language as students need to share and enunciate their knowledge gained and this is best done through informative language. The lowest percentage of correct items is obtained in Interactional function with a score of 53.78 percent. Table 6 Level of students reading performance in the seven functions of language Functions Frequency of Correct Item Percent of Correct Items Verbal Interpretation 1. Instrumental function 758 59.94 Average 2. Regulatory function 704 55.62 Average 3. Interactional function 680 53.78 Average 4. Personal language 787 62.17 Average 5. Imaginative language 767 60.59 Average 6. Heuristic language 825 65.25 Average 7. Informative language 808 63.87 Average Mean 761 60.18 Average Number of student respondents: 1266 This could be expected as often, this is the area where the students could lag behind because they would not be using English language in their interaction as frequent as they use their native language. Thus, the daily use of their native language can interfere with the development and application of the English language among the non-native speakers. This pattern is particularly defined in reading since it is a receptive skill. Students react on the reading test given to them that carries the relevant language function items. Their correct responses would reflect on their experience on the context of use of the given language function. Thus, it appears that their context of exposure were mainly on the heuristic function and informative language. 3. Level of Students’ Writing Performance in the Seven Functions of Language. The freshman student respondents of the study were also assessed in terms of their writing performance in the seven functions of language. The set of test questions administered to the students include 1 item for each of the seven functions of language. The results of this test are shown in Table 7. Table 7 Level of students writing performance in the seven functions of language Functions Frequency of Correct Item Percent of Correct Items Verbal Interpretation 1. Instrumental function 829 65.48 Average 2. Regulatory function 682 53.87 Average 3. Interactional function 735 58.06 Average 4. Personal language 916 72.35 Average 5. Imaginative language 725 57.27 Average 6. Heuristic language 694 54.82 Average 7. Informative language 809 63.90 Average Mean 770 60.82 Average Number of student respondents: 1266 From the table it can noted that the writing performance of the students in the seven functions of language were all above 50 percent with equivalent ratings of average. The highest percentage of correct items is obtained in Personal language with a score of 72.35 percent. This is followed by Instrumental language and Informative language. This indicated that the students gave the best performance on the use of Personal language or the language of self-expression. This result is consistent with the result in reading together with Informative language. Thus, a parallel pattern of the best performing language function exists in reading and writing. It is of interest to note the emergence of Instrumental language as one of the best performing language function and the decline of Heuristic language. This means that in writing, students tend to develop and apply the instrumental language functions more than the heuristic function. This can be explained by considering that writing is a productive skill and heuristic language can be taxing in writing for non-native speakers while the instrumental function of language would be much easier and would be more frequently exercised in the day to day activities of the student. 4. Differences between Reading and Writing Performance of Students In order to determine if differences exist between the reading and writing performance of students, a t-test analysis was performed to compare the mean performance scores. The result of this comparison is shown in Table 8. Table 8 Student's Language Performance in Reading and Writing Functions % Correct Items in p-value Verbal Interpretation Reading Writing 1. Instrumental function 59.94 65.48 0.000168 Significant 2. Regulatory function 55.62 53.87 0.240909 Not Significant 3. Interactional function 53.78 58.06 0.002562 Significant 4. Personal language 62.17 72.35 0.000000 Significant 5. Imaginative language 60.59 57.27 0.022624 Significant 6. Heuristic language 65.25 54.82 0.000000 Significant 7. Informative language 63.87 63.90 0.955835 Not Significant As shown in the table, results show that the students’ performance in five out of seven functions of language for reading and writing are significantly different as indicated by their p-values of less than 0.05. This indicates that the reading and writing performance of the students for these five functions of language are apart from each other and are not related. This means that the language function in the receptive skill of reading is not contiguous with the same language function in the productive skill of writing. It was only in two language functions namely: Regulatory and Informative where the p-values were greater than 0.05, indicating that the Reading and Writing performance in these functions are not significantly different and are related to each other. This means that these language functions are contiguous in reading and writing. The reason for this connectivity could be because of the environment where these students are where delivering information and control of behavior are common scenarios that they can conveniently relate. 5. Teachers Assessment of the Reading and Writing Performance of Students Based on the Seven Functions of Language Fifty three teacher respondents from the four Thai Nguyen Universities were administered with a survey questionnaire to evaluate how they assess the reading and writing performance of students based on the seven functions of language. A total of fourteen items were included in the survey questionnaire with seven items each on reading and writing respectively and were presented for validation by the teacher respondents. The result of this survey is shown in Table 9 (a) and 9 (b). It can be observed that ten out of 14 items obtained an “Agree” score of >50 percent. Five of these items pertain to both reading and writing respectively. This means that the teacher respondents consider these items as valid areas for evaluating the students’ performance in the seven functions of language. Four items got a “Disagree” score of <50 percent. This means that the teacher respondents do not consider these items as pertinent items to assess the students’ performance in the seven functions of language. These items pertain to the imaginative language and the heuristic language of both reading and writing. The scores obtained on these items were 41.51 percent for reading and 18.87 percent for writing. This means that the teachers perceive that there could be other questions that can be ask along these language functions with more dramatic response in writing as compared to reading. Table 9 (a) Teaching the Basic English Course based on the seven functions of language in Reading. Reading Agree % Disagree % Instrumental function 1a. The student is able to correctly supply the needed word to complete a letter of invitation. 53 100.00 0 0.00 Regulatory function 2a. The student is able to correctly look at a map and answer questions pertaining to location. 53 100.00 0 0.00 Interactional 3a. The student is able to correctly complete a pen pal letter by supplying the appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. 53 100.00 0 0.00 Personal Language 4a. The student is able to correctly underline the correct word from the given options to complete an autobiographical essay. 53 100.00 0 0.00 Imaginative Language 5a. The student is able to correctly supply the missing words to complete a fiction story. 22 41.51 31 58.49 Heuristic 6a. The student is able to correctly answer questions pertinent to the paragraph about the environment issue. 22 41.51 31 58.49 Informative Language 7a. The student is able to correctly give the meaning of the words pertinent to context they are used. 53 100.00 0 0.00 Subtotal mean 44 83.29 9 16.71 Table 9(b) Teaching the Basic English Course based on the seven functions of language in Writing Writing Agree % Disagree % Instrumental function 1b. The student is able to cor...c and Performance Assessments? Educational Leadership, 1992. . Thompson, G. Introducing Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold. Wilkins, D.P. Pattern Grammar: A Corpus-driven Approach to the PUBLISHED ON LINE MATERIALS Alibakhshi et al. “The Effect of Teaching Strategic Competence on Speaking Performance of EFL Learners.” Published Research. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. Vo. 2. No. 4. 2011. Cromley, J.C. “Reading Comprehension Component Processes in Early Adolescence. Published Dissertation. University of Maryland. College Park. 2005. Goro, T. “Language Scientific Constraints on Scope Interpretation at First Language Acquisition.” Published Dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park.2007. Foucart, A. “Grammatical Gender Processing in French as a First and Second Language. Published Dissertation. University Ponpeu Fabra, Spain. 2008. Mader, C.L. “The Effects of Speech Recognition Technology on the Writing Skills and Attitudes of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.” Published Research. Pro Quest Information and learning Center. 2008. Mourtaga, K. “Poor Writing in English: A case of the Palestinian EFL Learners in Gaza Strip.” Published Research. Islamic University of Gaza. 2010. Obery, A.D. “An Examination of Oregon Writing Project Teachers: A Qualitative Study of Professional Development Experiences.” Published Dissertation. Oregon State University. 2012. Pinnell, G.S. “Functions of Language in Education Environment”. Published Research. Annual Conference on Language and Reading. Chicago, Illinois. 1977. Quitadamo, et al. “Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Process in General Education. CBE Life Science Educ. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.) 2007 Rabab’ah, G. “Communication Problems Facing Arab Learners of English.” Published Research. Journal of Language and Learning. Vol. 3 No.1 ISSN. 2000. . JOURNALS AND PUBLICATIONS Flavell, J. H. What is Memory Development? Human Development, 1971. Finch G. 1998. How to study linguistics. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan Halliday, M.A. K. Explorations in the Functions of Language: London: Edward Arnold, Review of M. Gregory. Journal of Linguistics 3. Savignon, Sandra J. 1983. Communicative competence: theory and classroom practice; texts and contexts in second language learning Swartz, S. L. Interactive Editing and Interactive Writing. Domine Press/ Pearson Learning. 2001. ON LINE REFERENCES Andrews, H. http: iteslj.org/techniques/Andrews-Beginners. Html- 2005. Ark, T.V. A Teachers Guide to Assessment. www. teach thought. com/teaching/the-definition-of-performance-of assessment. 2013 Bleyer, M. Bellschool. Org./en/articles-english-abroad/938/2012. busy teacher .org/3773 –how-to-teach-enlish-to-beginners.html. busy teacher, org/ 4793-top -8- tips –on- teaching- absolute- beginners. Html Christodoulou, N. Halliday’s Functions of Language in the Child Language Acquisition Debate, nfgsa 2 englishlanguage. Blogspot.com2009/09hallidays functions of language-in-html. . file store. aqa. org. uk/ AQA- BACC. ENRICH Fortier, M. Performance Assessments/ https:www/learner.org/ workshop /social studies/ pdf/session/ Performance Assessment.pdf. Hjorland, B. Cardosos, A.M., & Ferreira, M. scholar google.com/citations? user=mutqG2wAAAJ. Myers,J. www. onestopenglish. Com/support/ask-experts/methodology- questions-methodology-absolute-beginners/146386.article.2014 Mohr,J.P.,Watters, W.C., and Duncan,GW. Brain, Evolution and Language, books.google.comph/books?isbn.2007. Nordquist, R. grammar. about.com. composition-developing-effective- paragraphs.2012. Wiggins, G. Practical assessment Research and Evaluation. online net/getvn.asp?v= 28n=2. https:/ /www. /learner.org./ workshops / social studies/ pdf/session7/7 Performance Assessment.pdf. www. aga. org. uk./ programmes /aqa- baccalaureate/ enrichment activities www. dwcc.edu. ph/?q=cll enrichment. www. education. com/ reference/ article/ enrichment/. www. imschool. org/ images/ files/ menufiles/ overview 6 traits pdf. www. learning pt. org. promising practices of what is. htm www. oxford dictionaries.com/definition/ English/. www. speech and language. where house. Com/ what –is-htm. www. Sirius- academy. Org. uk/? Page ID –enrichment- activities w/ teacher. word press. com/2011/12/13/ enrichment-activities- in –the- foreign language-classroom-aka- games. APPENDICES A. Letters of Requests 1. Letters for Validation of Questionnaires 2. Letters of Request to Conduct Study B. Questionnaire Questionnaire on Teacher’s Assessment of the Reading and Writing Performance of Students based on the 7 functions of the English Language I. Demographic profile of the teachers. Respondents Name:____________________________________________ Age:_________ Gender:__________ Place of origin:__________________ Civil Status:_________ Educational qualification:______________________ Years of teaching experience:_____________________________________ II. Assessment of how the language functions are being carried out in the beginning College English Course. Please answer the following questions. Place a check-mark on the space corresponding to the rating of your choice. Question Answer Yes No 1. Are you aware of the 7 functions of language according to Halliday (1975)? 2. Did you consider to include them in the design of your current College English course? 3. Do you think they are important to be included in the curriculum of College English course? 4. Do you agree that the first four functions of language help the child to satisfy physical, emotional and social needs? 5. Do you agree that these functions include instrumental, regulatory, interactional, and personal functions? 5. Do you agree that the second three functions of language help the child to come to terms with his or her environment? 6. Do you agree that these functions include heuristic, imaginative, and representational functions? 7. Rank the 7 functions of language according to your perception of their degree of importance in the College English Course? Use the rating of 1 to 7 where 1 is most important and 7 is least important. Language functions Rating instrumental regulatory interactional personal heuristic imaginative representational 8. In what ways do you carry out the following functions of language? Please check the box corresponding to your choice. Activity Instru-mental Regu-latory Inter-actional Per-sonal Heur-istic Imagin-ative Represent-tational Reading 1. Reading a letter 2. Looking at maps and giving or asking direction 3. Reading the newspaper and discussing the current events 4. Reading a novel or short story 5. Browsing the internet like facebook 6. Reading one’s email 6. Reading a book 7. Other, specify ___________ ___________ ___________ Writing 1. Writing an autobiography 2. Writing an essay of any given topic. 3. Writing a short story. 4. Writing a letter. 5. Writing an instruction or procedure 4. Others, specifiy ___________ ___________ ___________ Speaking 1. Role-playing 2. Dialoque 3. Interview 4. Story-telling 5. Class-speech 6. Other, specify ___________ ___________ ___________ Listening 1. Lecture 2. Dictation 3. Listening to radio 4. Movie-viewing 5. Listening to music 6. Other, specify ___________ ___________ ___________ III. Assessment of the Reading and Writing Performance of Students based on the 7 functions of the English Language (Validation). Please indicate whether the following items are Student Performance areas on Reading and Writing in the 7 functions of the English Language. Place a check-mark on the space corresponding to the rating of your choice. Student Performance areas Do you agree or disagree that the following skills are Strategic competence skills? Agree (1) Disagree (2) Reading performance in the 7 functions of language Instrumental function 1a. The student is able to correctly supply the needed word to complete a letter of invitation. Regulatory function 2a. The student is able to correctly look at a map and answer questions pertaining to location. Interactional 3a. The student is able to correctly complete a pen pal letter by supplying the appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. Personal Language 4a. The student is able to correctly underline the correct word from the given options to complete an autobiographical essay. Imaginative Language 5a. The student is able to correctly supply the missing words to complete a fiction story. Heuristic 6a. The student is able to correctly answer questions pertinent to the paragraph about the environment issue. Informative Language 7a. The student is able to correctly give the meaning of the words pertinent to context they are used. Writing performance in the 7 functions of language Instrumental function 1b. The student is able to correctly write a letter of invitation. Regulatory function 2b. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph composed of five sentences giving directions. Interactional 3b. The student is able to correctly write a friendly letter. Personal Language 4b. The student is able to correctly write an autobiographical essay. Imaginative Language 5b. The student is able to correctly write a short fiction story. Heuristic 6b. The student is able to correctly formulate five questions pertaining to either History or Environment. Informative Language 7b. The student is able to correctly write a brief essay based on current events. IV. Assessment of the Reading and Writing Performance of Students based on the 7 functions of the English Language (Frequency of use). Rate the frequency by which you think the students perform on these areas in Reading and Writing in the 7 functions of the English Language. Place a check-mark on the space corresponding to the rating of your choice. Student Performance areas Frequency of Assessment Always (5) Often (4) Some-times (3) Rarely (2) Not at all (1) Reading performance in the 7 functions of language Instrumental function 1a. The student is able to correctly supply the needed word to complete a letter of invitation. Regulatory function 2a. The student is able to correctly look at a map and answer questions pertaining to location. Interactional 3a. The student is able to correctly complete a pen pal letter by supplying the appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. Personal Language 4a. The student is able to correctly underline the correct word from the given options to complete an autobiographical essay. Imaginative Language 5a. The student is able to correctly supply the missing words to complete a fiction story. Heuristic 6a. The student is able to correctly answer questions pertinent to the paragraph about the environment issue. Informative Language 7a. The student is able to correctly give the meaning of the words pertinent to context they are used. Writing performance in the 7 functions of language Instrumental function 1b. The student is able to correctly write a letter of invitation. Regulatory function 2b. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph composed of five sentences giving directions. Interactional 3b. The student is able to correctly write a friendly letter. Personal Language 4b. The student is able to correctly write an autobiographical essay. Imaginative Language 5b. The student is able to correctly write a short fiction story. Heuristic 6b. The student is able to correctly formulate five questions pertaining to either History or Environment. Informative Language 7b. The student is able to correctly write a brief essay based on current events. IV. Assessment of the Reading and Writing Performance of Students based on the 7 functions of the English Language (Degree of importance). Rank the following performance areas in terms of degree of importance. Place a check-mark on the box corresponding to the rating of your choice: Very Important (5), Moderately Important (4), Slightly Important (3), Less Important (2), or Not Important (1). Student Performance areas Degree of Importance Very (5) Moderate (4) Slight (3) Less (2) Not (1) Reading performance in the 7 functions of language Instrumental function 1a. The student is able to correctly supply the needed word to complete a letter of invitation. Regulatory function 2a. The student is able to correctly look at a map and answer questions pertaining to location. Interactional 3a. The student is able to correctly complete a pen pal letter by supplying the appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. Personal Language 4a. The student is able to correctly underline the correct word from the given options to complete an autobiographical essay. Imaginative Language 5a. The student is able to correctly supply the missing words to complete a fiction story. Heuristic 6a. The student is able to correctly answer questions pertinent to the paragraph about the environment issue. Informative Language 7a. The student is able to correctly give the meaning of the words pertinent to context they are used. Writing performance in the 7 functions of language Instrumental function 1b. The student is able to correctly write a letter of invitation. Regulatory function 2b. The student is able to correctly write a paragraph composed of five sentences giving directions. Interactional 3b. The student is able to correctly write a friendly letter. Personal Language 4b. The student is able to correctly write an autobiographical essay. Imaginative Language 5b. The student is able to correctly write a short fiction story. Heuristic 6b. The student is able to correctly formulate five questions pertaining to either History or Environment. Informative Language 7b. The student is able to correctly write a brief essay based on current events. Appendix A. Questionnaire on PURSUING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS IN TEACHING THE BASIC ENGLISH COURSE AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY (TNU) SYTEM Guide in answering the questionnaire. Welcome! You are currently participating in a descriptive research on PURSUING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS IN TEACHING THE BASIC ENGLISH COURSE AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY (TNU) SYTEM. Below you will find a list of questions that will test your performance in the 7 functions of language. Follow carefully the instructions for each test section. Do not forget to fill in your personal data. Do not leave any questions unanswered as this will invalidate your answer sheet. If you need further clarification, do not hesitate to ask your examiner. Thank you! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. Personal Data Respondents Name:__________________________________________________ Age:___________ Gender:_________Parent’s Educational Attainment:__________ Place of origin:___________________Type of High School:___________________ Exposure to English media: (Please put a check mark corresponding to the rating of your choice.) Rating Least exposed (1) Moderately exposed (2) Highly exposed (3) Extent of exposure Type of media Television Radio Internet Newspaper Magazines Books Pamphlets Others, specify II. Reading performance in the 7 functions of language. INSTRUMENTAL FUNCTION- language used to make request, buy or order and captivated in the students’ letters of order and invitation. Directions: Fill in the blanks with the needed word to complete the following letter of invitation. Choose your answer from the given choices: however, and, are, gifts,with,forward, and, day,I, this,family, house To Jenny and Family My birthday falls on 23rdJune (1.)__________am counting the days of happiness. (2.) __________ am waiting for my friends and (3.)___________ to gather (4.) __________ 23rd of June and shower (5.) _____________ on me. On this special (6.) ___________, I cordially invite you (7.) ______________ your family to be (8.) _______________ with me. Your presence will (9.) ______________ most eagerly awaited. Looking(10.) _________________to see you on that day. The details of the venue will be sent to you. Yours lovingly, Jane REGULATORY FUNCTION- instructing, demonstrating, writing list of directions or memo classroom rules. Directions: Look at the map and answer the following questions: In going to the movie house, you will pass by the second avenue then proceed to ______________ Avenue. The movie house is located behind the ________________. If you want to go on shopping, you go to the ______________ which is located behind _____________ store. You can watch the ballet performance at the ______________ which is located across from the _________________. You will pass Zetstreet in going to the _____________ where you can buy tables and chairs. If you want to buy books, go to the bookstore located opposite to the _____________ store. Take the national drive. Then take First Avenue in the left. There you will find the buildings of _____________ where secondary students study, and the _______________ where you can borrow reading materials. INTERACTIONAL FUNCTION: define social relationship. (negotiation, encouragement, and expression of friendship) in the students pen pal letter. Directions: Complete the following pen pal letter by supplying the appropriate words that will make the ideas clear and coherent. Choose your answer from the given choices. yourself, letter, to be, will, Miss Smith, back, person/friend, see, be, interest Dear Friend, Hello! My name is Trisha and I’m a student of Thai Nguyen University. We’re (1.) _____________pen pals! My teacher (2.) ____________informed us, that we will get to send (3.) _____________ at least once a month to one (4.) _______________. I’m very excited to (5.) _____________ you, and I looked forward to (6.) ___________________ with you throughout the year. Please tell me about (7.) ______________. What is your family like? I wonder if (8.) __________________ share any of the same (9.) ___________. Are you glad to be (10.) ______________ in school? I am because many of my friends and I are in the same class. I looked forward to hearing from you friend. Your pen pal, Cherry PERSONAL LANGUAGE:language used to express feelings, opinions, and individuality. This language is effectively put across in the student’s autobiographical essay. Directions: Underline the correct word from the given options to complete the following autobiographical essay. When I was growing up, I have a carefree attitude towards life. I was often out of the house with the neighbourhood kids to play. At my tender age of 13, I helped my mother did the household work and prepared dinner for the family where we (1.) (experienced, expressed, recounted) our day’s activities. (2.) (Smiling, Talking, Reading) made me realized has a (3.) (dynamic, timely, therapeutic) effect on people and actually feel better when one (4.) (shares, gives, doles out) to someone about day’s events. Even greater than talking, I found out is the art of listening. When you (5.) (hear, cry, listen ) to someone, you give them their full attention, and there’s no better ( 6.) (feeling, attitude, behaviour) than having someone giving their undivided attention. I realized that as I tried it out with other people and friends, I can make them (7.) (worry free, feel better, stress free) by just listening and talking to them. When I was 18, after graduating from high school, I looked forward to studying in college. I decided to take education to become a teacher. I believe that I have so many things to share about life’s (8.) (happenings, experiences, activities) which could be of help to young students. IMAGINATIVE LANGUAGE: language used to create a world of one’s own and to express fantasy through drama, poetry and stories. Fiction story confirmed students’ ability in conveying this language. Directions: Supply the missing words to complete the following fiction story. Choose your answer from the given choices. Choices of answer from # 1-10 Beans and bacon, life, the foods, and, food, I, town, know, foods Choices of answer from # 11-20 moment, town, running, residence, to be eaten, and, dogs, foods, leftovers, mice The Town Mouse and The Country Mouse Now you must know that a Town Mouse once upon a time, went on a visit to his cousin in a country. He was rough and ready this cousin, but he loved his town friend and made him heartily welcomed Beans and bacon, cheese and bread, were the (1)_____________ he had to offer, (2.)___________ he offered them freely. The Town Mouse rather turned up his long nose at this (3.)__________ fare, and said: “I cannot understand, cousin, how you can put up such poor (4.) _________as (5.)_________, but of course you cannot expect anything better in the (6.)_________; come you with me and (7.)_________ will show you how to live. When you have been in (8.)________a week you will (9.)_________how you could ever have stood a country(10.) ___________. “No sooner said than the two (11.) ___________ set off for the(12.) _____________ and arrived. At theTown Mouse’s (13.)______________ late at night. “You will want some (14.)_____________ after our long journey,” said the polite Town Mouse, took his friend into the grand dining-room. There they found the (15.)__________ of a fine feast, (16.)__________ and all that was (17.) ________. Suddenly they heard growling and barking. “What is that?” said the Country Mouse. “It is only the (18.)_________ of the house,” answered the other. “Only!” said the Country Mouse. “ I do not like that music at my dinner.” Just at that (19.) ________ the door flew open, in (20.)____________ thetwo huge mastiffs, and the two mice had to scamper down and run off. “Goodbye, cousin,” said the Country Mouse,” What! Going so soon?” said the other. “Yes” he replied;” Better beans and bacon in peace than cakes and all in fear.” HEURISTIC: language used to explore the environment, to investigate, and to acquire knowledge and understanding; the language of inquiry and used in asking questions. Directions: Read carefully the paragraph about environment issue and answer the questions that follow: There seems to be almost universal agreement that we are destroying our environment, and that culture of capitalism is unsustainable. There is also an agreement that if people in the so-called developing world would emulate the life style of people in the developed world, they will be inviting environmental catastrophe. It is noted in the global problems and culture of capitalism that in the U.S. there is one automobile for every 125 persons. But, the Chinese people want to have as many cars as Americans do. The result could be an ecological disaster. Global warming, some scientists say is with us, and it is responsible for the dramatic change in weather patterns for the past few years; the depletion of ozone layer is causing an epidemic or skin cancers, toxic wastes are rapidly washing over our living space, particularly in the developing world and in poor areas of the developed world. What caused epidemic or skin cancers? __________________ If Chinese people will own many cars as Americans do, what will happen? _________________________________ What are rapidly washing out our living space? ________________ What is responsible for the dramatic change in weather patterns of the past few years? ________________ What will happen if people in the so-called developing country would emulate people in the developed world? __________________ 7.INFORMATIVE LANGUAGE: Language used to communicate information, to report facts, synthesize material, and draw inferences and conclusions. Directions:Give meaning to the following words: Write only the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before each number. _________1. Lars is fearless, but his friend is timorous. Fearful Brave Courageous _________2. When we invite the Davidson for dinner, they never invite us to their home for a meal; however, when we have the Lim’s to dinner they always reciprocate. To do something in return Do not respond Do not invite _________3. John gave credence to my story, but my teacher’s reaction was one of total disbelief. Praise Value Belief _________ 4. Murderers are usually incarcerated for longer period of time than robbers. Punished Given pardon Locked up in jail ___________5. Those who enjoy going to clubs, parties, and inviting friends often to their homes for dinner are gregarious. hospital Social Lively II. Writing performance in the 7 functions. Instrumental Directions: Write a letter of invitation. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Regulatory Directions: Write a paragraph composed of five sentences giving directions. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Interactional Directions: Write a friendly letter. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Personal Directions: Write an autobiographical essay. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Imaginative Directions: Write a short fiction story. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Heuristic Directions: Formulate five questions pertaining to either History or Environment. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Informative Language Directions:Write a brief essay based on current events. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ C. Documentation The researcher administers the drive – run for teacher in Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administraion The researcher administers the drive – run for students in Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administraion The researcher requests to conduct the study in TN University of Agriculture and Forestry The researcher requests to conduct the study in TN University of Business Administration The researcher requests to conduct the study in TN University of Education The researcher requests to conduct the study in TN University of Education The researcher administers the questionnaire for students in Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administraion The researcher administers the questionnaire for students in Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry The researcher administers the questionnaire for students in Thai Nguyen University of Education The researcher administers the questionnaire for students in Thai Nguyen University of Science The researcher administers questionnaire for teaches in Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administraion The researcher is in Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administration The researcher is in Thai Nguyen University of Science The researcher is in Thai Nguyen University of Agricuture and Forestry The researcher is in Thai Nguyen University of Education CURRICULUMN VITAE LUU THI HUONG - JULIA Number 5, Hoang Van Thu Ward, Thai Nguyen City, Vietnam Mobile no. 0084.987.944.162 Email add: luuhuong2611.ckt@gmail.com PERSONAL INFORMATION Date of birth: November 26th 1980 Place of birth: Cam Pha Town, Quang Ninh Province Age: 34 Nationality: Vietnamese Religion: No Sex: Female Civil Status: Married Spouse: Nguyen Quang Ngoc Daughters’ names: Nguyen Thi Quynh Chi and Nguyen Luu Ngoc Anh EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 2007 – 2009: Post Graduate Master of Arts in Teaching English Major in English Language Teaching Laguna State Polytechnic University, Laguna Philippines 1999 - 2003: Bachelor of Art in English Teaching Thai Nguyen University of Education of Training Major in English 1995 - 1998: Le Hong Phong High School Cam Phu Ward, Cam Pha Town, Quang Ninh Province 1991 – 1994: Ly Tu Trong Secondary School Cam Phu Ward, Cam Pha Town, Quang Ninh Province 1986 - 1991: Cam Phu Elementary School Cam Phu Ward, Cam Pha Town, Quang Ninh Province WORK EXPERIENCE January 01, 2004 to 2012: Teacher of English in Foreign Languages Faculty at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance September 04, 2012: Teacher in Scientific Management and International Relations Department at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance February 01, 2014 to present: Vice Chief in Scientific Management and International Relations Department at Thai Nguyen College of Economics and Finance.

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • docpursuing_the_english_language_functions_in_teaching_the_basi.doc
Tài liệu liên quan