Supervisory, instructional skills and professional performance of teachers in vocational colleges in nghe an province: Basis for developing an enhancement program

i SUPERVISORY, INSTRUCTIONAL SKILLS AND PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN VOCATIONAL COLLEGES IN NGHE AN PROVINCE: BASIS FOR DEVELOPING AN ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Graduate School Southern Luzon State University, the Philippines in Collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management by NGUYEN TRUONG G

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GIANG (RIVER) April 2014 ii APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management, this research study entitled “Supervisory, Instructional Skills and Professional Performance of Teachers in Vocational Colleges in Nghe An Province: Basis for Developing an Enhancement Program” has been prepared and submitted by Nguyen Truong Giang and is hereby recommended for oral examination. ............, 2014 Apolonia A. Espinosa, Ed.D Adviser Approved by the Oral Examination Committee, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management offered by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (NAME OF PROFESSOR) (NAME OF PROFESSOR) Member Member (NAME OF PROFESSOR) Chairman Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management offered by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ____________ APOLONIA ESPINOSA, Ed.D. Date Dean, Graduate School iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT Writing a doctoral dissertation is a gratifying but difficult and sometimes nerve wrecking endeavor that only few engaged in because it requires a lot of sacrifices and hard work from the researcher. However, at the end of the task, one experiences a wonderful feeling of joy, happiness, relief and fulfillment. The researcher would like to extend his sincerest gratitude and thanks to the following people who were very instrumental in the fulfillment of this research study. DR. CECILIA N. GASCON, President of the Southern Luzon State University in the Republic of the Philippines, for her untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is possible thus enabling us to pursue the PhD.EdM degree; DR. DANG KIM VUI President of Thai Nguyen in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, for his untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is possible thus enabling us to pursue the PhD.EdM degree DR. NGUYEN TUAN ANH, Ph.D., former Director of the International Training Center, Thai Nguyen University of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, for his enormous pursuit to provide the Vietnamese people an opportunity to grow through education; PROF. APOLONIA A. ESPINOSA his adviser, for the guidance and endless support for the improvement of this study. PROFESSORS .., ., and , who composed the Oral Defense Committee, for their suggestions, comments and corrections to improve this study; ITC STAFF, for providing the necessary research materials; HIS FAMILY and FRIENDS, for the love and support in one way or the other; And TO ALL who have contributed to make this study a success. iv DEDICATION To my Beloved parents, Siblings, Relatives And Most especially To my Loving Wife and Children For their endless support And for being my constant source of inspiration N.T.G. v Table of Contents Title Page Page Approval Sheet ii Acknowledgment iii Dedication iv Table of Contents v List of Tables vii List of Figures viii Abstract x Chapter I: Introduction 1 Background of the Study 2 Objectives of the Study 6 Hypothesis 7 Significance of the Study 7 Scope and Limitation of the Study 7 Definition of Terms 8 Chapter II. Review of Literature and Studies 11 Literature 11 Related Studies 11 Conceptual Framework 30 Chapter III. Methodology 58 Locale of the Study 58 Research design 58 Population and sampling 58 vi Instrumentation 59 Data gathering procedure 59 Statistical treatment 60 Chapter IV. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 62 Chapter V. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 89 Summary 89 Findings 89 Conclusions 91 Recommendations 92 Appendices 92 Bibliography 93 vii LIST OF TABLES No. Name of tables Page 1 Table 1. The Level of the Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to Technical Skills 62 2 Table 2. The Level of the Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to Technical Skills (Cont.) 64 3 Table 3. The Level of the Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to Human Relation Skills 66 4 Table 4. The Level of the Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to Human Relation Skills (Cont.) 69 5 Table 5. The Level of the Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to Conceptual Skills 71 6 Table 6. The Level of the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to Pedagogical Skills 74 7 Table 7. The Level of the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to Counselling Skills 76 8 Table 8. The Level of the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to Classroom Management Skills 77 9 Table 9. The Level of the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to Assessment Skills 79 10 Table 10. The Professional Performance of Teachers of Nghe An Vocational College of Trade and Tourism 82 11 Table 11. The Professional Performance of Teachers of Viet Duc Vocational College 84 12 Table 12. The Professional Performance of Teachers of Viet Han Vocational College 86 13 Table 13 Correlation of Supervisory and Instructional Skills of Teachers to their Professional Performance 88 viii LIST OF FIGURES 1. Research paradigm 2. Administrative map of Nghe An Province ix Title: SUPERVISORY, INSTRUCTIONAL SKILLS AND PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN VOCATIONAL COLLEGES IN NGHE AN PROVINCE: BASIS FOR DEVELOPING AN ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM Researcher: NGUYEN TRUONG GIANG - RIVER Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management Nam/ Address of the Institution Southern Luzon State University Graduate School Lucban, Quezon Date Completed April, 2014 Adviser DR. APOLONIA A. ESPINOSA x ABSTRACT The study was conducted to assess the supervisory skills and instructional skills of the teachers of 3 vocational colleges in Nghe An Province. It specifically explored on what enhancement program could be developed to solve the problems encountered by teachers in terms of supervisory skills and instructional skills. The study was limited to determine the perception of the respondents on the supervisory skills of the teachers as to Technical skills, Human relation skills, and Conceptual skills and to ascertain the perception of the respondents on the instructional skills of the teachers as to Pedagogical skills, Counselling skills, Classroom management skills, and Assessment skills. 186 selected respondents (college teachers) answered the questionnaire. Weighted mean was utilized to describe the perception of the respondents on the supervisory skills and instructional skills of the teachers. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the significant relationship between the supervisory and instructional skills and professional performance of the teachers. The statistical analysis was done using EXCEL. The level of the supervisory skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province fall in the “satisfactory” category mainly. Few gained “very satisfactory” category. Meanwhile, that the level of the instructional skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province is of “satisfactory” category mainly. Very few fall in “very satisfactory” category. Moreover, there is low/negligible relationship between the instructional skills and supervisory skills of teachers with that of professional performance. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION Supervision plays an important role in the management of school organization. An organization cannot function effectively without a leader to direct its goals. The principal and his teachers are the persons responsible for a school to run smoothly. They are the ones who make the necessary changes for more effective learning experiences of the students. It is important that the school principal and its teachers possess supervisory and instructional skills that greatly influence pupils' performance. Effective teaching and supervision are very complex processes. To be truly successful, a classroom teacher needs to master and employ a wide variety of competencies that both directly and indirectly affect student learning. Furthermore, research data indicate that in schools with positive and supportive cultures, students are more likely to reach their full potential and teachers are inspired to grow, take risks, and work in a collegial manner (Peterson, 1999; Urban, 1999.) The supervisory skills and behaviors of the principal and other supervisors of instruction are critical components of a supportive school climate (Bulach, Boothe, & Michael, 1999.) Igwe (2001) noted that supervision involves evaluation, monitoring and quality control for the purpose of curriculum and infrastructural development and improvement. In order to achieve this, some specific tasks of the supervisor in a modern school have been identified as helping school head teachers to understand students better; helping teachers and individuals for professional growth; acquiring cooperating spirit for team work; making better use of teaching materials; improving methods of teaching; improving teacher’s appraisal of his standards; acquisition of originality for the teacher within the commodity; and faculty plan for curriculum improvement. One of the philosophical foundations of supervision appears to be based on the premise that all teachers need moral, technical and educational support. All teachers need to recognize 2 problems that need immediate attention and therefore they need to be observed and communicated in terms of their performance, weaknesses and strength in the classroom. Given the fact that in particular, young teachers may not be well informed about new techniques, approaches in the complex characteristics of learning and teaching, supervision can serve as a training approach and support service for teachers by means of systematic cycles of planning, observation, and intensive analysis of actual teaching performance. (Kayaoglu, M.N. (2012). Dictating or facilitating: The Supervisory Process for Language Teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37 (10).) Teachers must have instructional skills including teaching skills, educational skills, organizational skills, coordination skills with parents and other educational forces in society. In addition, teachers must also possess the following skills: manage classroom and organize student activities in and out of the school, apply, invite students to participate in these activities and maintain positive and creative learning attitudes; communicate with students, parents, and colleagues, demonstrating the ability to maintain and develop the relationship between teachers and students, between students themselves; coordinate with other education forces in society to organize educational activities; and make educational and scientific researches to improve themselves as well the quality of teaching and learning process. Teachers prioritize the education of their students, and are accountable for achieving the highest possible standards in work and conduct. They act with honesty and integrity; have strong background knowledge of the subjects they teach, keep their knowledge and skills as teachers up-to-date, create positive professional relationships; and work with parents in the best interests of their students. (Teachers' Standards, May 2012, UK Department for Education). Background of the study After 20 years of implementing the renovation, industrialization and modernization, our country has gained the important achievements in socio-economic development. It is the large 3 role of enterprises that contribute to those sucesses. With the currently opening and integrative trend, an essential requirement for businesses to increase the competitiveness and expand the market is investing in modern technology and equipment, especially improving the quality of the labor force. They need to have a team of skilled technicians and workers to meet the developed requirements of the business. Starting from these requirements, the training activities keep the most decisive position, not only to meet the needs of the business but also for the export of labor, improving the efficiency of the labor export in our country. For the high-quality human resources to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization, it is the need to develop a training system which is capable of providing the society a large workforce who have necessary qualifications follow an appropriate structure and are able to adapt quickly to any changes of the environment with an increasing globalization. At the same time, they are also be able to regularly update the necessary knowledge and skills for the workforce of the country. Vocational training is an important part of the human resources training system for industrialization and modernization. In the recent years, due to the care of the Party, the State, the leadership of the Government and the efforts of all levels, the vocational training sectors have gradually been renovated and developed to meet the technical manpower needs directly serve the socio- economic development. Vocational training systems and networks have been innovated and developed, moving from low-level vocational training system with two levels of training into the vocational training system with three levels of training: primary, junior and vocational colleges. Vocational training centers have been developed under planning spread all over the country. They are rich of ownership forms and types of training. Until now there are 1328 vocational schools and training centers (including 153 vocational colleges, 307 vocational secondary schools, 868 vocational training centers). The vocational size is quickly increasing, but vocational teachers do not meet the requirements, especially their supervisory skills and 4 vocational pedagogical training are still weak. Currently, there are only 4 technological pedagogical universities in Hung Yen Province, Nam Dinh Province, Vinh City and Ho Chi Minh City; 1 technical college in Vinh Long Province and a number of technical pedagogcal departments in some universities that can train vocational teachers. But sectoral structures of these schools also have limitations that do not meet the growing sectors of the society. The limitations on capacity and training scale of these schools lead to the situation that doen’t meet the requirements on the number of teachers for vocational schools. Many qualified teachers are limited in supervisory and pedagogical skills, especially young teachers. So "improving supervisory skills and instructional skills for teachers "in Vocational schools in terms of quantity and quality is an urgent and necessary demand. Developing vocational teaching is the career and responsibility of all society. It is an important content of national human resource development plan and strategy that requires the participation of the Government, Ministries, branches, localities, the vocational training institutions, the centers which use labor and laborers to carry out vocational training on the needs of the labor market. Performing strong and basic innovations of state management in vocational training in order to create the motivation to develop vocational training under the direction of standardization, modernization, socialization, democratization and international integration. Improving the quality and developing the size of vocational training is a process which both makes universal training for employees, and at the same time meets the needs of the fields that use domestic high-skilled manpower and labor export. Strengthen and expand international cooperation to develop vocational training, focus on building high quality vocational schools, with priority ones achieved the international level; or key ones of national, regional and international level. Implement vocational training to raise the rate of trained workers to 40 percent, equivalent to 23.5 million in 2015 (in which secondary and college account for 20%) and 5 55% in 2020, equivalent to 34.4 million people (in which the secondary and college account for 23%). In period 2011 - 2015: have new training in vocational secondary and college level, about 2.1 million people, primary and vocational training under 3 months , about 7.5 million people, of which 4.7 million people are supported vocational training due to "vocational training project for rural laborers by 2020 "(Project 1956). In period 2016 - 2020: have new training in vocational junior and college level, about 2.9 million people (in which 10% get national, ASEAN and international level,) primary and vocational training under 3 months, about 10 million people, of which 5.5 million people are supported vocational training due to Project 1956. By 2015, there will be about 190 vocational colleges (60 non-public schools, cover 31.5%), including 26 high-quality schools; 300 vocational secondary schools (100 non-public schools, cover 33%), and 920 vocational training centers (320 non-public centers, cover 34.8%). Each province / city which belongs to the Central Government has at least one vocational college and one model vocational training center; each county / district / town has a vocational training center or vocational secondary schools. By 2020, there will be about 230 vocational colleges (80 non-public schools, cover 34.8%), including 40 high-quality schools; 310 vocational secondary schools (120 non-public schools, cover 38.8%), and 1050 vocational training centers (350 non-public centers, cover 33.3%) in which 150 model centers. By 2015, there will be 51,000 vocational teachers (of which about 17,000 teachers in the non-public vocational training institutions), in which teaching in vocational training colleges will be 13,000, secondary 24,000 people, primary and training less than three months will be 14,000 people. By 2020, there will be 77,000 vocational teachers (of which about 25,000 teachers in the non-public vocational training institutions), in which teaching in vocational training colleges will be 28,000, secondary 31,000 people, primary and training less than three months will be 18,000 people. 6 By 2015, 130 programs and curriculums for the national key fields will be issued. Using 49 programs in regional level, and 26 curriculums in international level. Building 300 programs of primary curriculum vocational training and less than 3 months for rural laborers. By 2020, 150 programs and curriculums for the national key fields will be added, edited and issued. Using 70 programs in regional level, and 35 curriculums in international level. Building 200 programs of primary curriculum vocational training and less than 3 months for rural laborers (No. 630/QD-TTg, May 29, 2012 Decision of the Prime Minister "Strategy for developing vocational training, period 2012 -2020" To achieve this goal, there should be a sufficient number of trained vocational teachers in accordance with the structure of each different level. Teachers need to have supervisory skills and pedagogical skills. Necessary programs to achieve this should be designed on a modular basis, with the goal of providing integrated teacher training program and being compatible with the national, regional and international proficiency. For the above reasons, the researcher has tried to study supervisory skills and instructional skills of teachers of vocational training colleges in Nghe An province. With the ultimate aspiration is to create an enhancement program. Objectives of the study The main purpose of this research was to find out the supervisory and instructional skills in relation to the professional performance of teachers in vocational training colleges in Nghe An Province, with an end view of developing an enhancement program. Specifically, the research was finding answers to the following objectives. 1. Determine the level of the supervisory skills of teachers as to: 1.1. technical skills; 1.2. human relation skills; and 1.3. conceptual skills. 2. Ascertain the instructional skills of the teachers as to: 7 2.1. pedagogical skills; 2.2. counselling skills; 2.3. classroom management skills; and 2.4. assessment skills. 3. Determine the professional performance of teachers; 4. Find out the significant relationship between the supervisory and instructional skills and professional performance of the teachers; 5. Develop an enhancement program based on the results. Null Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between supervisory and instructional skills and the professional performance of the teachers in the vocational colleges. Significance of the study This study is beneficial to the following group of people. Administrators. It is hoped that the study may contribute in giving a new dimension in the administration and supervision of vocational colleges in Nghe An province. Teachers. The outcome of the study is of great help to teachers because they will be made aware of the different types of leadership that would affect changes and improvements of the school. The researcher may contribute to a new avenue in her search for better ways to improve oneself and her work environment. In this way, it would ultimately lead to a better quality performance in the teaching force. Students. They will be benefited by this study since they are the main concerns of educators and any wholesome environment and relationship could create positive effect on the teaching and learning process. Future Researchers. This study could provide references for future proponents who wish to venture a study similar to the nature of this ongoing research. Scope and limitation of the study 8 The study was conducted to assess the supervisory skills and instructional skills of the teachers of 3 vocational colleges in Nghe An Province, including Viet Duc Vocational College (1972), Viet Han Vocational College (1998), and Nghe An Trading and Tourism Vocational College (1996). A total of 186 teachers were selected to be the respondents of the study. It specifically explored on what enhancement program could be developed to solve the problems encountered by teachers in terms of supervisory skills and instructional skills. The study was limited to determine the perception of the respondents on the supervisory skills of the teachers as to Technical skills, Human relation skills, and Conceptual skills and to ascertain the perception of the respondents on the instructional skills of the teachers as to Pedagogical skills, Counselling skills, Classroom management skills, and Assessment skills. The 186 selected respondents (college teachers) were given a questionnaire designed by the researcher and complete the questionnaires after being explained and instructed by the researcher. The researcher floated the questionnaire to the respondents after it had been validated by his advisor in September 2013. Definition of terms The Definition of terms is aimed to define clearly all the terms used in this study. The used terms are as follows: assessment skills refer to the systematic collection, review and use of information about educational programs to improve student learning. Assessment focuses on what students know, what they are able to do, and what values they have when they graduate. Assessment is concerned with the collective impact of a program on student learning. In another way, Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve 9 subsequent learning. (Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: shifting the focus from teaching to learning by Huba and Freed 2000) classroom management skills refer to the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experiencing problems in this area causes some to leave teaching altogether. conceptual skills refer to the abilities of the teachers associated with knowledge and how this knowledge could be applied to enable to analyze the role of the ducational in relation to its environment. (Gunay, 2000) counselling skills refer to a helping approach that highlights the emotional and intellectual experiences of students, how students are feeling and what they think about the problem they have sought help for. Counselling is the process that occurs when a client and counsellor set aside time in order to explore difficulties which may include the stressful or emotional feelings of the client; the act of helping the client to see things more clearly, possibly from a different view-, and a relationship of trust. In another way, counselling is a form of psychological or talking therapy that offers people a chance to change how they feel and to live better, whereas counselling skills are the skills that are needed for counselling, or the skills that a counsellor should possess or have so as to be able to work effectively. Some of these counselling skills are using active listening and responding skills, allowing participants to work at their own pace, and also letting people find out what works best for them. human relation skills refer to skills that provide a way for teachers to work together effectively within their organization. A teacher needs to have an understanding of the skills that are necessary to succeed in the work world. Also necessary is being able to cope and deal with communicating with others like colleagues, students. Human 10 relation skills will help a person to deal with conflict, constructive criticism, persuasion, and problem solving. instructional skills refer to the most specific category of teaching behaviors. They are necessary for procedural purposes and for structuring appropriate learning experiences for students. pedagogical skills can be referred to as the ability or expertise used by teachers as their method of teahing. This may include practically explaining theory to students or being able to apply the subject in real life for easy unerstanding. ( com/question). It refers to the teaching skills of the teachers. supervisory skills refer to to the technical skills, human relation skills and conceptual skills of teachers in supevision of the classroom instruction. technical skills refer to skills that include Speaking, Writing, Demonstrating Outlining/Planning, Computing, Listening, Chairing a Meeting skills. 11 Chapter II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents in summary the review of literature and related studies, which the researcher found closely related to the study being conducted. These are incorporated in order to present background with regards to the supervisory skills and instructional skills of the teachers at difference vocational colleges in Nghe An Province. SUPERVISORY SKILLS Effective teaching and supervision are very complex processes. To be truly successful, a classroom teacher needs to master and employ a wide variety of competencies that both directly and indirectly affect student learning. Furthermore, research data indicate that in schools with positive and supportive cultures, students are more likely to reach their full potential and teachers are inspired to grow, take risks, and work in a collegial manner (Peterson, 1999; Urban, 1999.) The supervisory skills and behaviors of the principal and other supervisors of instruction are critical components of a supportive school climate (Bulach, Boothe, & Michael, 1999.) Igwe (2001) noted that supervision involves evaluation, monitoring and quality control for the purpose of curriculum and infrastructural development and improvement. In order to achieve this, some specific tasks of the supervisor in a modern school have been identified as a) Helping school head teachers to understand students better; b) Helping teachers and individuals for professional growth; c) Acquiring cooperating spirit for team work; d) Making better use of teaching materials; e) Improving methods of teaching; f) Improving teacher’s appraisal of his standards; g) Acquisition of originality for the teacher within the commodity; and h) Faculty plan for curriculum improvement The common denominator in the objectives of supervision as outlined above is to help teachers become more effective in planning their class work in terms of utilizing maximally, 12 textbooks and other basic materials and curricular aids as well as helping teachers with guidance and evaluation. (Supervision, Evaluation and quality control in Education in Nwagwu, N.A. Current Issues in educational Management in Nigeria, Ambik Press Ltd., Benin city) Organizing strategies include planning, lesson design, time use (time management, time on task, and pacing, for example), advance work, and classroom management. New teachers usually find organizing strategies the most difficult to master. From planning to classro...ndaries appropriate to a teacher’s professional position; + having regard for the need to safeguard pupils’ well-being, in accordance with statutory provisions + showing tolerance of and respect for the rights of others; and + not undermining fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect, and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs o ensuring that personal beliefs are not expressed in ways which exploit pupils’ vulnerability or might lead them to break the law. 27 - Teachers must have proper and professional regard for the ethos, policies and practices of the school in which they teach, and maintain high standards in their own attendance and punctuality. - Teachers must have an understanding of, and always act within, the statutory frameworks which set out their professional duties and responsibilities. The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers comprise seven Standards which outline what teachers should know and be able to do. The Standards are interconnected, interdependent and overlapping. The Standards are grouped into three domains of teaching: Professional Knowledge, Professional Practice and Professional Engagement. In practice, teaching draws on aspects of all three domains. Professional Knowledge Teachers draw on a body of professional knowledge and research to respond to the needs of their students within their educational contexts. Teachers know their students well, including their diverse linguistic, cultural and religious backgrounds. They know how the experiences that students bring to their classroom affect their continued learning. They know how to structure their lessons to meet the physical, social and intellectual development and characteristics of their students. Teachers know the content of their subjects and curriculum. They know and understand the fundamental concepts, structure and enquiry processes relevant to the programs they teach. Teachers understand what constitutes effective, developmentally appropriate strategies in their learning and teaching programs and use this knowledge to make the content meaningful to students. Through their teaching practice, teachers develop students' literacy and numeracy within their subject areas. They are also able to use information and communication technology to contextualise and expand their students' modes and breadth of learning. ( 28 Professional Practice Teachers are able to make learning engaging and valued. They are able to create and maintain safe, inclusive and challenging learning environments and implement fair and equitable behaviour management plans. They use sophisticated communication techniques. Teachers have a repertoire of effective teaching strategies and use them to implement well- designed teaching programs and lessons. They regularly evaluate all aspects of their teaching practice to ensure they are meeting the learning needs of their students. They interpret and use student assessment data to diagnose barriers to learning and to challenge students to improve their performance. They operate effectively at all stages of the teaching and learning cycle, including planning for learning and assessment, developing learning programs, teaching, assessing, providing feedback on student learning and reporting to parents/carers. ( Professional Engagement Teachers model effective learning. They identify their own learning needs and analyse, evaluate and expand their professional learning, both collegially and individually. Teachers demonstrate respect and professionalism in all their interactions with students, colleagues, parents/carers and the community. They are sensitive to the needs of parents/carers and can communicate effectively with them about their children's learning. Teachers value opportunities to engage with their school communities within and beyond the classroom to enrich the educational context for students. They understand the links between school, home and community in the social and intellectual development of their students. ( Teacher Standards To receive a license to teach in Wisconsin, an applicant shall complete an approved program and demonstrate a proficient performance in the knowledge, skills, and dispositions under all of the teacher standards. 29 The ten teacher standards for teacher development and licensure are: 1. Teachers know the subjects they are teaching. The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the disciplines she or he teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for pupils. 2. Teachers know how children grow. The teacher understands how children with broad ranges of ability learn and provides instruction that supports their intellectual, social, and personal development. 3. Teachers understand that children learn differently. The teacher understands how pupils differ in their approaches to learning and the barriers that impede learning and can adapt instruction to meet the diverse needs of pupils, including those with disabilities and exceptionalities. 4. Teachers know how to teach. The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies, including the use of technology, to encourage children's development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. 5. Teachers know how to manage a classroom. The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. 6. Teachers communicate well. The teacher uses effective verbal and nonverbal communication techniques as well as instructional media and technology to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom. 7. Teachers are able to plan different kinds of lessons. 30 The teacher organizes and plans systematic instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, pupils, the community, and curriculum goals. 8. Teachers know how to test for student progress. The teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the pupil. 9. Teachers are able to evaluate themselves. The teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of his or her choices and actions on pupils, parents, professionals in the learning community and others and who actively seeks out opportunities to grow professionally. 10. Teachers are connected with other teachers and the community. The teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support pupil learning and well-being and acts with integrity, fairness and in an ethical manner. ( Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium, a project of the Council of Chief State School Officers sets the following standards for teachers. Standard No. l: The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students. Knowledge - The teacher understands major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline(s) s/he teaches; - The teacher understands how students 'conceptual frameworks and their misconceptions for an area of knowledge can influence their learning; and - The teacher relates his/her disciplinary knowledge to other subject areas. Dispositions 31 - The teacher realizes that subject matter knowledge is not a fixed body of facts but is complex and ever-evolving. S/he seeks to keep abreast of new ideas and understandings in the field; - The teacher appreciates multiple perspectives and conveys to learners how knowledge is developed from the vantage point of the learner; - The teacher has enthusiasm for the discipline(s) s/he teaches and sees connections to everyday life; and - The teacher is committed to continuous learning and engages in professional discourse about subject matter knowledge and children's learning of the discipline. Performances - The teacher effectively uses multiple representations and explanations of disciplinary concepts that capture key ideas and links them to students' prior understandings; - The teacher can represent and use differing viewpoints, theories, "ways of knowing," and methods of inquiry in his/her teaching of subject matter concepts; - The teacher can evaluate teaching resources and curriculum materials for their comprehensiveness, accuracy, and usefulness in representing particular ideas and concepts; - The teacher engages students in generating knowledge and testing hypotheses according to the methods of inquiry and standards of evidence used in the discipline; - The teacher develops and uses curricula that encourage students to see, question, and interpret ideas from diverse perspectives; - The teacher can create interdisciplinary learning experiences that encourage students to integrate knowledge, skills, and methods of inquiry from several subject areas. Standard No. 2: The teacher understands how children learn and develop, and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development. Knowledge 32 - The teacher understands how learning occurs-how students construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop habits of mind-and knows how to use instructional strategies that promote student learning for a wide range of student abilities; - The teacher understands that students 'physical, social, emotional, moral, and cognitive development influence learning and knows how to address these factors when making instructional decisions; and - The teacher is aware of expected developmental progressions and ranges of individual variation within each domain (physical, social, emotional, moral, and cognitive), can identify levels of readiness in learning, and understands how development in any one domain may affect performance in others. Dispositions The teacher appreciates individual variation within each area of development, shows respect for the diverse talents of all learners, and is committed to help them develop self confidence and competence. - The teacher is disposed to use students 'strengths as a basis for growth, and their errors as an opportunity for learning. Performances - The teacher assesses individual and group performance in order to design instruction that meets learners 'current needs in each domain (cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and physical) and that leads to the next level of development; - The teacher stimulates student reflection on prior knowledge and links new ideas to already familiar ideas, making connections to students 'experiences, providing opportunities for active engagement, manipulation, and testing of ideas and materials, and encouraging students to assume responsibility for shaping their learning tasks; and 33 - The teacher accesses students 'thinking and experiences as a basis for instructional activities by, for example, encouraging discussion, listening and responding to group interaction, and eliciting samples of student thinking orally and in writing. Standard No. 3: The teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners. Knowledge - The teacher understands and can identify differences in approaches to learning and performance, including different learning styles, multiple intelligences, and performance modes, and can design instruction that helps use students' strengths as the basis for growth; - The teacher understands and can provide adaptations for areas of exceptionality in learning, including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and special physical or mental challenges; - The teacher knows about the process of second language acquisition and about strategies to support the learning of students whose first language is not English; - The teacher understands how students 'learning is influenced by individual experiences, talents, and prior learning, as well as language, culture, family and community values; and - The teacher has a well-grounded framework for understanding cultural and community diversity and knows how to learn about and incorporate students 'experiences, cultures, and community resources into instruction. Dispositions - The teacher believes that all children can learn at high levels and persists in helping all children achieve success; - The teacher appreciates and values human diversity, shows respect for students 'varied talents and perspectives, and is committed to the pursuit of "individually configured excellence; 34 - The teacher respects students as individuals with differing personal and family backgrounds and various skills, talents, and interests; - The teacher is sensitive to community and cultural norms; and - The teacher makes students feel valued for their potential as people, and helps them learn to value each other. Performances - The teacher identifies and designs instruction appropriate to students' stages of development, learning styles, strengths, and needs; - The teacher uses teaching approaches that are sensitive to the multiple experiences of learners and that address different learning and performance modes; - The teacher makes appropriate provisions (in terms of time and circumstances for work, tasks assigned, communication and response modes) for individual students who have particular learning differences or needs; - The teacher can identify when and how to access appropriate services or resources to meet exceptional learning needs; - The teacher can identify when and how to access appropriate resources to meet the needs of students with particular talents; - The teacher seeks to understand students families, cultures, and communities, and uses this information as a basis for connecting instruction to students 'experiences (e. g. drawing explicit connections between subject matter and community matters, making assignments that can be related to students 'experiences and cultures); - The teacher brings multiple perspectives to the discussion of subject matter, including attention to students 'personal, family and community experiences and cultural norms; and - The teacher creates a learning community in which individual differences are respected. 35 Standard No. 4: The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students 'development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. Knowledge - The teacher understands the cognitive processes associated with various kinds of learning (e.g. critical and creative thinking, problem structuring and problem solving, invention, memorization and recall) and how these processes can be stimulated; - The teacher understands principles and techniques, along with advantages and limitations, associated with various instructional strategies (e. g. cooperative learning, direct instruction, discovery learning, whole group discussion, independent study, interdisciplinary instruction); and - The teacher knows how to enhance learning through the use of a wide variety of materials as well as human and technological resources (e. g. computers, audio-visual technologies, videotapes and discs, local experts, primary documents and artifacts, texts, reference books, literature, and other print resources). Dispositions - The teacher values the development of students 'critical thinking, independent problem solving, and performance capabilities; and - The teacher values flexibility and reciprocity in the teaching process as necessary for adapting instruction to student responses, ideas, and needs. Performances - The teacher carefully evaluates how to achieve learning goals, choosing alternative teaching strategies and materials to achieve different instructional purposes and to meet student needs (e.g. developmental stages, prior knowledge, learning styles, learning differences, and interests); 36 - The teacher uses multiple teaching and learning strategies to engage students in active learning opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance capabilities and that help students assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources; - The teacher constantly monitors and adjusts strategies in response to learner feedback; - The teacher varies his or her role in the instructional process (e. g. instructor, facilitator, coach, audience) in relation to the content and purposes of instruction and the needs of students; and - The teacher develops a variety of clear, accurate presentations and representations of concepts, using alternative explanations to assist students 'understanding and presenting diverse perspectives to encourage critical thinking. Standard No. 5: The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. Knowledge - The teacher can use knowledge about human motivation and behavior drawn from the foundational sciences of psychology, anthropology, and sociology to develop strategies for organizing and supporting individual and group work; - The teacher understands how social groups function and influence people, and how people influence groups; - The teacher knows how to help people work productively and cooperatively with each other in complex social settings; - The teacher understands the principles of effective classroom management and can use a range of strategies to promote positive relationships, cooperation, and purposeful learning in the classroom; and 37 - The teacher recognizes factors and situations that are likely to promote or diminish intrinsic motivation, and knows how to help students become self-motivated. Dispositions - The teacher takes responsibility for establishing a positive climate in the classroom and participates in maintaining such a climate in the school as a whole; - The teacher understands how participation supports commitment, and is committed to the expression and use of democratic values in the classroom; - The teacher values the role of students in promoting each other's learning and recognizes the importance of peer relationships in establishing a climate of learning; - The teacher recognizes the value of intrinsic motivation to students 'life-long growth and learning; and - The teacher is committed to the continuous development of individual students' abilities and considers how different motivational strategies are likely to encourage this development for each student. Performances - The teacher creates a smoothly functioning learning community in which students assume responsibility for themselves and one another, participate in decision making, work collaboratively and independently, and engage in purposeful learning activities; - The teacher engages students in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve, by, for example, relating lessons to students 'personal interests, allowing students to have choices in their learning, and leading students to ask questions and pursue problems that are meaningful to them; - The teacher organizes, allocates, and manages the resources of time, space, activities, and attention to provide active and equitable engagement of students in productive tasks; 38 - The teacher maximizes the amount of class time spent in learning by creating expectations and processes for communication and behavior along with a physical setting conducive to classroom goals; - The teacher helps the group to develop shared values and expectations for student interactions, academic discussions, and individual and group responsibility that create a positive classroom climate of openness, mutual respect, support, and inquiry; - The teacher analyzes the classroom environment and makes decisions and adjustments to enhance social relationships, student motivation and engagement, and productive work; and - The teacher organizes, prepares students for, and monitors independent and group work that allows for full and varied participation of all individuals. Standard No. 6: The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom. Knowledge - The teacher understands communication theory, language development, and the role of language in learning; - The teacher understands how cultural and gender differences can affect communication in the classroom; - The teacher recognizes the importance of nonverbal as well as verbal communication; and - The teacher understands and can use effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques. Dispositions - The teacher recognizes the power of language for fostering self-expression, identity development, and learning; - The teacher values many ways in which people seek to communicate and encourages many modes of communication in the classroom; 39 - The teacher is a thoughtful and responsive listener; and - The teacher appreciates the cultural dimensions of communication, responds appropriately, and seeks to foster culturally sensitive communication by and among all students in the class. Performances - The teacher models effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions (e. g. monitoring the effects of messages, restating ideas and drawing connections, using visual, aural, and kinesthetic cues, being sensitive to nonverbal cues given and received); - The teacher supports and expands learner expression in speaking, writing, and other media. The teacher knows how to ask questions and stimulate discussion in different ways for particular purposes, for example, probing for learning understanding, helping students articulate their ideas and thinking processes, promoting risk-taking and problem-solving, facilitating factual recall, encouraging convergent and divergent thinking, stimulating curiosity, helping students to question; - The teacher communicates in ways that demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and gender differences (e. g. appropriate use of eye contact, interpretation of body language and verbal statements, acknowledgment of and responsiveness to different modes of communication and participation); - The teacher knows how to use a variety of media communication tools, including audiovisual aids and computers, to enrich learning opportunities. Standard No. 7: The teacher plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals. Knowledge - The teacher understands learning theory, subject matter, curriculum development, and student development and knows how to use this knowledge in planning instruction to meet curriculum goals; 40 - The teacher knows how to take contextual considerations (instructional materials, individual student interests, needs, and aptitudes, and community resources)into account in planning instruction that creates an effective bridge between curriculum goals and students' experiences; and - The teacher knows when and how to adjust plans based on student responses and other contingencies. Dispositions - The teacher values both long-term and short-term planning; - The teacher believes that plans must always be open to adjustment and revision based on student needs and changing circumstances; and - The teacher values planning as a collegial activity. Performances - As an individual and a member of a team, the teacher selects and creates learning experiences that are appropriate for curriculum goals, relevant to learners, and based upon principles of effective instruction (e. g. that activate students 'prior knowledge, anticipate preconceptions, encourage exploration and problem-solving, and build new skills on those previously acquired); - The teacher plans for learning opportunities that recognize and address variation in learning styles, learning differences, and performance modes; - The teacher creates lessons and activities that operate at multiple levels to meet the developmental and individual needs of diverse learners and help each progress; - The teacher creates short-range and long-term plans that are linked to student needs and performance, and adapts the plans to ensure and capitalize on student progress and motivation; and 41 - The teacher responds to unanticipated sources of input, evaluates plans in relation to short- and long-range goals, and systematically adjusts plans to meet student needs and enhance learning. Standard No. 8: The teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the learner. Knowledge - The teacher understands the characteristics, uses, advantages, and limitations of different types of assessments (e. g. criterion-referenced and norm-referenced instruments, traditional standardized and performance-based tests, observation systems, and assessments of student work) for evaluating how students learn, what they know and are able to do, and what kinds of experiences will support their further growth and development; - The teacher knows how to select, construct, and use assessment strategies and instruments appropriate to the learning outcomes being evaluated and to other diagnostic purposes; and - The teacher understands measurement theory and assessment-related issues, such as validity, reliability, bias, and scoring concerns. Dispositions - The teacher values ongoing assessments as essential to the instructional process and recognizes that many different assessment strategies, accurately and systematically used, are necessary for monitoring and promoting student learning; and - The teacher is committed to using assessment to identify student strengths and promote student growth rather than to deny students access to learning opportunities. Performances - The teacher appropriately uses a variety of formal and informal assessment techniques (e. g. observation, port-folios of student work, teacher-made tests, performance tasks, projects, student self-assessments, peer assessment, and standardized tests)to enhance her or his 42 knowledge of learners, evaluate students 'progress and performances, and modify teaching and learning strategies; - The teacher solicits and uses information about students' experiences learning behavior, needs, and progress from parents, other colleagues, and the students themselves; - The teacher uses assessment strategies to involve learners in self-assessment activities, to help them become aware of their strengths and needs, and to encourage them to set personal goals for learning; - The teacher evaluates the effect of class activities on both individuals and the class as a whole, collecting information through observation of classroom interactions, questioning, and analysis of student work; - The teacher monitors his or her own teaching strategies and behavior in relation to student success, modifying plans and instructional approaches accordingly; and - The teacher maintains useful records of student work and performance and can communicate student progress knowledgeably and responsibly, based on appropriate indicators, to students, parents, and other colleagues. Standard No. 9: The teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of his/her choices and actions on others (students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community) and who actively seeks out; opportunities to grow professionally. Knowledge - The teacher understands methods of inquiry that provide him/her with a variety of self- assessment and problem-solving strategies for reflecting on his/her practice, its influences on students 'growth and learning, and the complex interactions between them; - The teacher understands critical frameworks for reflecting on teaching practice (e. g. frameworks from social, cultural, and philosophical foundations of education); and 43 - The teacher is aware of major areas of research on teaching and of resources available for professional learning (e. g. professional literature, colleagues, professional associations, and professional development activities). Dispositions - The teacher values critical thinking and self-directed learning as habits of mind; - The teacher is committed to reflection, assessment, and learning as an ongoing process; - The teacher is willing to give and receive help; - The teacher is committed to seeking out, developing, and continually refining practices that address the individual needs of students; and - The teacher recognizes his/her professional responsibility for engaging in and supporting appropriate professional practices for s...ollege gained excellent professional performance, 33 teachers (04 teachers more in comparison with academic year of 2010-2011 and 02 teachers more in comparison with academic year of 2011-2012) gained good professional performance and 12 teachers gained satisfactory professional performance. 86 Table 12. The Professional Performance of Teachers of Viet Han Vocational College List of teachers AY 2010- 2011 AY 2011- 2012 AY 2012- 2013 Av’ge score List of teachers AY 2010- 2011 AY 2011- 2012 AY 2012- 2013 Av’ge score Teacher 1 4 4 5 4.3 Teacher 40 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 2 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 41 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 3 4 3 4 3.7 Teacher 42 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 4 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 43 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 5 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 44 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 6 4 3 4 3.7 Teacher 45 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 7 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 46 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 8 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 47 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 9 4 3 4 3.7 Teacher 48 5 5 5 5.0 Teacher 10 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 49 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 11 4 5 5 4.7 Teacher 50 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 12 3 3 4 3.3 Teacher 51 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 13 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 52 4 4 3 3.7 Teacher 14 4 4 3 3.7 Teacher 53 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 15 3 3 4 3.3 Teacher 54 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 16 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 55 4 3 3 3.3 Teacher 17 4 5 5 4.7 Teacher 56 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 18 4 3 4 3.7 Teacher 57 5 5 5 5.0 Teacher 19 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 58 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 20 4 3 4 3.7 Teacher 59 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 21 4 4 3 3.7 Teacher 60 3 3 3 3.0 Teacher 22 4 3 3 3.3 Teacher 61 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 23 5 4 4 4.3 Teacher 62 4 3 4 3.7 Teacher 24 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 63 4 4 3 3.7 Teacher 25 4 4 3 3.7 Teacher 64 5 5 5 5.0 Teacher 26 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 65 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 27 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 66 4 3 3 3.3 Teacher 28 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 67 5 5 5 5.0 Teacher 29 4 4 5 4.3 Teacher 68 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 30 5 5 4 4.7 Teacher 69 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 31 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 70 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 32 4 3 3 3.3 Teacher 71 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 33 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 72 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 34 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 73 3 3 4 3.3 Teacher 35 4 3 3 3.3 Teacher 74 3 4 3 3.3 Teacher 36 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 75 4 4 4 4.0 Teacher 37 5 5 5 5.0 Teacher 76 3 3 4 3.3 Teacher 38 3 4 4 3.7 Teacher 77 5 5 4 4.7 Teacher 39 5 5 5 5.0 Teacher 78 4 3 4 3.7 Legends: Excellent: 5, Good: 4, Satisfactory: 3, Poor: 2, Very poor: 1 87 SUMARY OF NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO GAINED DIFFERENT LEVEL OF PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE AY 2010-2011 AY 2011-2012 AY 2012-2013 9 10 10 46 51 48 23 17 20 Table 12 shows that in the academic year of 2010-2011, 9 teachers (out of 78 teachers) in Viet-Han Vocational College gained excellent professional performance, 46 teachers gained good professional performance and 23 teachers gained satisfactory professional performance. Table 12 also shows that in the academic year of 2011-2012, 10 teachers (01 teacher more in comparison with academic year of 2010-2011) in Viet-Han Vocational College gained excellent professional performance, 51 teachers (05 teacher more in comparison with academic year of 2010-2011) gained good professional performance and 17 teachers gained satisfactory professional performance. Moreover, it can be seen from Table 12 that in the academic year of 2012-2013, 10 teachers (01 teacher more in comparison with academic years of 2010-2011) in Viet-Han Vocational College gained excellent professional performance, 48 teachers (02 teachers more in comparison with academic year of 2010-2011 and 03 teachers fewer in comparison with academic year of 2011-2012) gained good professional performance and 20 teachers gained satisfactory professional performance. 88 4.4. The significant relationship between the Supervisory skills, Instructional skills and the Professional performance of the teachers Table 13. Correlation of Supervisory and Instructional Skills of Teachers to their Professional Performance School/Teachers’ Performance Supervisory Skills Instructional Skills Pearson r p-value Pearson r p-value Nghe An Vocational College of Trade and Tourism -0.214 0.109 -0.127 0.348 Viet-Duc Vocational College 0.045 0.752 0.172 0.228 Viet-Han Vocational College 0.070 0.540 0.303 0.007 Negative correlation - as the supervisory and instructional skills improve, performance is low. The only significant correlation is performance and instructional skills of teachers in Viet-Han Vocational College. The rest, although there is negligible correlation, they are not significant. 89 Chapter V SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS From the output presented in the preceding chapter, the Researcher presents the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations sought in this study. Summary The study was conducted to assess the supervisory skills and instructional skills of the teachers of 3 vocational colleges in Nghe An Province. It specifically explored on what enhancement program could be developed to solve the problems encountered by teachers in terms of supervisory skills and instructional skills. The study was limited to the perception of the respondents on the supervisory skills of teachers as to Technical, Human relation, and Conceptual skills as well as the perception of the respondents on the instructional skills of the teachers as to Pedagogical, Counselling, Classroom management, and Assessment skills. One hundred and eighty six (186) college teachers served as the respondents. Weighted mean was utilized to describe the perception of the respondents on the supervisory skills and instructional skills of the teachers. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the significant relationship between the supervisory, instructional skills and professional performance of the teachers. The statistical analysis was done using EXCEL. Findings Based on the objectives of the study, the following are achieved: 1. Level of the supervisory skills of teachers at Nghe An Trading and Tourism Vocational College technical skills WM= 3.2 Satisfactory human relation skills WM= 3.4 Very Satisfactory conceptual skills WM= 2.88 Satisfactory 90 2. Level of the instructional skills of teachers at Nghe An Trading and Tourism Vocational College pedagogical skills WM= 2.95 Satisfactory counselling skills WM= 2.93 Satisfactory classroom management skills WM= 3.01 Satisfactory assessment skills WM= 2.95 Satisfactory 3. Level of the supervisory skills of teachers at Viet-Duc Vocational College technical skills WM= 2.97 Satisfactory human relation skills WM= 3.2 Very Satisfactory conceptual skills WM= 3.31 Very Satisfactory 4. Level of the instructional skills of teachers at Viet-Duc Vocational College pedagogical skills WM= 3.08 Satisfactory counselling skills WM= 3.23 Satisfactory classroom management skills WM= 3.08 Satisfactory assessment skills WM= 3.03 Satisfactory 5. Level of the supervisory skills of teachers at Viet-Han Vocational College technical skills WM= 2.99 Satisfactory human relation skills WM= 3.14 Very Satisfactory conceptual skills WM= 3.32 Very Satisfactory 6. Level of the instructional skills of teachers at Viet-Han Vocational College pedagogical skills WM= 3.05 Satisfactory counselling skills WM= 3.29 Very Satisfactory classroom management skills WM= 2.96 Satisfactory assessment skills WM= 3.27 Very Satisfactory 7. Professional performance 91 The number of teachers who gained excellent and good professional performance are slightly increasing every year at Nghe An Trading and Tourism Vocational College and Viet Duc Vocational College. 8. Significant relationship between the Supervisory skills, Instructional skills and the Professional performance of teachers The only significant correlation is performance and instructional skills of teachers in Viet-Han Vocational College. The rest, although there is negligible correlation, they are not significant. Conclusion Based on the findings, the following are the conclusions: 1. That the level of the supervisory skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of technical skills is of satisfactory category. 2. That the level of the supervisory skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of human relation skills is of satisfactory category. 3. That the level of the supervisory skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of conceptual skills is of satisfactory category. 4. That the level of the instructional skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of pedagogical skills is of satisfactory category. 5. That the level of the instructional skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of counselling skills is of satisfactory category mainly. 6. That the level of the instructional skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of classroom management skills is of satisfactory category. 92 7. That the level of the instructional skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in Nghe An province in terms of assessment skills is of satisfactory category mainly. 8. That there is there is low/negligible relationship between the instructional skills and supervisory skills of teachers with that of professional performance Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions, the following are the recommendations: 1. That the developed enhancement program be adopted for validation. 2. Other parameters associated to supervisory and instructional skills of teachers may be considered in similar and parallel studies in the future. 3. Specific dimensions such as usability, adaptability and relevance of the enhancement program may be conducted. 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Glickman, Carl D. et.al. (1998). Supervision of Instruction, USA: A Viscom Company Robbins, Stephen P. (1997). Managing Today. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Skutley (2006), Teachers’ Perceptions of the Role of a School Counselor, MS Guidance and Counseling. USA: University of Wisconsin-Stout Stoner, James A. F. et. al. (1997). Management. New Jersey: Prentice – Hall, Inc. Kayaoglu, M.N. (2012). Dictating or facilitating: The Supervisory Process for Language Teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37 (10). Teachers' Standards, May 2012, UK Department for Education Supervision, Evaluation and quality control in Education in Nwagwu, N.A. Current Issues in educational Management in Nigeria, Ambik Press Ltd., Benin city JOURNALS Casareno, Alejandra B. Modern Teacher, Vol. XLV, No.3, Manila: Grade School, Inc. (1996) Huba and Freed (2000) Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: shifting the focus from teaching to learning H. Jerome Freiberg (2002) Redesigning Professional Development, Volume 59, Number 6 Carrie Oakley (Nov 2010) 5 Classroom Management Skills Every Teacher Must Have Robert J. Marzano, Jana S. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering (2003) Classroom Management That Works Monoranjan Bhowmik et al, Role of Pedagogy in Effective Teaching, Basic Research Journal of Educationa Research and Review ISSN 2315-6872 Vol. 2(1) pp. 01-05 Jan 2013 Christina Planje Planje (Fall 1996) personal communication 94 UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Castilla, Stella M. The Managerial and Supervisory Skills of Public Elementary School Administrators in Selected Districts in the Division of Quezon: An Assessment. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Southern Luzon State University. 2003 Cirineo, Tina M. Counseling Skills of Elementary School Teachers: A Proposed Training Model. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Southern Luzon State University, 2012 Decin, Bernardo A. Principal's Power and Authority as Tools for Effective Management Performance, Unpublished Master's Thesis, MSEUF, 1998 Gunay, Carlito B. Supervisory Skills of Principals and Teachers and their Relationship on Pupils' Performance in Selected Schools in the Second Congressional District of Quezon, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Southern Luzon Polytechnic College, 2000 Sienna Fawn Falk (December, 2009) Counseling skills for teachers ELECTRONIC REFERENCES www.wisegeek.org/what-are-conceptual-skills.htm www.wisegeek.org/what-are-conceptual-skills.htm skills.htm#didyouknowout 95 APPENDIX A Letter to Respondents Date: _______________________ Dear Respondents I am currently conducting a study about the “Supervisory, Instructional Skills and Professional Performance of Teachers in Vocational Colleges in Nghe An Province: Basis for Developing an Enhancement Program” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management. May I therefore request your full cooperation and support in answering the checklist questionnaire. Rest assured that your responses will be treated with strict confidentiality and will be used solely for the purpose of this study. Your kind consideration and completion of the questionnaire will highly be appreciated. Thank you very much! Respectfully yours, NGUYEN TRUONG GIANG Researcher 96 QUESTIONNAIRE Please answer the questionnaire checklist by circling the scale that best corresponds to your choice. Rest assured that any information will be treated with trust and confidentiality. Scale/Điểm Choice Description/Miêu tả 4 Strongly Agree 3 Agree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree I. Supervisory skills TECHNICAL SKILLS 4 3 2 1 Speaking 1 Is able to convey verbally to her students exactly what she wants to impart 4 3 2 1 2 Knows how to explain the lesson well 4 3 2 1 3 Stimulates students’ interest during lesson presentation 4 3 2 1 4 Speaks clearly and fluently in front of the students 4 3 2 1 5 Shows mastery of the language in communicating 4 3 2 1 Writing 6 Accomplishes required reports on time 4 3 2 1 7 Writes communication legibly and correctly 4 3 2 1 8 Is skillful in making lesson plans 4 3 2 1 Demonstrating 9 Executes effective methods and techniques in teaching 4 3 2 1 10 Demonstrates effective method of evaluating students 4 3 2 1 11 Demonstrates new methods of treating students for more effective teacher-students relationship 4 3 2 1 Outlining/Planning 12 States her class program plans throughout the year 4 3 2 1 13 Plans appropriate learning objectives 4 3 2 1 14 Organizes and arranges the space and materials for effective instruction 4 3 2 1 15 Defines programs for classroom structure for the satisfaction of her students 4 3 2 1 Computing 16 Knows the theoretical, conceptual and psychological aspects of 4 3 2 1 97 students’ performance evaluation 17 Knows the interpretation of classroom test scores and other standardized tests given to students 4 3 2 1 18 Knows the appropriate statistical treatment needed in the interpretation of students’ performance 4 3 2 1 Listening 19 Accepts feedbacks of the students 4 3 2 1 20 Listens to praises, comments and recommendations from her superiors, co-teachers and parents intelligently 4 3 2 1 Chairing a Meeting 21 Follows rule of order in conducting meeting with the students 4 3 2 1 22 Holds meeting with students, parents and other stakeholders systematically and orderly 4 3 2 1 HUMAN RELATION SKILLS 4 3 2 1 Emphasizing 1 Knows the style of accepting and rejecting suggestions, criticisms or diversity 4 3 2 1 2 Is sensitive to the needs of her students 4 3 2 1 3 Shows respect and dignity to her students 4 3 2 1 4 Controls her emotions in times of disagreement 4 3 2 1 5 Applies positive approaches to problem situations 4 3 2 1 Reflecting Feelings and Ideas 6 Provides students with corrective feedbacks and praises 4 3 2 1 7 Shows genuine concern for students 4 3 2 1 8 Is supportive and helpful to her students 4 3 2 1 9 Is honest and compassionate in dealing with her students 4 3 2 1 10 Gives due credit to the achievement of her students 4 3 2 1 Leading 11 Radiates a spirit of encouragement to build leadership and responsibility among her students 4 3 2 1 12 Has the ability to get the teachers and students cooperation 4 3 2 1 13 Is fair in rating the achievements of her students 4 3 2 1 14 Possesses integrity in disciplining the students 4 3 2 1 Participating 15 Has sufficient time for research 4 3 2 1 16 Prefers working with her co-workers in the acquisition of instructional materials 4 3 2 1 17 Has the ability to adjust to the different personalities such as 4 3 2 1 98 her superiors, peers, students and co-workers 18 Enjoys working with students 4 3 2 1 19 Shows active support on structured learning opportunities such as workshops, in-service activities and staff development programs 4 3 2 1 Role Playing 20 Acts as guidance counselor to students 4 3 2 1 21 Promotes pupil’s satisfaction 4 3 2 1 22 Acts as parents to students 4 3 2 1 23 Provides a permissive atmosphere so that students and teachers can work harmoniously 4 3 2 1 Interviewing 24 Solves students problems by talking to their parents 4 3 2 1 25 Talks and counsels students about their misconduct in the classroom 4 3 2 1 CONCEPTUAL SKILLS 4 3 2 1 Visualizing 1 Is aware of the current educational problems and issues and their implications 4 3 2 1 2 Is aware and receptive to innovations and changes in the educational system 4 3 2 1 3 Includes activities that present information and skills that are known to be effective 4 3 2 1 4 Knows the talents and potentialities of her students 4 3 2 1 5 Innovative in using effective teaching techniques and approaches 4 3 2 1 Analyzing 6 Leads in trying new practices suited to her students 4 3 2 1 7 Knows how to develop strategies for group learning 4 3 2 1 8 Knows how to select and develop effective curriculum materials 4 3 2 1 9 Is skillful in decision making and in solving conflicts 4 3 2 1 10 Knows how to increase and sustain students’ academic engagement time 4 3 2 1 11 Has analytical mind 4 3 2 1 Diagnosing 12 Designs appropriate instructional activities needed in the solution of common learning problems 4 3 2 1 13 Knows how to develop enrichment activities 4 3 2 1 99 14 Knows how to solve instructional problems and concerns in the classroom 4 3 2 1 15 Encourages students to open-up problems existing in the classroom 4 3 2 1 16 Searches for more effective teaching techniques, methods and approaches for the solution of teaching problems 4 3 2 1 II. Instructional skills PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS 4 3 2 1 1 has professional knowledge and extensive pedagogical understanding 4 3 2 1 2 uses a variety of instructional strategies 4 3 2 1 3 demonstrates problem-solving skills 4 3 2 1 4 modifies instructional activities to accommodate identified learner’s needs 4 3 2 1 5 manages the use of time to facilitate student learning 4 3 2 1 6 uses varied resources and materials 4 3 2 1 7 provides learning experiences which enable students to transfer principles and generalizations to situations outside of school 4 3 2 1 8 provides assignments/learning opportunities interesting and appropriate to different ability levels of students 4 3 2 1 9 motivates students to ask questions 4 3 2 1 10 adjusts techniques to different learning styles 4 3 2 1 11 adapts his/her teaching to the needs and characteristics of students with learning disabilities, social maladjustments or handicaps 4 3 2 1 12 integrates information and communication technologies in the preparation and delivery of teaching/learning activities 4 3 2 1 COUNSELLING SKILLS 4 3 2 1 1 attends quickly to inappropriate behaviour to prevent influencing others 4 3 2 1 2 provides extra help before and after the start of the class 4 3 2 1 3 develops peer tutoring program 4 3 2 1 4 helps students build self-esteem, sense of responsibility and self- respect 4 3 2 1 5 listens to what students say 4 3 2 1 6 permits students to get to know one another 4 3 2 1 7 has clear understanding of all students’ needs 4 3 2 1 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT SKILLS 4 3 2 1 1 has clear rules and routines for behavior in the classrooms 4 3 2 1 2 creates a learning environment that encourages positive social 4 3 2 1 100 interaction, active engagement in learning and self-motivation 3 exercises appropriate authority and acts decisively when necessary 4 3 2 1 4 moves around the room, monitoring students’ seatwork 4 3 2 1 5 shows enthusiasm and commitment for the subject taught 4 3 2 1 6 maintains an environment in which students are actively involved, working at tasks 4 3 2 1 7 implements an effective classroom management system for positive student behavior 4 3 2 1 8 uses positive reinforcement patterns with students 4 3 2 1 9 has appropriate control in difficult situations 4 3 2 1 10 demonstrates fairness, acceptance, respect and flexibility 4 3 2 1 ASSESSMENT SKILLS 4 3 2 1 1 evaluates pertinent information about students for effective instruction 4 3 2 1 2 identifies and evaluates learning problems of students in content areas being taught 4 3 2 1 3 uses criteria and effective procedures for determining students’ achievement of learning objectives 4 3 2 1 4 selects/develops appropriate assessment techniques and instruments for instructional activities 4 3 2 1 5 collects, quantifies and interprets data from appropriate assessment instruments 4 3 2 1 6 maintains evaluation records of students 4 3 2 1 7 develops students’ feedback evaluation and students’ self- evaluation 4 3 2 1 8 makes use of formative and summative assessment to ensure students’ progress 4 3 2 1 9 gives students regular feedback, both orally and through accurate marking 4 3 2 1 10 interprets and uses students’ assessment to diagnose learning barriers 4 3 2 1 THANK YOU SO MUCH! 101 APPENDIX A1 SUMMARY OUTPUT - NGHE AN VOCATIONAL COLLEGE OF TRADE AND TOURISM Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.238098557 R Square 0.056690923 Adjusted R Square 0.02175355 Standard Error 0.55751847 Observations 57 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 2 1.008722696 0.504361348 1.622644106 0.206851353 Residual 54 16.78464962 0.310826845 Total 56 17.79337232 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Intercept 7.543652686 2.11343541 3.569379339 0.000760544 3.306469806 11.78083557 X Variable 1 -0.976391936 0.644324766 -1.51537235 0.135510296 -2.268185315 0.315401444 X Variable 2 -0.192833151 0.232771722 -0.828421724 0.411078313 -0.659512356 0.273846053 RESIDUAL OUTPUT Observation Predicted Y Residuals 1 3.794944206 0.538389127 2 3.812727069 0.187272931 3 3.746454456 -0.413121123 4 3.880994578 -0.547661245 5 4.045491022 -0.045491022 6 4.006600469 -0.339933802 7 3.881284261 0.118715739 8 3.726011731 -0.392678398 9 4.001656029 -0.668322696 10 3.873100595 0.126899405 11 3.860841536 1.139158464 12 3.806452699 -0.473119365 13 4.093980772 -0.093980772 14 3.923874923 -0.257208257 15 3.954206527 -0.620873194 16 4.119743219 -0.119743219 17 4.084756858 0.915243142 18 3.757008301 -0.423674967 19 3.995091976 0.004908024 20 3.812062104 -0.47872877 21 3.735900611 -0.069233944 22 3.888223597 -0.888223597 102 23 3.82033137 0.513001963 24 3.750068965 0.249931035 25 3.733616033 -0.066949366 26 3.80911256 0.19088744 27 3.61029472 -0.61029472 28 3.728006627 0.271993373 29 3.706233972 1.293766028 30 3.74445956 0.25554044 31 3.666678454 0.333321546 32 3.583577625 -0.583577625 33 3.845718535 0.154281465 34 3.806827982 0.193172018 35 3.664018593 -0.664018593 36 3.720777609 0.279222391 37 3.910950899 1.089049101 38 3.913986044 0.086013956 39 3.913986044 0.752680623 40 3.765277567 0.234722433 41 3.667343419 -0.667343419 42 3.765277567 0.234722433 43 3.7817305 0.2182695 44 3.77184162 -0.77184162 45 3.669627998 0.330372002 46 3.845053569 0.154946431 47 3.753393792 -0.420060458 48 3.837449268 1.162550732 49 3.854942449 0.145057551 50 4.099214894 -0.099214894 51 3.778780956 -0.445447623 52 4.017154314 -0.683820981 53 3.925494536 0.074505464 54 4.081142349 -0.414475682 55 3.967709916 -0.967709916 56 4.107194478 -0.107194478 57 3.914651009 1.085348991 103 APPENDIX A2 SUMMARY OUTPUT - VIET-DUC VOCATIONAL COLLEGE Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.056152727 R Square 0.003153129 Adjusted R Square - 0.038382157 Standard Error 0.548031962 Observations 51 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 2 0.04560015 0.022800075 0.075914459 0.927006548 Residual 48 14.41627349 0.300339031 Total 50 14.46187364 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Intercept 3.376602033 2.016222962 1.674716585 0.100494116 -0.677285933 7.430489999 X Variable 1 0.031921771 0.623027758 0.051236515 0.959349684 -1.220759493 1.284603035 X Variable 2 0.126730648 0.347051027 0.365164309 0.716592916 -0.571062209 0.824523505 RESIDUAL OUTPUT Observation Predicted Y Residuals 1 3.883027551 1.116972449 2 3.876528543 0.123471457 3 3.827785986 -0.494452653 4 3.849816483 -0.516483149 5 3.838757222 0.161242778 6 3.806559544 -0.139892877 7 3.851843262 0.148156738 8 3.860071689 -0.526738355 9 3.836521108 0.496812226 10 3.847073674 0.152926326 11 3.858430294 1.141569706 12 3.885858384 -0.552525051 13 3.873279039 0.126720961 14 3.915819948 -0.249153282 15 3.913374499 -0.580041166 16 3.839649301 0.160350699 17 3.903119293 0.763547374 18 3.909408965 -0.576075632 19 3.893877476 0.106122524 20 3.765626743 0.234373257 21 3.866361361 -0.199694695 104 22 3.856106155 -0.856106155 23 3.885649049 0.447684284 24 3.819645583 0.180354417 25 3.911138385 -0.244471718 26 3.840872026 0.159127974 27 3.885858384 -0.885858384 28 3.834075658 0.165924342 29 3.849100453 0.484232881 30 3.853363346 0.146636654 31 3.850917897 0.149082103 32 3.865138637 -0.865138637 33 3.865138637 0.134861363 34 3.892654751 0.107345249 35 3.863915912 -0.863915912 36 3.905234096 0.094765904 37 3.878345987 1.121654013 38 3.894086811 -0.227420144 39 3.886155744 0.780510923 40 3.902612598 0.097387402 41 3.887081109 -0.887081109 42 3.905146072 0.094853928 43 3.871340285 0.128659715 44 3.868894835 -0.868894835 45 3.867672111 0.132327889 46 3.881683515 0.118316485 47 3.853451371 -0.520118037 48 3.918948141 1.081051859 49 3.889911942 0.110088058 50 3.876197897 0.123802103 51 3.870205584 -0.536872251 105 APPENDIX A3 SUMMARY OUTPUT - VIET-HAN VOCATIONAL COLLEGE Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.293408568 R Square 0.086088588 Adjusted R Square 0.061717617 Standard Error 0.469317297 Observations 78 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 2 1.55609415 0.778047075 3.532423393 0.034190367 Residual 75 16.51940443 0.220258726 Total 77 18.07549858 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Intercept 1.349550951 1.16396682 1.159441084 0.249954444 -0.969189858 3.66829176 X Variable 1 -0.056277932 0.277410092 -0.202869086 0.839786716 -0.608907173 0.496351309 X Variable 2 0.861693247 0.330015659 2.611067759 0.010895101 0.204268342 1.519118151 RESIDUAL OUTPUT Observation Predicted Y Residuals 1 3.813321681 0.520011653 2 3.687006592 0.312993408 3 3.88675218 -0.220085514 4 3.495300709 -0.161967375 5 3.778958589 0.221041411 6 3.555331701 0.111334966 7 3.824041287 0.175958713 8 4.033375366 -0.3667087 9 4.192504759 -0.525838093 10 3.838989581 0.161010419 11 3.791226982 0.875439685 12 3.637457392 -0.304124059 13 3.698381685 0.301618315 14 3.965304669 -0.298638003 15 3.807068577 -0.473735244 16 3.995439073 -0.328772406 17 3.858404378 0.808262288 18 4.030695465 -0.364028798 19 3.903487076 -0.236820409 20 3.838096281 -0.171429614 21 3.770918884 -0.104252218 22 3.777171988 -0.443838655 106 23 4.207453054 0.125880279 24 4.108592467 -0.441925801 25 3.96709127 -0.300424604 26 3.969771172 0.030228828 27 3.958396079 -0.625062746 28 4.016640471 -0.016640471 29 3.863764181 0.469569152 30 4.005265378 0.661401288 31 3.954822877 0.045177123 32 3.853282389 -0.519949056 33 3.802839888 0.197160112 34 3.720714198 0.279285802 35 3.771812185 -0.438478851 36 3.847922586 0.152077414 37 4.044094972 0.955905028 38 4.111272369 -0.444605702 39 4.019320372 0.980679628 40 3.801053287 0.198946713 41 3.958396079 -0.625062746 42 4.153675165 -0.153675165 43 3.827614489 0.172385511 44 3.88585888 -0.552525547 45 4.005265378 -0.005265378 46 3.981384079 0.018615921 47 3.783425091 -0.450091758 48 4.001692176 0.998307824 49 3.720714198 0.279285802 50 3.786104993 -0.119438326 51 3.7004061 -0.367072767 52 4.05749448 -0.390827813 53 3.785211692 -0.118545026 54 3.813559495 0.186440505 55 3.819574784 -0.486241451 56 3.961969281 0.038030719 57 3.895685186 1.104314814 58 3.615362693 0.384637307 59 3.915099983 0.084900017 60 3.898127273 -0.898127273 61 3.789440381 0.210559619 62 3.813321681 -0.146655014 63 3.859297679 -0.192631012 64 3.886096694 1.113903306 65 3.731671618 -0.065004951 66 3.929392791 -0.596059457 67 4.114845571 0.885154429 68 3.796169112 -0.462835779 69 3.96018268 -0.293516014 107 70 3.736555793 0.263444207 71 3.735900306 -0.402566973 72 3.650201413 0.349798587 73 3.761330393 -0.427997059 74 3.784556206 -0.451222873 75 3.793251397 0.206748603 76 3.739235694 -0.405902361 77 3.982277379 0.684389288 78 3.832974292 -0.166307625

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