Tính điển dạng của thuật ngữ chỉ màu cơ bản trong tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt dưới góc độ ngôn ngữ học tri nhận

--------------------------------------- NGUYỄN ĐÔNG PHƯƠNG TIÊN PROTOTYPES OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE FROM A COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE (TÍNH ĐIỂN DẠNG CỦA THUẬT NGỮ CHỈ MÀU CƠ BẢN TRONG TIẾNG ANH VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT DƯỚI GÓC ĐỘ NGÔN NGỮ HỌC TRI NHẬN) MAJOR: ENGLISH LINGUISTICS CODE: 9220201 A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English Linguistics Hanoi, 2021 MINISTRY OF EDUCA

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TION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY --------------------------------------- NGUYỄN ĐƠNG PHƯƠNG TIÊN PROTOTYPES OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE FROM A COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE (TÍNH ĐIỂN DẠNG CỦA THUẬT NGỮ CHỈ MÀU CƠ BẢN TRONG TIẾNG ANH VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT DƯỚI GĨC ĐỘ NGƠN NGỮ HỌC TRI NHẬN) MAJOR: ENGLISH LINGUISTICS CODE: 9220201 A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English Linguistics Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. HỒNG TUYẾT MINH Hanoi, 2021 i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP The thesis entitled “Prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese from a cognitive linguistics perspective” has been submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I, the undersigned, hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis, I have fully acknowledged and referenced the ideas and work of others, whether published or unpublished, in my thesis. The thesis does not contain work extracted from a thesis, dissertation or research paper previously presented for another degree or diploma at this or any other university. Signature NGUYỄN ĐƠNG PHƯƠNG TIÊN ii ABSTRACT This dissertation, with the aim of identifying the prototypes of black/đen, white/trắng, red/đỏ, yellow/vàng, green/blue/xanh, grey/xám colour terms, attempts to clarify the similarities and the differences among the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data with further explanations from cognitive and cultural perspectives. Data is collected with as + basic colour terms + as + object referent X structure in English and Vietnamese data from literary works. Mixed research methods are adopted in the following means: percentage identification of individual object referent is based on quantitative method whereas further explanations concerning distinctive features depend on qualitative method as well as the similarities and the differences among these prototypes count on contrastive method. The findings show: night as prototype of black colour term, snow as prototype of white colour term, blood/ rose as prototypes of red colour term, corn as prototype of yellow colour term, emerald as prototype of green colour term, sapphire as prototype of blue colour term, badger as prototype of grey colour term, mực as prototype of đen colour term, ngà as prototype of trắng colour term, son as prototype of đỏ colour term, nghệ as prototype of vàng colour term, tàu lá as prototype of xanh colour term, tro/gio as prototype of xám colour term. Theoretically, this dissertation provides comprehensible explanations of cultural and cognitive characteristics of English and Vietnamese nations. Practically, the study results are helpful for English and Vietnamese learners in translating or interpreting these prototypes correctly from cultural and cognitive viewpoints. Profound knowledge of English and Vietnamese linguistic systems is beneficial for language learners for a more detailed description of the similarities and the differences. Last but not least, native readers or speakers understand the similarities and distinguish the differences for the appropriate daily usage. iii LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1.3: Theoretical framework of dissertation ................................................................................ 54 Figure 2.2: Data analysis procedure of dissertation......................................................................... 79 Table 4.1: Prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data ......................... 128 Table 4.2: Objects as culture-specific referents of basic colour terms in English data and Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 129 Table 4.3: Research outcome comparison about the most representative object referents or prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data ......................... 130 APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................................... 170 APPENDIX 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................................... 170 Appendix 1.1: Main development representatives in terms of prototype & categories ......... 170 Appendix 1.2: Researches in English regarding lexicon research direction ............................ 172 Appendix 1.3: Researches in English related to semantics research direction ......................... 176 Appendix 1.4: Researches in English from culture research direction ...................................... 177 Appendix 1.5: Researches in English on the subject of cognition research direction ............ 178 Appendix 1.6: Researches in Vietnamese in regard to lexicon research direction .................. 181 Appendix 1.7: Researches in Vietnamese in terms of semantics research direction .............. 182 Appendix 1.8: Researches in Vietnamese connected to culture research direction ............... 184 APPENDIX 2: OBJECT REFERENTS OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DATA ................................................................................................ 188 Table 2.1: Objects referents of black colour term in English data .............................................. 188 Table 2.3: Objects referents of red colour term in English data ................................................. 221 Table 2.4: Objects referents of yellow colour term in English data ............................................ 229 Table 2.5: Objects referents of green colour term in English ..................................................... 233 Table 2.6: Objects referents of blue colour term in English data ................................................ 236 Table 2.7: Objects referents of grey colour term in English data ............................................... 239 Table 2.8: Objects referents of đen colour term in Vietnamese data ......................................... 241 Table 2.9: Objects referents of trắng colour term in Vietnamese data ...................................... 256 Table 2.10: Objects referents of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data ......................................... 269 iv Table 2.11: Objects referents of vàng colour term in Vietnamese data ..................................... 282 Table 2.12: Objects referents of xanh colour term in Vietnamese data ..................................... 286 Table 2.13: Objects referents of xám colour term in Vietnamese data ...................................... 292 APPENDIX 3: TABLES OF OBJECT REFERENTS AND 06-CLASS CLASSIFICATION AND CATEGORY SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DATA .......................................................... 294 Table 2.1: 27 English authors, 169 literary works and 430 tokens regarding black/white/red/yellow/green/blue/grey colour terms ............................................... 294 Table 2.2: 52 Vietnamese authors, 219 literary works and 443 tokens regarding đen/trắng/đỏ/vàng/xanh/xám colour terms ................................................................. 309 Table 3.1: Object referents of black colour term in English data ............................................... 328 Table 3.2: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of black colour term in English data ...................................................................................................................... 330 Table 3.3: Object referents of white colour term in English data ............................................... 334 Table 3.4: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of white colour term in English data ...................................................................................................................... 336 Table 3.5: Object referents of red colour term in English data ................................................... 339 Table 3.6: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of red colour term in English data ..................................................................................................................................... 340 Table 3.7: Object referents of yellow colour term in English data ............................................. 341 Table 3.8: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of yellow colour term in English data ...................................................................................................................... 342 Table 3.9: Object referents of green colour term in English data ............................................... 344 Table 3.10: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of green colour term in English data ...................................................................................................................... 345 Table 3.11: Object referents of blue colour term in English ........................................................ 346 Table 3.12: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of blue colour term in English data ...................................................................................................................... 347 Table 3.13: Object referents of grey colour term in English data ............................................... 348 v Table 3.14: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of grey colour term in English data ...................................................................................................................... 348 Table 3.15: Object referents of đen colour term in Vietnamese data ......................................... 349 Table 3.16: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of đen colour term in Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 351 Table 3.17: Object referents of trắng colour term in Vietnamese data ..................................... 353 Table 3.18: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of trắng colour term in Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 355 Table 3.19: Object referents of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data ........................................... 358 Table: 3.20: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 360 Table 3.21: Object referents of vàng colour term in Vietnamese data ...................................... 363 Table 3.22: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of vàng colour term in Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 364 Table 3.27: Object referents of xanh colour term in Vietnamese data ...................................... 366 Table 3.28: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of xanh colour term in Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 367 Table 3.29: Object referents of xám colour term in Vietnamese data ....................................... 369 Table 3.30: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of xám colour term in Vietnamese data ............................................................................................................... 369 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP .......................................................................................................... i ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................................. ii PART 1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1 1. Rationale ...................................................................................................................... 1 2. Aims and Objectives ................................................................................................... 3 3. Research questions ...................................................................................................... 3 4. Scope of the study ....................................................................................................... 4 5. Methodology of the study .......................................................................................... 7 6. Significance of the study ............................................................................................ 8 7. Structure of the study .................................................................................................. 9 PART 2. DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER 1. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................. 10 1.1. REVIEW ON PREVIOUS STUDIES ................................................................... 10 1.1.1. In English .............................................................................................................. 10 1.1.2. In Việt Nam .......................................................................................................... 18 1.2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ....................................................................... 28 1.2.1. Cognition ............................................................................................................... 29 1.2.2. Onomasiology (Naming) ..................................................................................... 31 1.2.3. Culture ................................................................................................................... 33 1.2.4. Language-cognition-culture relation ................................................................... 35 1.2.5. An introduction of Category ................................................................................ 37 1.2.6. Prototype and Prototype theory ........................................................................... 39 1.2.6.1. An overview of Prototype terminology ......................................... 40 1.2.6.2. Viewpoints on Prototype theory .................................................... 41 1.2.7. An overview of basic colour terms ..................................................................... 43 1.2.7.1. Physical features and linguistic criteria of basic colour terms ....... 44 1.2.7.1.1. Physical features of a basic colour term ...................................... 44 1.2.7.1.2. Linguistic criteria of a basic colour term .................................... 45 vii 1.2.7.2. Basic colour terms in English ........................................................ 46 1.2.7.3. Basic colour terms in Vietnamese .................................................. 46 1.2.8. Comparative idioms ............................................................................................. 49 1.3. Theoretical framework of dissertation ..................................................................... 52 1.4. Summary ................................................................................................................... 55 CHAPTER 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............................................................................. 56 2.1. Research approach .................................................................................................... 57 2.1.1. Mixed research approach ..................................................................................... 57 2.1.2. Comparative-contrastive approach...................................................................... 62 2.2. Research methods ..................................................................................................... 64 2.2.1. Mixed research method ........................................................................................ 64 2.2.2. Comparative-contrastive method ........................................................................ 69 2.3. Data collection .......................................................................................................... 71 2.4. Procedures of data collection and data analysis ...................................................... 75 2.5. Data analysis ............................................................................................................. 77 2.6. Summary ................................................................................................................... 80 CHAPTER 3: CLASS CLASSIFICATION AND CATEGORY SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DATA .......................... 82 3.1. Class classification and category sub-classification of basic colour terms in English data .............................................................................................................................. 83 3.1.1. Class and category classification of black colour terms in English data ......... 83 3.1.2. Class and category classification of white colour term in English data .......... 86 3.1.3. Class and category classification of red colour term in English data ............... 90 3.1.4. Class and category classification of yellow colour term in English .................. 93 3.1.5. Class and category classification of green colour terms in English data ....... 95 3.1.7. Class and category classification of grey colour term in English data ......... 100 3.2. Class classification and category sub-classification of basic colour terms in Vietnamese data ................................................................................................................. 102 viii 3.2.1. Class and category classification of đen colour term in Vietnamese data ..... 102 3.2.2. Class and category classification of trắng colour term in Vietnamese data ... 105 3.2.3. Class and category classification of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data ... 109 3.2.4. Class and category classification of vàng colour term in Vietnamese data .... 112 3.2.5. Class and category classification of xanh colour term in Vietnamese data .... 115 3.2.6. Class and category classification of xám colour term in Vietnamese data ..... 118 3.3. Summary ................................................................................................................. 120 CHAPTER 4. COMPARISON OF PROTOTYPES OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DATA ......................................................................................... 124 4.1. Prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data .......................... 124 4.2. Comparison of prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data 132 4.2.1. Prototype of black colour term in English compared to prototype of đen colour term in Vietnamese ......................................................................................................... 133 4.2.2. Prototype of white colour term in English compared to prototype of trắng colour term in Vietnamese ......................................................................................................... 135 4.2.3. Prototype of red colour term in English compared to prototype of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese.................................................................................................................. 137 4.2.4. Prototype of yellow colour term in English compared to prototype of vàng colour term in Vietnamese ............................................................................................. 140 4.2.5. Prototype of green colour term and prototype of blue colour term in English compared to prototype of xanh colour term in Vietnamese ........................................ 141 4.2.6. Prototype of grey colour term in English compared to prototype of xám colour term in Vietnamese ......................................................................................................... 144 4.3. Summary ................................................................................................................. 146 PART 3. CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................................... 149 5.1. Recapitulation ............................................................................................................. 149 5.2. Concluding remarks................................................................................................ 150 5.4. Limitations and suggestions for further study ....................................................... 155 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................... 157 ix English references ..................................................................................................................................... 157 Vietnamese references ............................................................................................................................. 164 RESEARCHER’S ARTICLES RELATED TO THE DISSERTATION ................................. 169 APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................................... 170 APPENDIX 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................................... 170 APPENDIX 2: OBJECT REFERENTS OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DATA .......................................................................................................................... 188 APPENDIX 3: TABLES OF OBJECT REFERENTS AND 06-CLASS CLASSIFICATION AND CATEGORY SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DATA ............................................................................................................. 294 1 PART 1. INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale The view on this diverse world results in different colour pictures, which clearly reflects the distinctive values in cognition and culture of one nation itself. In other words, colour terms, besides the usual daily semantically expressive viewpoint, should be explored from deeper cognitive views underneath (Vũ Phương Anh, 2011) so as to explore the connections between one colour term and the equivalent prototypes in human beings’ cognition. In the world, the issue of colour terms has been studied from various research aspects as follows: In terms of lexical aspect, the role of culture has been emphasized in researching colour terminologies, rather than researching colour terminologies in separation. Studies by Geiger (1869); Conklin (1955); Lakoff (1987); Kay & Maffi (1999) have influenced this current dissertation since cultural element used to be ignored in considering the connection between colour terminologies and their usage. In Vietnamese, Trịnh Thị Minh Hương (1999) paid more attention to lexical aspect, mainly towards one colour term or some basic colour terms in Vietnamese language. Regarding semantic viewpoint, Kưvecses (1986) and Lucy (1992) lay the foundation in which colour prototypes should be performed based on the semantic features of colour category. In Việt Nam, Hồng Văn Hành (1982), Nguyễn Hồng Phương Linh (2014) and Lê Phương Thảo (2018) compare and contrast the semantic values and meanings between colour terms in Vietnamese and English. Concerning culture factor, Chevalier and Gheerbrant (1997) as well as Wierzbicka (2006) provide knowledge about the role of culture in the diverse international system of colour symbols around the world. Nguyễn Khánh Hà (1995) confirms the existence of the parallel connection between one particular linguistic 2 expression (a lexical word unit) and its associated typical cultural national characteristics. In respect of cognitive viewpoint, this research direction has been increasingly popular and widely applied. Rivers (1897), Brown and Lenneberg (1954), Berlin and Kay (1969), Heider (1971, 1972), Rosch (1973, 1974, 1975) have been more aware of the fact that colour categories should be represented in cognition in terms of a prototype (as the most salient object referent) of the category surrounded by less-similarity object referents. Trần Thị Lan (2001), Lê Văn Thanh (2014); Hồng Tuyết Minh and Nguyễn Văn Quang (2015) identify the connection between the prototypes of one basic colour and the associated objects in daily real- life situations close to one community members’ life culture and cognition related to the similarities and differences between Vietnamese and English culture and cognition system. These researchers, concentrating on one single colour term or some specific colour terms in one language only, does provide the most wide-ranging general picture with further detailed explanations with the subject of linguistic and cognitive system within one native community. Therefore, a research on basic colour terms from a different theoretical framework (particularly, prototype theory) with a broader research scope should be conducted with the hope of discovering basic colour prototypes between English and Vietnamese languages together with further explanations based on cultural and cognitive perspectives for better understanding about the similarities and the differences between these two systems. Practically, the findings of this dissertation introduce reliable information related to the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data accompanied by a comprehensible explanation of cultural and cognitive characteristics of English and Vietnamese communities. The findings of this study provide the background for English and Vietnamese learners to be able to translate or interpret these prototypes of basic colour terms correctly in terms of cultural and 3 cognitive viewpoints. Native readers or speakers understand the similarities and distinguish the differences for the correct daily usage between the two linguistic systems in terms of prototypes, class classification and category sub-classification of basic colour terms. 2. Aims and Objectives The ultimate aim of this dissertation is to compare and contrast the prototypes of black/đen, white/trắng, red/đỏ, yellow/vàng, green/blue/xanh, grey/xám colour terms in English and Vietnamese data from the cognitive and cultural perspectives. The specific aim for this study is to point out the similarities and the differences among the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data from cognitive and cultural perspectives; therefore, the following objectives are put forward for the complete insight: - To classify object referents functioning as colour-term referents of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data into 06 classes and categories. - To identify the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data based on prototype theory. - To point out the similarities and the differences of the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data from cognitive and cultural perspectives. 3. Research questions In order to achieve the aims of the study, this dissertation sets out the following research questions: - What are the classes and the categories of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data? - What are the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data? 4 - What are the similarities and the differences of the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data from cognitive and cultural perspectives? 4. Scope of the study Regarding dissertation approaches, this dissertation is employed based on prototype, category and cognitive and cultural elements. In this study, a prototype is defined as the most salient feature in connection with the list of other object referents of one basic colour term whereas a category is the grouping of object referents of one basic colour term based on the commonalities with the prototype. Additionally, cognitive and cultural elements assist as explanatory role towards the prototypes of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data for similarities and differences. With regard to research subjects, a basic colour term, based on Berlin and Kay’s (1969) linguistic criteria, in the form of one single root adjective word as one independent lexical unit, expresses the mental or psychological unit of our human consciousness and of the whole world image reflected in human psychology. Based on Berlin and Kay’s (1969) presentation of 11 basic colour terms, white, black, red, yellow, blue, green, brown, purple, pink, grey, orange colour terms in English language are the original research targeted subjects whereas those basic colour terms in Vietnamese are trắng, đen, đỏ, vàng, xanh da trời (xanh dương), xanh lá cây, nâu...l subjective colour terms. These colour metaphors are thoughtful as well as natural in accordance with modernization and realism clearly reflects his inner beauty and sensitive soul, resulting in the conclusion that the subjective language users determine metaphors (Lê Anh Hiền, 1971). 19 Investigating the use of colour terms in literary works has been a dominating trend regarding lexicon research orientation in Vietnamese researches, namely as Biện Minh Điền (2000), Nguyễn Thị Thành Thắng (2001) and Hà Thị Thu Hồi (2006). From Nguyễn Khuyến’s poems, all the colour words are collected to identify the ratio of the most dominant colours; especially xanh colour term creates the natural beauty of Northern rural area (Biện Minh Điền, 2000). What is more, polysemy phenomenon of colour words in Nguyễn Khuyến’s poems is generalized in order to emphasize this poet’s distinctive artistic style (Nguyễn Thị Thành Thắng, 2001). In the similar orientation, the target towards Tơ Hồi’s creativeness in creating many layers of trắng, vàng, đỏ colour terms is the specific aim of this research (Hà Thị Thu Hồi, 2006). This demonstrated that the huge Vietnamese data in poetry branch or literal works is potentially beneficial for future surveys or researches on the subject of colour terms. Basic colour terms or colour supplementary lexicons in Vietnamese language, particularly Vietnamese derivative colour terms, are initially surveyed. Besides some fundamental features on basic and derivative colour terms in Vietnamese language, especially on xanh and đỏ colour terms, are also presented (Trịnh Thị Thu Hiền, 2004). The findings from this research have demonstrated the potential research orientation regarding basic colour terms and derivative colour terms in Vietnamese as well as in other languages. The following work on Vietnamese colour lexicons concentrates on analyzing symbolic meanings of Vietnamese colour lexicons. The descriptive meaning of Vietnamese colour terminologies in literary works is the central survey subject. The way to construct descriptive meaning towards colour lexicons as well as in English and Vietnamese colour idioms has been identified; however, comparing and contrasting colour terminologies between English and Vietnamese data has not been paid adequate attention (Trịnh Thị Minh Hương, 1999). 20 In short, the afore-mentioned works, with more attention particularly to one colour term or some basic colour terms in Vietnamese language, have surveyed on colour lexicon used in Vietnamese literary works for the aesthetic values and illustrate the emphasis on one particular author’s distinctive literal style. Vietnamese linguistic system is diverse in linguistic expressions (basic colour terms and their sub-terms) and expressive values for the literal aesthetic achievement. In terms of semantics research direction, regarding researches performed only on Vietnamese colour terms, each particular combination presents one distinguished semantic value due to the specific meanings of each colour terminology in combination with ‘face’ words in normal or reverse orders. The reverse orders containing ‘màu + mặt’ express human beings’ emotions and affections (xanh mặt refers to anxiety or fear states; đỏ mặt refers to embarrassment, tím mặt means anger). However, the normal orders of these colour words with face are found in idiomatic expressions with expressive values, in which face as a supporting unit in these idioms (Bùi Thị Ngọc Anh, 2008). Sharing the similar interest in Vietnamese colour terms, Trần Văn Sáng (2009), based on six hundred Vietnamese folk songs, conclude that Vietnamese colour terms carry mainly literal or specific meanings with less figurative meaning implication. Specifically, đỏ colour term in Vietnamese folk songs expresses the colour of young female’s cheeks, a constant visible feature in description to demonstrate Vietnamese ancestors’ ancient viewpoint on beauty (Trần Văn Sáng, 2009). The issue of comparison in colour term usage between Vietnamese and another linguistic system also attracts some Vietnamese researchers. One similar comparison is performed based on the semantic structure among Vietnamese adjectives and those in Russian (Hồng Văn Hành, 1982). English reference connected to red, green, purple, pink, grey, black, white colour terms in English idioms is the concentration. Particularly, in grammatical 21 aspect, colour terminologies are equivalent in idioms whereas in semantic aspect, each colour lexicon consists of private connections despite the standing side-by-side position. The conclusion is that colour combinations carry a common meaning when in combination or colour combination in one idiom consists some logic values (Vũ Phương Anh, 2003). Colour idioms in English and Vietnamese data are surveyed to figure out the similarities and the differences in idiom usages for Vietnamese students to recognize errors in learning English. However, the limited number of idioms comprising red/đỏ, yellow/vàng, blue/xanh, black/đen, white/trắng colour terminologies between the two languages in this small-scale research restricts the data scope (Nguyễn Hồng Phương Linh, 2014). Sharing the same data target and focusing on semantics theories introduced by international linguistics researchers are the foundations for exploring some prominent semantic features of the Vietnamese and English idioms about love, marriage and family. The findings will be able to facilitate the understanding of these idioms’ meanings: (i) Idiom meanings are constructed on metaphor, metonymy and national cultural knowledge; (ii) Individual Vietnamese lexical meaning depends on synonym and antonym regulations; (iii) Most English and Vietnamese idioms can be explained directly due to the figurative and transferred senses (Nghiêm Thị Bích Diệp, 2018). Vietnamese phrases containing đen, trắng colour terms formed based on native speakers’ conventions characterizing national distinctive features compared to English phrases containing black and white colour terms usually applied in figurative meaning or meaning transfer is another survey conducted to compare and contrast between English and Vietnamese languages. Vietnamese and English native speakers use different semantic meanings, matching with their native communities: in form, in colour cognition, in potential usage with an adjective component in another language. The main difference helps English learners identify the matching capacity between fixed phrases and use them approximately in communication (Nguyễn Thị Tố Hoa, 2017). Similarly, xanh and đỏ colour terms in 22 Vietnamese are analyzed mainly from semantic perspective - the most traditional research orientation (Trịnh Thị Thu Hiền, 2015). From focusing on đen, trắng colour terms in English and Vietnamese data or xanh and đỏ colour terms in Vietnamese in these two studies above, this data scope has been expanded into 05 đỏ, vàng, đen, trắng, xanh basic colour terms in Vietnamese and Chinese languages in the following study. With respect to colour researches from comparative-contrastive perspective between two linguistic systems, đỏ, vàng, đen, trắng, xanh colour terms together with their implied meanings are surveyed from a different viewpoint on the similarities and the differences between Vietnamese and Chinese linguistic systems. Expressive features and semantic structures of colour terms in Vietnamese and Chinese linguistic systems as well as their percentage in data collected from literary works are the central research subjects in this dissertation (Bùi Thị Thúy Phương, 2004). Central research objectives, lexicon formation on basic colour terms and their derivations in idioms and data from literary works, demonstrate the percentage of colour lexicons. The conclusions refer to the three following aspects: Basic colour term formation (English language uses compounding and inflecting methods whereas Vietnamese language uses repeating method); Basic colour term semantics (Basic colour terms with more meanings imply a variety and power in meaning transformation away from the original meaning); Iconic meaning (Basic colour cognition in English and Vietnamese systems employs distinctive cultural national features). The limitation is that the attention has been paid merely on original meaning, inflected meaning, transformed meaning and iconic meaning without researching other inflected and specific colour terms in English and Vietnamese data (Lê Phương Thảo, 2018). In short, these works are beneficial in assisting foreign language learners in distinguishing the similarities and the differences between linguistic units or fixed 23 phrases accompanied by literal, figurative or even transfer meanings and the practical usage for misunderstanding avoidance in communication. On the subject of culture research direction, regarding Vietnamese colour terms, sub-systems in colour vocabularies in Vietnamese are classified to analyze the meanings and contexts in lexical usage so as to clarify the connections between these colour terms and typical cultural national characteristics. Based on pointing the word-class features (primary and secondary colour terms) and comparing for the common relations among them, the connections between these words and typical cultural national characteristics have been identified. However, besides mentioning the relations among these lexical groups (for example: basic colour terms, secondary colour terms and distinctive colour terms), some major classes consisting of diverse colour terms (like idioms) were not mentioned. What is more, the colour terms between English and Vietnamese idioms for similarities and differences and the impacts of linguistics, culture and thinking in using these colour lexicons were not compared and contrasted (Nguyễn Khánh Hà, 1995). The idea of exploiting colour terms from idioms in English and Vietnamese data can be further researched and enhanced for a complete study. With regard to the studies on other foreign languages, the survey on the connection between Flora group (including flower and plant objects) and colour terms in Vietnamese and English idioms presents some similarities and some differences related to natural world between English and Vietnamese cultural features (Trần Thị Thu Huyền, 2001). Centering on the idea of how colour words are applied, this comprehensive summary on linguistic and cultural knowledge connected to colour terms is valued as one brief introduction of linguistic and cultural impacts (Lê Thị Vy, 2006). That colour is viewed as a universal symbol in some cultural and religious rituals in the world brings in current research orientation from semiotic viewpoint towards colour terms (Nguyễn Đức Dân, 2006). This has opened up more studies 24 among different languages for a more comprehensive picture of the world linguistic system. In short, these studies, from the connection between linguistics and culture factors (even religious factor), introduce the general picture about the similarities and the differences between Vietnamese and English cultures. These works declare the parallel connection between one particular linguistic expression (a word or a lexical unit) and distinctive cultural national features. Also, idioms have proved the reliable features in primary data source for upcoming researches. As to cognition research direction, not many works on colour terms have been conducted from cognitive perspective, especially at master and doctoral thesis. These articles, carrying the tendency to compare between Vietnamese language and another target language, concentrate on one single colour term or all basic colour terms within the limited research scope. A pioneering survey on the connection between colour perception and colour spectrum is the concentration on visual perception and different human communities possessing different viewpoints on colours (Đào Thản, 1993). Concerning researches on English and Vietnamese comparative idioms, both English and Vietnamese peoples are concluded on idiom usage in daily life by presenting differences related to those associated object referents of đỏ, hồng, trắng, xanh colour terms between English and Vietnamese data: snow object referent as the most typical object referent of white colour term in English data whereas tuyết, trứng gà bĩc object referents as the most salient object referents associated with trắng colour term in Vietnamese data; cherry object referent as the most central object referent of red colour term in English data whereas tơm luộc, mặt trời, máu (of the lips), bồ quân (of the cheeks) object referents as the most outstanding object referents of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data; cherry, rose object referents as the most obvious object referents of pink colour term in English data whereas bồ quân 25 object referent as the most noticeable object referent of hồng colour term in Vietnamese data (Trần Thị Lan, 2001). Regarding semantic explanations based on the positive and negative assumptions towards basic colour terms in Vietnamese and English languages (collected from idiom source), the outcomes are as follows. In Vietnamese data, vơi, bơng object referents represent trắng colour term; than, mực tàu object referents refer to đen colour term; son, máu object referents make reference to đỏ colour term; hoa mướp, nghệ object referents allude to vàng colour term; lá cây, nước biển object referents make an ullusion to xanh colour term; nước củ nâu object referent implies nâu colour term; quả cà dái dê object referent denote tím colour term. On the other hand, in English data, fresh snow, common salt, milk object referents refer to white colour term; coal, soot object referents represent black colour term; fresh blood object allue to represents red colour term; ripe lemon, egg yolks, gold object referents imply yellow colour term; clear sky, sea, sunny day object referents make an allusion to blue colour term; growing grass, leaves of plants, trees object referents denote green colour term; toasted bread, coffee mixed with milk object referents make reference to brown colour term; clouds on a rainy day object referent indicates grey colour term; fully-ripened fruit object referent identifies orange colour term (Trịnh Thị Thu Hiền, 2002). Based on the percentage of object referents from colour như X object referent idioms in Vietnamese data collected from the Internet, it is concluded that blood prototype has been existing in Vietnamese cognition as well as those object referents close to daily Vietnamese cultural life, particularly, the habit of raising animals for nourishment (Lê Văn Thanh, 2014). Following this research orientation and expanding to a broader data scope, that the comparative English idioms are to be compared and contrasted to those in Vietnamese language is the central research focus, presenting the following conclusions: comparative idioms bring in multi- colourful pictures related to natural views, of human beings, social life, as well as spiritual world together with distinctive national thinking of this nation. Referring to 26 structure element, comparative idioms with object referents as nouns occupy the highest proportion in English and Vietnamese. In connection with semantic element, comparative idioms convey the relations between human beings and society, fauna, flora and natural world. On the subject of comparison and contrast objective, the fact that English comparative idioms are for judgment, evaluation and prediction purposes while Vietnamese idioms are for physical nature world description does reflect the core difference between the two thinking ways (Hồng Tuyết Minh, 2014: 117). Based on the findings from this research, the following main points play the central guideline spine and are further exploited: Comparative idioms carry the object referents representative lively world-view pictures related to natural views, of human beings, social life as well as spiritual world of one nation; in which, there exists an emphasis on the relations between human beings and society, fauna, flora and natural world. Similarly, the issue of Vietnamese and English people sharing similarities and differences in cognition towards black colour term is also the central research target. Black category scopes in English and Vietnamese data include popular objects in each nation with more acceptable examples in one category. Vietnamese and English cognition systems towards black colour share ink - coal - ebony - crow - soot – tar representative object referents. The object referents are familiar objects in Vietnamese and English daily life. The results show the following differences in cognition towards black colour: Although black category scopes in Vietnamese and English share some similar components, the percentage of these components in two linguistic systems is not equivalent; black category in any language consists of many different components: buffalo complexion (da trâu) and black bean (đỗ đen) only found in Vietnamese language while those typical object referents in English language are crude oil and a Congo negro (Hồng Tuyết Minh and Nguyễn Văn Quang, 2015). In a nutshell, the fact that these two studies, based on distinctive cognitive features between English and Vietnamese peoples, has pioneered the initial idea of developing one dissertation on the subject of prototypes of basic 27 colour terms together with further category classification of object referents associated with basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data besides being accompanied by the explanatory support of cultural and cognitive characteristics. What is more, idiom usage between English and Vietnamese communities is revealed through some similarities in cognition towards some basic colour terms: coal object referent of black colour term equal to than object referent of đen colour term, snow object referent of white colour term the same as tuyết object referent of trắng colour term (Nguyễn Văn Quang 2017). Comparative idioms initiate from comparative rhetoric method, as one method to compare one subject to another subject, in terms of the images of the subjects and phenomenon in the natural physical world. Moreover, comparative idioms are formed based on the cognitive connection; consequently, this cognitive connection reflected in comparative idioms is close to one nation but brings a strangely different perception to another nation because one national community is concerned about subjective external appearance or phenomenon whereas another country pays most attention to the function or the feature of the same subject or phenomenon. Afore-mentioned researchers generally agree that colour perception decides personal viewpoints on colour terms. This foundation is enhanced by identifying the connection between the prototype of one basic colour term and the associated object referents in daily real-life situations close to one community members’ cultural and cognitive features for more awareness towards one particular colour term related to the similarities and the differences between Vietnamese and English data. Researches on colour terms in English and Vietnamese linguistic systems concentrate on structural and semantic factors from different aspects as well as the appearance percentage based on literary work data. Some researchers are more interested in Vietnamese basic colour term system whereas others pay more attention to two colour terms. The limitation is that the comparison and contrast of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data in literary work systems from cognitive viewpoint based on the connection with distinctive cultural foundation has not received the adequate attention for a systemic and complete thesis. 28 Nevertheless, all researches above are beneficial for further research on basic colour terms from comparative and contrastive linguistic viewpoints. To sum up, the research direction revolving the relation among colour terms from literary works, cognitive and cultural viewpoint is the central aim of this dissertation with the hope of explaining the similarities and the differences among prototypes and categories of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data. Colour terms, in those researches above, are analyzed with reference to structure and semantic viewpoints within different ranges and their usage in literary works. Some researches aim at Vietnamese colour term system while others survey on two most fundamental colour terms. The limitation is that the impact of cultural and linguistic factors on colour term usage has not been paid adequate attention. In this dissertation, a broader number of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data is the primary research targets besides the mutual integral combination of cognitive and cultural explanations, which hopefully brings in more prospective and beneficial research results. 1.2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Previous studies related to colour terms in English and Vietnamese have initiated a potential research direction for this dissertation to follow. This section is a detailed description on central components building the theoretical framework: The relation among language-cognition-culture has been affirmed as basic patterns of behaviour, discourse and reasoning in a given community in representing the collective wisdom and experience acquired and stored in individual community members. In the time of cognitive semantics, it is confirmed that prototype theory (in particular, prototypes of basic colour terms) and natural categorization (particularly, colour categories), with the aid from language as a cognitive tool, does explain on the subject of lexical semantics aspect, especially in the terms of basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data. This theoretical background also provides the introduction on basic colour terms in English and Vietnamese data as well as that of comparative idioms as the official data source for later data procedures. 29 1.2.1. Cognition Human knowledge is comprised of continuous stages: strengthening, connecting, comparison, abstraction and reflection. Reality reflected in linguistics is human beings’ cognitive heritage as the outcome between bodily experiences and the objective world. In other words, possible objects’ features and neurological system structure human experiences (Evans and Green, 2006: 46). From the viewpoint that human mind is a function of the way in which our species-specific bodies interact with the environment we are living in, the human mind must bear the imprint of embodied experience. Human knowledge is comprised of continuous stages of strengthening, connecting, comparing, abstracting and reflecting. The key feature here for understanding the embodied nature of human cognition is to ‘look for possible mind–body and language-body connections’ (Gibbs, 2006: 9) that are formed during the interaction between the body and the physical and cultural world. How the body is related to the mind in the environment during our interaction and how this relationship affects human cognition encompass social factors due to the fact that ‘the properties of certain categories are a consequence of the nature of human biological capacities and of the experience of functioning in a physical and social environment’ (Lakoff, 1987: 12). The three typical views on cognition is presented in details as follows: From psychological view: Cognition, without attention to cultural differences in cognitive development, is defined as the organization of an agent’s sensorimotor experiences and interactions with the environment (Piaget, 1936). On the other hand, it is proposed that individual cognitive development, with a strong emphasis on the role of culture, requires a sociocultural embedding through certain transformation processes; in which, the cognitive abilities of an ‘en-culturated’ person as the product of developmental processes, in which primitive and immature humans are transformed into cultural ones through social interactions (Vygotsky, quoted in Lindblom & Ziemke, 2007: 139-141). 30 From pragmatic view: Human mind is never separated from the body due to a series of bodily activities immersed in the ongoing flow of organism–environment interactions that constitute experience. This rootedness of thinking in bodily experience and its connection with the environment entails that human cognition, arising from human experience constituted by bodily activities from the on-going flow of interactions with the environment and social interaction, is an embodied view of mind (Johnson & Rohrer, 2007: 18-23). From cognitive view: Cognition, as a human ability, assists this experience to be accessible to the conceptual system by introducing concepts as well as their controlling information processing (Barsalou, 1999) whereas cognition, depending on the body and its sensorimotor systems in a fundamental way, emerges from our bodily-based experience. Our sensorimotor interactions with the world that is both physical and socio-cultural (Violi, 2008). That is to say, perception consists of two emotive phases (feeling, perception) and reasoning phase (symbol, definition) whereas cognition implies the process of receiving, storing and producing information into knowledge (Lý Tồn Thắng, 2008). In short, cognition, considered both physical (the processes of receiving, storing and producing information into knowledge) and socio-cultural (the processes of introducing concepts and controlling information), assists human beings to perceive the world outside in a special way with the emphasis of language factor in cognitive processes. Cognition, what occurs during human body’ engaging the physical, cultural world, should not be assumed to be purely internal, symbolic and disembodied; rather, cognition must be studied in terms of the dynamical interactions between human beings and the environment. This dissertation aims at the cognitive viewpoint related to cognition term as the initial borderline to be researching in more details: Cognition, in combination with the culture factor, is the most fundamental background for human beings to develop different viewpoints to each colour term. 31 1.2.2. Onomasiology (Naming) In researching cultural-national characteristics of languages, nomination feature of different languages is highly recommended (Nguyễn Đức Tồn, 2010: 160). In the realm of colour terminology, traditional research has primarily been concerned with Nomination (Naming). It is generally agreed that naming process is associated with linguistic concepts and functions to name things and phenomena. For Kolshansky, nomination refers to the attaching process towards one linguistic symbol, one concept - this significat reflects the most distinctive feature of one denotat as well as the characteristics, features, relations, physical and mental processes of the subject; therefore, linguistic units produce communicative elements of lexical communication (Nguyễn Thị Bích Hà; 2000: 21). From Vietnamese linguists, nomination has been provided in more details. Nomination, according to ‘Từ điển tiếng Việt’ by Đà Nẵng Publishing House (2003: 325), is the naming of one subject or phenomenon whereas ‘Từ điển chuyên ngành’ by Nguyễn Như Ý (2001) defines naming as the forming of linguistic units functioning naming and dividing the segments of the subjective realistic reality for introducing equivalent concepts of words, phrases, clauses and sentences (quoted in Nguyễn Mai Hoa, 2020: 85). From Hồng Phê (2010)’s affirmation regarding the crucial lexical function towards naming process, Hà Quang Năng (2013: 01) asserts that nomination is connected to cognitive procedure: “Nomination or naming is a process that always goes along with the awareness of the world around us. The complete and precise this awareness is, the more detailed the naming mission can accomplish”. Nomination, concerned with name-related questions ‘How do you express X?’, starts from a concept which is taken to be prior (an idea, an object, a quality, an activity and so on) and asks for its names. The process of nomination begins with forming a concept of a referent: The concept, a category of human cognition, is a generalized idea of a class of objects, summing up the most essential characteristics 32 of the given class that help to distinguish it from any other class of objects. Concepts are basically similar for all speakers of different languages because human beings’ cognitive abilities determine concept formation. Below is how the naming process takes place: each subject in the physical world is comprised of one complicated system with distinctive characteristics and connections. These features make up one sophisticated system within one nation; in other words, these characteristics and connections help to produce the knowledge related to each entity: After contacting one new subject, some familiar features can be figured out. Regarding the naming task, only outstanding features are selected to be different from other entities. V. G. Gac (1976) points out that n... 1. Lạnh lùng mực 14 works 22 tokens 2. Sư Bác chùa Kênh mực 3. Lan rừng mực bạc 4. Giật mình tỉnh dậy mực 5. Nắng thu nhung X x x tàu lá 6. Giết chồng, báo thù chồng bồ hĩng 7. Xĩm cầu mới 1. bột 2. ngơi sao 8. Hai buổi chiều tà hoa lài mới nở 9. Câu chuyện mơ trong giấc mộng hoa lài mới nở 10. Đơi bạn phấn 11. Tháng ngày qua nụ cười nghệ 12. Dịng sơng Thanh Thủy người đau gan 13. Một buổi sáng đầu lâu hổ phách 14. Đơi bạn nhặt lá bàng ngọc thạch 33. Sơn Nam 1. Người bạn triệu phú mực 5 works 7 tokens 2. Nhứt phá sơn lâm nước rừng 3. Từ U Minh đến Cần bơng 321 Thơ 4. 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Tuấn – chàng trai nước Việt 1. cơ gái Cao Miên 2. người Cao Miên 3. vải tang gấc 328 Table 3.1: 58 Object referents of black colour term in English data No. Object referents Frequency % No. Object referents Frequency % 01 night 23 15.97 30 crow 01 0.69 02 ink 13 9.03 31 draw-well 01 0.69 03 pitch 10 6.94 32 Erebus 01 0.69 04 coal 08 5.56 33 gates of Erebus 01 0.69 05 jet 06 4.17 34 (face of) hell 01 0.69 06 pit 06 4.17 35 horse 01 0.69 07 ebony 05 3.47 36 horse’s mane 01 0.69 08 sloe 05 3.47 37 insect 01 0.69 09 thunder 05 3.47 38 leech 01 0.69 10 thundercloud 04 2.78 39 Negro’s skin 01 0.69 11 cloud 03 2.08 40 oak 01 0.69 12 death 03 2.08 41 pick 01 0.69 13 tar 03 2.08 42 plumes upon a hearse 01 0.69 14 charcoal 02 1.39 43 rocks of Shellal 01 0.69 329 15 midnight 02 1.39 44 sky 01 0.69 16 raven 02 1.39 45 slate 01 0.69 17 sin 02 1.39 46 stroke of a funeral bell 01 0.69 18 sweep 02 1.39 47 Stygian 01 0.69 19 An African 01 0.69 48 Styx 0.69 20 ash-buds 02 0.69 49 Sunday hat 01 0.69 21 bird of ebony 01 0.69 50 tar-barrel 01 0.69 22 boot 01 0.69 51 t’chimbley 01 0.69 23 bucket 01 0.69 52 the 9th plague of Egypt at midnight 01 0.69 24 cave 01 0.69 53 the side of a well 01 0.69 25 cavern 01 0.69 54 Tophet 01 0.69 26 cellar 01 0.69 55 tunnel 01 0.69 27 chimny-crook 01 0.69 56 turkeycock 01 0.69 28 Creole’s eyes 01 0.69 57 vault 01 0.69 29 crock 01 0.69 58 window-pane 01 0.69 330 Table 3.2: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of black colour term in English data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referents % Flora 8.32 Fruit 3.47 sloe 3.47 Plant 4.85 ebony 3.47 Bird of ebony 0.69 oak 0.69 Fauna 6.22 Animal 2.07 insect 0.69 leech 0.69 horse 0.69 Bird 2.77 raven 1.39 crow 0.69 turkeycock 0.69 Fauna parts 1.38 plumes 0.69 horse’s mane 0.69 Inanimate nature 50.59 Natural objects & substances 13.88 coal 5.56 pit 4.17 331 charcoal 1.39 cave 0.69 cavern 0.69 vault 0.69 rock 0.69 Chemical compounds 10.40 pitch 6.94 tar 2.08 ash-bud 0.69 tar-barrel 0.69 Milieu 26.31 night 15.97 thunder 3.47 thundercloud 2.78 cloud 2.08 midnight 1.39 sky 0.69 Man-made product 26.31 Artifact 18.72 ink 9.03 332 jet 4.17 boot 0.69 hat 0.69 bucket 0.69 crock 0.69 draw-well 0.69 pick 0.69 side of a well 0.69 window-pane 0.69 Storage places 3.45 cellar 0.69 chimney-crook 0.69 slate 0.69 tunnel 0.69 chimbley 0.69 Imaginative destinations 4.14 Styx 0.69 Stygian 0.69 333 Erebus 0.69 gate of Erebus 0.69 Tophet 0.69 face of hell 0.69 Body & bodily product 8.31 Bodily parts 1.38 Croele’s eyes 0.69 Negro’s skin 0.69 Occupation 1.39 sweep 1.39 Human race 0.69 African 0.69 Human attribute 4.85 death 2.08 sin 1.39 stroke of a funeral bell 0.69 9th plague of Egypt 0.69 334 Table 3.3: Object referents of white colour term in English data No. Object referents Frequency % No. Object referents Frequency % 01 snow 34 22.08 31 Fair linen 01 0.65 02 sheet 16 10.39 32 Flagstone 01 0.65 03 death 08 5.19 33 Foam 01 0.65 04 milk 07 4.55 34 Frost 01 0.65 05 ash 05 3.25 35 Ghaist’s hair 01 0.65 06 chalk 05 3.25 36 Goat skin cloak 01 0.65 07 lily 05 3.25 37 Gown 01 0.65 08 ghost 04 2.60 38 Ice 01 0.65 09 paper 04 2.60 39 Icicle 01 0.65 10 bone 03 1.95 40 Lady’s skin 01 0.65 11 Ivory 03 1.95 41 Linen apron 01 0.65 12 Marble 03 1.95 42 Moth 01 0.65 335 13 Pearl 03 1.95 43 Napkin 01 0.65 14 Wall 03 1.95 44 Parchment 01 0.65 15 Glacier 02 1.30 45 Pine-forest in wintry Norway 01 0.65 16 moon 02 1.30 46 Porter 01 0.65 17 Privet (flower) 02 1.30 47 Raven 01 0.65 18 Shrould 02 1.30 48 Salt 01 0.65 19 Wool 02 1.30 49 Ship 01 0.65 20 Avalanche 01 0.65 50 Silver 01 0.65 21 Bacon 01 0.65 51 Spectre 01 0.65 22 Baker’s face 01 0.65 52 Star 01 0.65 23 Birch-bark 01 0.65 53 Steam 01 0.65 24 Clay 01 0.65 54 Swan 01 0.65 25 Cotton-wool 01 0.65 55 Table cloth 01 0.65 26 Crag on Pentelicus 01 0.65 56 Tendon 01 0.65 336 27 Cream 01 0.65 57 Top of the waves 01 0.65 28 Curds 01 0.65 58 Wedding cake 01 0.65 29 Daisy 01 0.65 59 Whey 01 0.65 30 Erection 01 0.65 60 Winter 01 0.65 Table 3.4: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of white colour term in English data Class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 4.55 Flower 4.55 lily 3.25 daisy 0.65 privet flower 0.65 Fauna 3.90 Animal 0.65 raven 0.65 Bird 1.30 swan 0.65 moth 0.65 Mammal parts 1.95 ivory 1.95 Inanimate nature 35.60 Natural objects & substances 29.10 snow 21.95 glacier 1.30 ice 0.65 icicle 0.65 clay 0.65 crag on Pentelicus 0.65 337 frost 0.65 pine-forest 0.65 top of wave 0.65 steam 0.65 avalanche 0.65 (Semi)-precious stones 3.25 Pearl 1.95 Marble 1.30 Milieu 2.60 moon 1.30 star 0.65 winter 0.65 Metals 0.65 silver 0.65 Food & Beverage 9.10 Sweet 0.65 wedding cake 0.65 Dairy products 7.15 milk 4.55 foam 0.65 curd 0.65 cream 0.65 whey 0.65 Spice 0.65 salt 0.65 Breakfast recipe 0.65 bacon 0.65 Man-made object 31.19 Pigments & colourant 3.25 ash 3.25 Artifacts 18.84 sheet 10.39 chalk 3.25 paper 2.60 wall 1.95 338 flagstone 0.65 Clothing products 3.25 napkin 0.65 table cloth 0.65 gown 0.65 linen apron 0.65 goat skin cloak 0.65 Fabrics 4.55 shroud 1.30 wool 1.30 cotton-wool 0.65 parchment 0.65 fair linen 0.65 Transportation 1.30 ship 0.65 birch-bark 0.65 Body & bodily product 14.29 Abstract subjects: 8.44 death 5.19 ghost 2.60 spectre 0.65 Bodily products 5.20 bone 1.95 erection 0.65 baker’s face 0.65 Ghaist’s hair 0.65 lady’s skin 0.65 tendon 0.65 Occupation 0.65 porter 0.65 339 Table 3.5: 25 Object referents of red colour term in English data No. Object referent Frequency % No Object referent Frequency % 01 blood 09 16.36 14 cherry 01 1.82 02 rose 09 16.36 15 collar-stud 01 1.82 03 fire 05 9.09 16 cross of St. George 01 1.82 04 turkeycock 04 7.27 17 light of sunset 01 1.82 05 peony 03 5.45 18 lion 01 1.82 06 beetroot 02 3.64 19 moustache 01 1.82 07 dawn 02 3.64 20 raw meat 01 1.82 08 Lobster 02 3.64 21 scarlet 01 1.82 09 Ruby 02 3.64 22 slaughter 01 1.82 10 sunset 02 3.64 23 uncooked beefsteak 01 1.82 11 arms of the reaping machine 01 1.82 24 watering pot 01 1.82 12 bell of a penny trumpet 01 1.82 25 wine 01 1.82 13 burnt copper 01 1.82 340 Table 3.6: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of red colour term in English data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 27.27 Flower 21.81 rose 16.36 peony 5.45 Fruit 3.64 beetroot 3.64 Cherry 1.82 cherry 1.82 Fauna 15.37 Poultry 7.27 turkeycock 7.27 Fish 3.64 lobster 3.64 Animal 1.82 lion 1.82 Raw material 3.64 raw meat 1.82 uncooked beefsteak 1.82 Inanimate nature 23.65 Natural objects & substances 9.09 fire 9.09 Milieu 9.10 dawn 3.64 sunset 3.64 light of sunset 1.82 (Semi)-precious stones 5.46 ruby 3.64 copper 1.82 Food & beverage 1.82 Drink 1.82 wine 1.82 341 Man-made objects 9.10 Tools 3.64 arms of the reaping machine 1.82 watering pot 1.82 Musical instrument 1.82 bell of a penny trumpet, 1.82 Fabric 1.82 scarlet 1.82 Clothing 1.82 collar-stud 1.82 Body and bodily objects 21.82 Human organ 18.18 blood 16.36 moustache 1.82 Human faith 1.82 cross of St. George 1.82 Occupation 1.82 slaughter 1.82 Table 3.7: Object referents of yellow colour term in English data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 corn 06 22.22 11 Fine gold 01 3.70 02 Guinea 02 7.41 12 flame 01 3.70 03 Wax 02 7.41 13 Girls’ hair 01 3.70 04 Autumn leaf 01 3.70 14 Gold 01 3.70 342 05 butter 01 3.70 15 Honey 01 3.70 06 Chinese 01 3.70 16 Marigolds 01 3.70 07 Cornfield 01 3.70 17 November fogs 01 3.70 08 Cover 01 3.70 18 Old ivory 01 3.70 09 Crow-flower 01 3.70 19 Parchment 01 3.70 10 Dying man’s face 01 3.70 20 Saffron 01 3.70 Table 3.8: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of yellow colour term in English data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 40.72 Flower 11.10 saffron 3.70 marigold 3.70 crow-flower 3.70 Leaf 3.70 autumn leaf 3.70 Grain 25.92 corn 22.22 cornfield 3.70 343 Fauna 14.81 Insect product 11.11 wax 7.41 honey 3.70 Animal organ 3.70 old ivory 3.70 Inanimate nature 14.80 Natural object & substance 7.40 flame 3.70 November fog 3.70 Metal 7.40 gold 3.70 Fine gold 3.70 Man-made objects 18.51 Artifact 11.10 parchment 3.70 cover 3.70 butter 3.70 Monetary means 7.41 guinea 7.41 Body & bodily products 11.10 Human race 3.70 Chinese 3.70 Bodily organs 7.40 dying man’s face 3.70 girl’s hair 3.70 344 Table 3.9: Object referents of green colour term in English data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 emerald 05 26.32 08 Forest’ night 01 5.26 02 cat’s eyes 02 10.53 09 Lawn 01 5.26 03 grass 02 10.53 10 Ocean 01 5.26 04 cabbagestalks 01 5.26 11 Ooze 01 5.26 05 chemist’s lamps 01 5.26 12 Sprig of parsley 01 5.26 06 English meadow 01 5.26 13 The way with leafless trees 01 5.26 07 Fern 01 5.26 345 Table 3.10: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of green colour term in English data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 42.09 Plant 36.82 Grass 10.53 Fern 5.26 lawn 5.26 English meadow 5.26 sprig of parsley 5.26 leafless trees 5.26 Vegetable 5.26 cabbage-stalk 5.26 Fauna 10.53 Animal organ 10.53 cat’s eyes 10.53 Inanimate nature 42.10 (Semi)-precious stone 26.32 emerald 26.32 Milieu 10.52 forest’s night 5.26 ocean 5.26 Natural object & substance 5.26 ooze 5.26 Man-made objects 5.26 Artifact 5.26 chemist’s lamp 5.26 346 Table 3.11: Object referents of blue colour term in English No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 1 sapphire 02 9.52 11 jay-bird’s feather 01 4.76 2 Autumn distance 01 4.76 12 June 01 4.76 3 Autumn mist 01 4.76 13 November sky 01 4.76 4 Corn flowers 0 4.76 14 Periwinkle flower 01 4.76 5 Deep sea 01 4.76 15 Sea at noonday 01 4.76 6 Eyes of the morning heaven 01 4.76 16 Sky 01 4.76 7 Far-off water 01 4.76 17 Speedwell 01 4.76 8 Girdle stones 01 4.76 18 Steel 01 4.76 9 Heaven 01 4.76 19 Twilight 01 4.76 10 Hell 01 4.76 20 Water 01 4.76 347 Table 3.12: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of blue colour term in English data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 14.28 Flower 9.52 corn flower 4.76 periwinkle flower 4.76 Plant 4.76 sleepwell 4.76 Fauna 4.76 Bird 4.76 jay-bird’s feather 4.76 Inanimate nature 66.64 (Semi)-precious stone 9.52 sapphire 9.52 Metals 9.52 girdle stone 4.76 steel 4.76 Milieu 28.56 June 4.76 autumn distance 4.76 autumn mist 4.76 sky 4.76 November sky 4.76 twilight 4.76 Natural objects & substances 19.04 water 4.76 far-off water 4.76 sea at noon 4.76 deep sea 4.76 Man-made object 14.28 Imaginative subjects 14.28 hell 4.76 heaven 4.76 eye of morning heaven 4.76 348 Table 3.13: Object referents of grey colour term in English data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 badger 02 20 06 hawk’s eyes 01 10 02 cloud 01 10 07 Hotel de ville 01 10 03 dust 01 10 08 January sky 01 10 04 glass 01 10 09 sea-mead 01 10 05 hair at the age of 53 01 10 Table 3.14: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of grey colour term in English data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Fauna 30 Omnivore 20 Badger 20 Fauna organ 10 Hawk’s eyes 10 Inanimate nature 40 Milieu 20 November sky 10 Cloud 10 Natural object & substance 20 sea-mead 10 dust 10 349 Man-made objects 20 Artifact 20 Hotel de Ville 10 Glass 10 Body & bodily product 10 Bodily organs 10 hair at the age of 53 10 Table 3.15: 62 Object referents of đen colour term in Vietnamese data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 mực 34 25.95 32 hắc ín 01 0.76 02 cột nhà cháy 08 6.11 33 hạt vừng 01 0.76 03 củ súng 07 5.34 34 hố sâu 01 0.76 04 mun 06 4.58 35 hột na 01 0.76 05 nhọ 05 3.82 36 hũ nút 01 0.76 06 than 05 3.82 37 hung thần 01 0.76 07 nhung 03 2.29 38 kiến bu đĩa mật 01 0.76 08 bồ hĩng 03 2.29 39 lơng quạ 01 0.76 09 núi 02 1.53 40 lưng trâu 01 0.76 10 nước cống 02 1.53 41 lốt hùm 01 0.76 11 đất 02 1.53 42 mái rạ 01 0.76 350 12 hạt huyền 02 1.53 43 người Cao Miên 01 0.76 13 mõm chĩ 02 1.53 44 người Thượng 01 0.76 14 sắt 02 1.53 45 nước gạo rang 01 0.76 15 bĩng tối 01 0.76 46 nước rừng 01 0.76 16 bùn 01 0.76 47 qủa bồ kết 01 0.76 17 cạc ngựa 01 0.76 48 quả trám 01 0.76 18 cái chiếu 01 0.76 49 rắn 01 0.76 19 chàm 01 0.76 50 răng nhuộm 01 0.76 20 chấu 01 0.76 51 rừng Kà Tĩt ban đêm 01 0.76 21 cơ gái Cao Miên 01 0.76 52 ruồi 01 0.76 22 cĩc 01 0.76 53 sừng 01 0.76 23 củ cẩm 01 0.76 54 sừng trâu 01 0.76 24 củ gắm 01 0.76 55 tam thất 01 0.76 25 cửa đề lao 01 0.76 56 táo tiệm thuốc bắc 01 0.76 26 đá 01 0.76 57 Tây đen 01 0.76 27 đất thĩ 01 0.76 58 thân cây đa 01 0.76 28 đêm 30 tết 01 0.76 59 thằng quỷ 01 0.76 29 đêm mùa hạ 01 0.76 60 thịt trâu ơi 01 0.76 30 gân mái mắt người già 01 0.76 61 trâu 01 0.76 31 giĩ 01 0.76 62 vải tang 01 0.76 351 Table 3.16: 06-Class classification and category sub-classification of đen colour term in Vietnamese data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 20.48 Vegetable 6.76 củ súng 5.34 quả bồ kết 0.76 qủa trám 0.76 Fruit 3.81 hạt huyền 1.53 cĩc 0.76 củ cẩm 0.76 củ gấm 0.76 Plant 6.1 mun 4.58 mái rạ 0.76 thân cây đa 0.76 Nut 2.28 hạt vừng 0.76 hột na 0.76 nước gạo rang 0.76 Herbal medicine 1.53 tam thất 0.76 táo tiệm thuốc bắc 0.76 Fauna 10.65 Ploughing animal 0.76 trâu 0.76 Butterfly 2.28 chấu 0.76 kiến 0.76 ruồi 0.76 Reptile 0.76 rắn 0.76 Animal organs 6.85 mõm chĩ 1.53 cạc ngựa 0.76 lưng trâu 0.76 352 sừng trâu 0.76 sừng thịt trâu ơi 0.76 lốt hùm 0.76 lơng quạ 0.76 sừng 0.76 Inanimate nature 13.72 Natural object & substance 9.15 núi 1.53 đá 0.76 rừng Kà Tĩt ban đêm 0.76 nước rừng 0.76 nước cống 1.53 đất 1.53 đất thĩ 0.76 bùn 0.76 hố sâu 0.76 Milieu 3.04 bĩng tối 0.76 đêm 30 tết 0.76 đêm mùa hạ 0.76 giĩ 0.76 Metal 1.53 sắt 1.53 Man-made object 48.08 Fabric 3.05 nhung 2.29 vải tang 0.76 Artifact 45.03 cột nhà cháy 6.11 cửa đề lao 0.76 chiếu 0.76 hũ nút 0.76 mực 25.95 hắc ín 0.76 353 nhọ 3.82 than 3.82 bồ hĩng 2.29 Body and bodily product 7.64 Bodily product 2.29 chàm 0.76 răng nhuộm 0.76 gân mái mắt người già 0.76 Human type 3.82 cơ gái người Cao Miên 0.76 người Cao Miên 0.76 người Thượng 0.76 Tây đen 0.76 Evil type 1.53 hung thần 0.76 thằng quỷ 0.76 Table 3.17: 56 Object referents of trắng colour term in Vietnamese data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 ngà 12 10.71 29 khĩi 01 0.89 02 bơng 11 9.82 30 lơng thỏ 01 0.89 03 sữa 08 7.14 31 lụa 01 0.89 04 tuyết 08 7.14 32 lưỡi cưa 01 0.89 05 bạc 05 4.46 33 lườn cá 01 0.89 06 trứng gà bĩc 05 4.46 34 mây non 01 0.89 07 bột 04 3.57 35 mủ mụn nhọt 01 0.89 08 hoa lài 03 2.68 36 mũ ngọc 01 0.89 354 09 phấn 03 2.68 37 ngân nhũ 01 0.89 10 con heo cạo/con lợn cạo 02 1.79 38 ngĩ cần 01 0.89 11 cước 02 1.79 39 ngĩ sen 01 0.89 12 ngọc 02 1.79 40 ngơi sao 01 0.89 13 sáp 02 1.79 41 nhựa cây 01 0.89 14 sương 02 1.79 42 nõn tuyết 01 0.89 15 tơ 02 1.79 43 nụ cười 01 0.89 16 ban ngày 01 0.89 44 núm bơng 01 0.89 17 bánh dầy 01 0.89 45 nước 01 0.89 18 bầu 01 0.89 46 nước biển 01 0.89 19 bẹ chuối 01 0.89 47 phân chim 01 0.89 20 bỏng ngơ 01 0.89 48 sọ đầu lâu 01 0.89 21 cánh bồ câu hịa bình 01 0.89 49 sợi chỉ 01 0.89 22 chớp đạn 01 0.89 50 sữa dừa 01 0.89 23 cổ cơ nữ sinh 01 0.89 51 tàn than hoa 01 0.89 24 con đường cái quan 01 0.89 52 thép 01 0.89 25 đốt ngọc 01 0.89 53 thỏi thiếc vừa nguội 01 0.89 26 giải khăn tang 01 0.89 54 tiên 01 0.89 27 hoa mộc 01 0.89 55 tượng nặn bằng thạch cao 01 0.89 28 hột vịt 01 0.89 56 xa tanh 01 0.89 355 Table 3.18: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of trắng colour term in Vietnamese data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 19.54 Fruit 2.65 bầu 0.89 ngĩ cần 0.89 ngĩ sen 0.89 Flower 14.22 bơng 9.82 núm bơng 0.89 hoa lài 2.68 hoa mộc 0.89 bẹ chuối 0.89 Corn 0.89 bỏng ngơ 0.89 Plant 1.78 nhựa cây 0.89 sữa dừa 0.89 Fauna 23.16 Egg 5.35 hột vịt 0.89 trứng gà bĩc 4.46 Poultry 1.79 con heo/lợn cạo 1.79 Animal organ 16.02 tơ 1.79 ngà 10.71 lơng thỏ 0.89 lườn cá 0.89 phân chim 0.89 cánh chim bồ câu hịa bình 0.89 356 Inanimate nature 24.81 Natural object & substance 13.3 nước 0.89 nước biển 0.89 tuyết 7.14 nõn tuyết 0.89 mây non 0.89 ngơi sao 0.89 sương 1.79 Metal 7.1 bạc 4.46 ngân nhũ 0.89 thép 0.89 thiếc vừa nguội 0.89 (Semi)-precious stone 3.52 ngọc 1.79 đốt ngọc 0.89 mũ ngọc 0.89 Milieu 0.89 ban ngày 0.89 Food and beverage 8.03 Drink 7.14 sữa 7.14 Food 0.89 bánh dầy 0.89 Man-made object 20.35 Artifact 9.74 cước 1.79 sợi chỉ 0.89 khĩi 0.89 chớp đạn 0.89 lưỡi cưa 0.89 con đường cái quan 0.89 tàn than hoa 0.89 357 tượng nặn bằng thạch cao 0.89 Fabric 2.67 lụa 0.89 xa tanh 0.89 giải khăn tang 0.89 Cosmetic 7.94 bột 3.57 phấn 2.68 sáp 1.79 Body and bodily product 4.45 Bodily organ 3.56 cổ cơ nữ sinh 0.89 nụ cười 0.89 mủ mụn nhọt 0.89 sọ đầu lâu 0.89 Imaginative figure 0.89 tiên 0.89 358 Table 3.19: Object referents of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 son 16 15.09 28 hoa mào gà 01 0.94 02 gấc 12 11.32 29 hoa niêm phong 01 0.94 03 máu 11 10.38 30 hịn gạch 01 0.94 04 lửa 04 3.77 31 hịn than đang cháy 01 0.94 05 tiết 04 3.77 32 hột lựu 01 0.94 06 cua luộc 02 1.89 33 lá cờ hiệu 01 0.94 07 đào 02 1.89 34 lá mãn đình hồng 01 0.94 08 gà chọi 02 1.89 35 lá mĩng một ngày Tết đoan ngọ 01 0.94 09 mặt trời 02 1.89 36 lị gạch nung 01 0.94 10 máu Chúa 02 1.89 37 lịng đỏ trứng 01 0.94 11 quả bồ quân 02 1.89 38 ma trơi 01 0.94 12 râu ngơ 02 1.89 39 mâm xơi 01 0.94 13 tơm luộc 02 1.89 40 mâm xơi gấc 01 0.94 14 vang 02 1.89 41 mào gà 01 0.94 359 15 vỏ chơm chơm chín 02 1.89 42 miếng hồng tầu 01 0.94 16 cà chua 01 0.94 43 miếng thịt sống 01 0.94 17 cắc kè lửa 01 0.94 44 miếng vơng 01 0.94 18 cục sắt trong lị rèn mới rút ra 01 0.94 45 mội con gái 01 0.94 19 da chum 01 0.94 46 nâu (củ) 01 0.94 20 dây tơ hồng 01 0.94 47 ớt 01 0.94 21 đĩa phù dung 01 0.94 48 quả nhĩt 01 0.94 22 đom đĩm rừng 01 0.94 49 sành 01 0.94 23 đồng 01 0.94 50 sợi đờm máu 01 0.94 24 đồng tụ 01 0.94 51 than hồng 01 0.94 25 hổ phách 01 0.94 52 tơm chín 01 0.94 26 hoa anh đào 01 0.94 53 viên gạch nung 01 0.94 27 hoa hường 01 0.94 54 vừng lửa 01 0.94 360 Table: 3.20: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of đỏ colour term in Vietnamese data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 33.96 Fruit 22.66 gấc 11.32 đào 1.89 hồng tầu 0.94 cà chua 0.94 qủa bồ quân 1.89 râu ngơ 1.89 củ nâu 0.94 ớt 0.94 quả nhĩt 0.94 hột lựu 0.94 Fauna organ 1.89 vỏ chơm chơm chín 1.89 Plant 2.82 dây tơ hồng 0.94 hổ phách 0.94 vơng 0.94 Flower 4.70 hoa anh đào 0.94 hoa hường 0.94 hoa mào gà 0.94 Hoa niêm phong 0.94 đĩa phù dung 0.94 Leaf 1.89 lá mĩng ngày Tết đoan ngọ 0.94 lá mãn đình hồng 0.94 361 Fauna 16.04 Marine animals 4.72 cua luộc 1.89 tơm luộc 1.89 tơm chín 0.94 Poultry 1.89 gà chọi 1.89 Reptile 0.94 cắc kè lửa 0.94 Butterfly 0.94 đom đĩm rừng 0.94 Fauna organ 7.55 tiết 3.77 da chum 0.94 mào gà 0.94 lịng đỏ trứng 0.94 thịt sống 0.94 Inanimate nature 10.37 Natural object & substance 7.55 ma trơi 0.94 lửa 3.77 vừng lửa 0.94 mặt trời 1.89 Metal 2.82 đồng 0.94 đồng tụ 0.94 sắt trong lị rèn mới ra 0.94 Food and beverage 3.78 Food 1.89 xơi 0.94 xơi gấc 0.94 Drink 1.89 vang 1.89 Man-made object 21.57 Cosmetic 15.09 son 15.09 Decoration 0.94 lá cờ hiệu 0.94 Material 5.64 sành 0.94 362 than hồng 0.94 than đang cháy 0.94 gạch 0.94 gạch nung 0.94 lị gạch nung 0.94 Body and bodily product 14.15 Bodily product 14.15 máu 10.38 máu Chúa 1.89 mơi con gái 0.94 sợi đờm máu 0.94 363 Table 3.21: 26 Object referents of vàng colour term in Vietnamese data No. Object referents Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 nghệ 08 23.53 14 lửa 01 2.94 02 gạch cua 02 5.88 15 mật ong 01 2.94 03 đất sét 01 2.94 16 mủ đặc 01 2.94 04 đất thĩ 01 2.94 17 nắng 01 2.94 05 đậu đũa 01 2.94 18 người đau gan 01 2.94 06 hổ phách 01 2.94 19 nụ cười 01 2.94 07 hoa cải 01 2.94 20 răng chĩ 01 2.94 08 hoa nắng 01 2.94 21 rơm 01 2.94 09 hoa tai 01 2.94 22 sơ mướp 01 2.94 10 lợn nghệ 01 2.94 23 tấm lụa mộc 01 2.94 11 lơng bị 01 2.94 24 thị rụng 01 2.94 12 lúa 01 2.94 25 tơ 01 2.94 13 lụa 01 2.94 26 vỏ trai 01 2.94 364 Table 3.22: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of vàng colour term in Vietnamese data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referenent % Flora 44.11 Plant 32.35 nghệ 23.53 lúa 2.94 rơm 2.94 hổ phách 2.94 Vegetable 5.88 đậu đũa 2.94 sơ mướp 2.94 Flower 2.94 hoa cải 2.94 Fruit 2.94 thị rụng 2.94 Fauna 20.58 Poultry 2.94 lợn nghệ 2.94 Fauna parts 17.64 tơ 2.94 gạch cua 5.88 vỏ trai 2.94 lơng bị 2.94 răng chĩ 2.94 365 Inanimate nature 14.7 Natural object & substance 14.7 đất sét 2.94 đất thĩ 2.94 nắng 2.94 hoa nắng 2.94 lửa 2.94 Food and beverage 2.94 Sweet 2.94 mật ong 2.94 Man-made object 8.82 Accessory 2.94 hoa tai 2.94 Fabric 5.88 lụa 2.94 lụa mộc 2.94 Body and bodily product 8.82 Bodily product 5.88 mủ đặc 2.94 nụ cười 2.94 Human type 2.94 người đau gan 2.94 366 Table 3.27: 25 Object referents of xanh colour term in Vietnamese data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 tàu lá 13 28.26 14 lân tinh 01 2.17 02 chàm 06 13.04 15 lửa điện 01 2.17 03 ngọc thạch 04 8.7 16 ma 01 2.17 04 rêu 02 4.35 17 mạch máu 01 2.17 05 người bệnh 01 2.17 18 mắt mèo 01 2.17 06 cỏ 01 2.17 19 mắt thủy tinh 01 2.17 07 da trời 01 2.17 20 nước Hồ Gươm 01 2.17 08 đom đĩm 01 2.17 21 nước luộc rau muống 01 2.17 09 gấm 01 2.17 22 quái 01 2.17 10 hạt đỗ 01 2.17 23 rau 01 2.17 11 khĩi 01 2.17 24 ruộng mạ 01 2.17 12 lá 01 2.17 25 vỏ trứng chim sáo 01 2.17 13 lá hẹ 01 2.17 367 Table 3.28: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of xanh colour term in Vietnamese data 06-class classification % Category sub-classification % Object referent % Flora 47.8 Leaf 32.6 lá 2.17 tàu lá 28.26 lá hẹ 2.17 Moss 6.52 rêu 4.35 cỏ 2.17 Plant 2.17 ruộng mạ 2.17 Bean 2.17 hạt đỗ 2.17 Vegetable 4.34 rau 2.17 nước luộc rau muống 2.17 Fauna 6.52 Bird 2.17 đom đĩm 2.17 Animal parts 4.34 mắt mèo 2.17 vỏ trứng chim sáo 2.17 368 Inanimate nature 17.38 (Semi)-precious stone 8.7 ngọc thạch 8.7 Milieu 2.17 da trời 2.17 Natural object & substance 6.51 lân tinh 2.17 lửa điện 2.17 nước Hồ Gươm 2.17 Man-made object 4.34 Artifact 2.17 khĩi 2.17 Fabric 2.17 gấm 2.17 Body and bodily product 23.89 Bodily product 17.38 chàm 13.04 mạch máu 2.17 mắt thủy tinh 2.17 Human type 2.17 người bệnh 2.17 Negative imaginative object 4.34 ma 2.17 quái 2.17 369 Table 3.29: Object referents of xám colour term in Vietnamese data No. Object referent Frequency % No. Object referent Frequency % 01 tro/gio 05 31.25 05 con đỉa 01 6.25 02 chàm 03 18.75 06 đá mài 01 6.25 03 gà cắt tiết 03 18.75 07 vết thương trên da người chết 01 6.25 04 chì 02 12.5 Table 3.30: 06-class classification and category sub-classification of xám colour term in Vietnamese data 06-class classification % Category sub- classification % Object referent % Fauna 25 Poultry 18.75 gà cắt tiết 18.75 Annelid 6.25 con đỉa 6.25 Inanimate nature 18.75 Natural object & substance 12.5 chì 12.5 (Semi)-precious stone 6.25 đá mài 6.25 Man-made object 31.25 Artifact 31.25 tro/gio 31.25 Body and bodily product 25 Bodily product 25 chàm 18.75 vết thương trên da người chết 6.25

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