Ritual folk songs in cultural life of dao tuyen people in Vietnam

VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES BAN THI QUYNH GIAO RITUAL FOLK SONGS IN CULTURAL LIFE OF DAO TUYEN PEOPLE IN VIETNAM Major: Folklore Code: 62 22 01 25 SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS IN LITERATURE HANOI – 2017 The research is completed at: Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences Scientific Instructor: Associate Professor, Dr. Nguyen Thi Hue Argument 1:................................................................................. .........................

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............................................................ Argument 2:................................................................................. .................................................................................... Argument 3:................................................................................. .................................................................................... The thesis will be defended before the PhD thesis Jury Board of the Academy at ................................................................................. ..................................................................................................... at...hourminute, onmonth.year.. The thesis is found at the library: National Library of Vietnam; Library of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences; Library of Literature Institute. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Dao Tuyen people in particular and Dao people in general migrated to Vietnam in the very early days. Although on migration journey as well as the “settlement” in the new land where material conditions were difficult, they did not lose their extremely rich and diversified culture. In such culture, the outstanding treasure is the ritual folk songs with rich genres and unique content - an invaluable intangible cultural asset of Dao Tuyen people. Ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people not only reflects the customs, practices, beliefs, thoughts and emotions but also the specific cultural identity of the Dao people in general and Dao Tuyen people in particular. Therefore, the study of ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people from the cultural layer of the Dao people will help us to better understand the cultural life of this ethnic group. Ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people are rich in genre and quantity, play an important role in the life cycle rituals and reflect not only the daily life but also the spiritual life of this people which contain traditional culture of ethnic groups. The spiritual world (worldview) and philosophy of life are reflected clearly. Through the ritual folk songs practiced in the cultural life, we could see the cultural characteristics as well as the thoughts and feelings of the communities of Dao Tuyen. However, they have not been studied deeply in accordance with their inherent potential and reality. Dao Tuyen people in Vietnam reside in various areas with different conditions for survival. Therefore, in each local, Dao Tuyen people have their own cultural identity that has created the diversity and richness in Dao culture in general. Using folk songs in rituals shows not only the unity of spiritual life of ethnic people but also the difference of Dao Tuyen people and other Dao groups. Our study of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people in Vietnam tends to indicate the specific and general characteristics of this art. Moreover, the author of this thesis has both the bloodstream and the relatively comprehensive undertanding of the cultural of the Dao people because has lived in such cultural environment and has a certain consciousness of life, customs, traditions and beliefs of the ethnic group. Conducting surveys and study of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people, the author has a chance to approach the actual conditions, collect and find out the rituals in the cultural life of ethnic people. Therefore, in this study, the author hopes to present the knowledge of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people from the scientific perspective of an insider. At the same time, the author also try to contributes to the safeguarding and conservation of traditional cultural values of the Dao Tuyen people in Vietnam. 2 2. Objectives and tasks of research 2.1. Objectives of research The thesis focuses on studying both the contents and the methods of composing ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people in the cultural life of ethnic people (material and spiritual cultural life) by analysising and interpreting ritual folk song documents. 2.2. Tasks of research The thesis collects, systematizes and compares materials on the documents that were published, and conducts some fieldworks as well as surveys to find out some new materials and observe the performing context of ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people. The thesis focuses on studying the contents and arts of ritual folk songs as an important element in the relationship between the performing context and folk rituals. Besides, the thesis also examines ritual folk songs as a synctetic folk cultural phenomenon and bases itself on the cultural characteristics of ethnic groups to explain the basic meanings of some artistic images. The close relationship between culture and ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people is thereby highlighted. In the thesis, we will try to compare the ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people with the ritual folk songs of some other Dao people to find out the similarities and the cultural characteristics of the ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people and the Dao people in general. By doing this, this thesis attempt to clarify both the specificity and the universality of the genre of ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people. The thesis puts ritual folk songs in cultural life to clarify their complex roles in Dao people’s material and spiritual cultural life, finally to raise awareness of the value of this genre of folk song in the community of Dao Tuyen in particular and Dao people in general in Vietnam. 3. Subject and scope of research 3.1. Subject Subjects of research are folk songs which performed in the rituals of the life cycle of Dao Tuyen people, namely: Folk songs in maturity rituals (known as cấp sắc), wedding and funeral rituals. Documents analyzed in this thesis are taken from the collection works and studies that have been published. 3.2. Scope of research On the one hand, we rely on the bibliographies and ritual folk song documents that were selected and introduced, namely: Wedding of Dao Tuyen people, published in 2001; Folk poetry of Dao Tuyen people, published in 2005; Folk poetry of Dao Tuyen people (Bilingual: Việt – Dao) published in 2011; Wedding of Dao Tuyen people, published in 2011; Catechist songs, published in 2012. On the other hand, we conduct researchs, fieldworks, collection and comparison the ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people that were published in practical life with ritual practice 3 from the past to the present. The survey of folk songs in practical life and rituals of the Dao Tuyen people are conducted in various areas where the Dao Tuyen people live in Vietnam such as Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Tuyen Quang... This thesis mainly concentrating on Lao Cai province - the Dao Tuyen people live primarily in the districts of Bao Yen, Bao Thang, Bat Xat, Muong Khuong and Bac Ha, and Lao Cai city - where traditional culture of the Dao Tuyen people is kept relatively intact. In Lao Cai province, because of natural conditions of the high mountains, especially in the remote districts and borders where the Dao Tuyen people have been resident for a long time, the impact of the exotic culture and the market economy on the cultural life of the community of Dao Tuyen is slower than other areas. Therefore, its customs, practices, and beliefs are unchanged in comparison with the other areas where Dao Tuyen people live. Furthermore, through conducting some fieldworks, we will expand the field scope to other provinces such as Son La and Yen Bai where the Dao Tuyen people are less and more scattered than Lao Cai to have a more comprehensive look at the influence of ritual folk songs in the cultural life of ethnic people. 4. Methodology and research methods 4.1. Methodology In addition to the general methodology of social science and humanities research, during implementing this study, we also rely on the following methodologies: Placing ritual folk songs in the folklore performing context: We do not study the ritual folk songs as an independent element but put them in the performing context of the ethnic groups to find out the relationship between the folk songs and other cultural elements. Besides, ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people are placed in the performing context to explain the material and spiritual cultural life through artistic elements and methods of reflections. Flexible application of a theory of syncretism in terms of function of the folklore: Specifically, in the thesis, we pay a special attention on functions of practice - activities of ritual folk songs in the cultural life of Dao Tuyen people. Nevertheless, due to the characteristics of ritual folk songs and also the provisions of research code, we only go into details of the nature of practice - activities of ritual folk songs that are directly shown by performance subjects, space, time, language and poetry in the maturity rituals, weddings, and funerals. 4.2. Research methods The thesis uses four research methods: literary analysis method; historical and genre comparison method; interdisciplinary research method; fieldwork collection method. 5. New scientific contributions of research 4 First: Through our survey, up to the present, there are no works go into details of ritual folk songs in the cultural life of the Dao Tuyen people in a systematic and scientific manner. This thesis is the first study to provide a basic picture of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen in Vietnam under each sub-category which has already existed in the cultural life of the Dao Tuyen. Second: From the fieldwork surveys, we have a comparison between the documents of ritual folk songs and ones practiced in the cultural life of the Dao Tuyen today. This helps us to have better understanding of the characteristics and value of contents and arts, as well the rule of composing, developing and transmissing of ritual folk songs in the context of ethnic culture. Third: Through conducting surveys and decoding folk songs in Dao Tuyển people’s cultural life, we initially divide ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyển people into three categories following three types of rituals, namely: the folk songs in upgrade rites, the folk songs in conjugal rites, and the folk songs in funeral rites. Caring out researches into each of these folklore subcategories, we would like to show the function, the meaning of content as well as the artistic value of these ritual folk songs. Fourth: The thesis also contributes to the implementation of the national policy of safeguarding and promoting traditional cultural heritage of ethnic groups in Vietnam. 6. Theoretical and practical significance The thesis is a scientific work that has both theoretical and practical significance, and also be a document to help the literature and cultural researchers of Dao Tuyen people in particular and Dao people in general to have a new approach to this genre of folk song as well as a new assessment and recognition of the values of ritual folk song in the cultural life of the Dao Tuyen people in particular and ethnic minorities in Northern mountainous areas in general. 7. Research structure In addition to the Introduction, Conclusion, References, and Appendices, the thesis consists of 4 chapters: Chapter 1: Overview of situation. Theoretical background and subjects of research; Chapter 2: Folk songs in ritual performance of the Dao Tuyen people; Chapter 3: Reflection of the spiritual world and human life in ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people; Chapter 4: Artistic elements of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people 5 Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF SITUATION. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND SUBJECTS OF RESEARCH 1.1. Situation of research 1.1.1. Situation of research on Dao people and Dao ritual folk songs According to our survey, the research on Dao people and Dao ritual folk songs in Vietnam prior to 1945 has not paid proper attention by researchers. In other words, in this period, publications almost provide brief descriptions of origin, place of residence and costumes, typically Kiến văn tiểu lục [Jottings about Things Seen and Heard] by the scholar Le Quy Don (1778), Hưng hóa xứ phong thổ lục [Compilation of Hưng Hóa customs] by Dr. Hoang Binh Chinh (1778), Hưng Hóa ký lược [Brief Notes on Hưng Hóa] by the historian Pham Than Duat. Despite not deeply studying, discovering the Dao ethnic people and conducting specific projects, the authors of the feudal period in Vietnam initially indicated the origin, customs, and practices of Dao people in a relatively systematic way. This demonstrates that, even in the eighteenth century, scholars paid their attention on studying and recording the Dao people in Vietnam. In the French colonial period in Vietnam, a number of French priests and officers studied and recorded the Dao people in order to have better understanding of this ethnic group. Since 1945: The study of Dao people and Dao folk songs was more developed than in the previous periods, but it is easily to see that in all research directions there was no deep study of ritual folk songs of the Dao people. Among the studies introduced, we see a number of ritual folk songs of Dao ethnic group such as folk songs of the maturity ritual, and ones performed in weddings which have been selected and introduced. Based on the studies of the Dao people and Dao literature, we roughly divide into three main research directions, namely: General study of Dao people, intensive study of Dao culture and study of Dao folklore. From the process of collecting, compiling and translating folklore of the Dao people, we find some outstanding issues as follows: In terms of time, the collection and study of the Dao people is conducted fairly early (from 1778), but many projects are still in form of documentation, not yet published in the specialized journals; In terms of quantity, the publications of the Dao people, printed and published between 1963 and 2012, include 20 sets of books under the various genres such as tales, folk poetry, proverbs, puzzles... Among them, remarkably the folk songs of Dao ethnic people are collected and introduced by the said authors. This is a rich material resource for reference and uses in our survey and studies. 1.1.2. Study of Dao Tuyen people and ritual folk songs of DaoTuyen The specific studies of the Dao Tuyen people are now almost absent except Traditional houses of the Dao Tuyen people in Lao Cai by Chao 6 Van Lam published in 2015, which describes the structure, processes, functions and cultural activities in the houses of Dao Tuyen people in Lao Cai. As for folk songs of Dao Tuyen people, so far, Tran Huu Son has many studies and collections: The first is Wedding of Dao Tuyen people (2001), the second is Folk poetry of Dao Tuyen people (2005) which is reprinted and added Nôm - Dao script in 2011, published under the title Folk poetry of Dao Tuyen people (Bilingual: Việt-Dao), the third book is Wedding of Dao Tuyen people (2011) and the fourth is Catechism songs. During the survey of materials, we also pay attention on the studies of culture and folk songs of Dao Tuyen people that have not been published. Specifically: In 1997, Lao Cai Department of Culture collected nearly 40 songs of Dao Tuyen people in Spring festival, which are the songs of exchange of love of Dao Tuyen boys and girls in the spring, but they are now draft at the Material Division of Lao Cai Department of Culture. In 2008, the author Pham Vinh Quang successfully defended his master thesis at Thai Nguyen University of Education, the topic Folk Poetry of Dao Tuyen people in Lao Cai. In 2010, the author Phan Thi Hang defended her master thesis at Thai Nguyen University of Education, with the topic Maturity and funeral rituals of Dao Tuyen people in Bao Thang district, Lao Cai province. Thus, the studies of ethnic group and folklore of Dao Tuyen people in Vietnam for more than half a century have some shortcomings as follows: 1. There has been no specific monograph on the history of ethnic people, the culture of the Dao Tuyen people as well as their ritual folk songs. 2. Folk song books of Dao Tuyen people which are published primarily collect ritual folk songs of this group, but no monograph points out the relation between folk songs and rituals in the cultural life of the Dao Tuyen people. 3. Other folklore genres of Dao Tuyen people are proverbs, riddles, tales and funny stories have not been collected and compiled into separate works. From these works, the thesis both inherits their achievement and show some new problems through a new way to approach placing ritual folk songs in the folklore performance context to see the rich cultural and spiritual life of Dao Tuyen ethnic group. 1.2. Theoretical background 1.2.1. Concepts We hereby clarify some concepts related to the contents of the thesis such as Folk songs, ritual folk songs, cultural life, ethnic people and culture of ethnic people to research the ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people. 1.2.2. Theoretical background For Dao Tuyen people, ritual folk songs are especially important because they fully reflect their worldview and their outlook on secular life. When the lyrics are sung in rituals, their heart and feelings will be towards 7 the supernatural world, and the world of ancestors to pray for the gods’ protection to have a peaceful and happy life on earth. Therefore, ritual folk songs can be not separated from the rituals and performing context. From this perspective, this thesis considers ritual folk songs as an overall social event and puts it in the context of ethnic culture. To open the deeply hidden layers of ritual folk songs, we use the theory of context of folklore performance as a basis for studying ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people. 1.3. Overview of Dao Tuyen people and ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people in Vietnam 1.3.1. Overview of Dao Tuyen people Dao Tuyen is the name of a part of Dao people under Dao Làn Tiẻn group, which is the local name of the Dao people in Lao Cai. Dao Tuyen people are called “Dao đầu bằng” in Lai Chau; “Dao áo dài” in Ha Giang; or “Dao Chàm” in Tuyen Quang. According to the agreement of the ethnographers, the Dao Tuyen people originated from China and immigrated to Vietnam through many different ways in a long time. Migration of the Dao Tuyen people in Vietnam is done by two major routes: the sea, and road. According to Tran Huu Son, Dao Tuyen people are scattered mainly in four provinces: Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang and Lai Chau, with about 45,000 people, and 31,325 people in Lao Cai province, accounting for nearly 70%. Thus, in terms of population concentration, Dao Tuyen people mainly live in Lao Cai in the districts of Bao Yen, Bao Thang, Bat Xat, Cam Duong, Bac Ha and Muong Khuong. Despite living in different regions, the Dao Tuyen people have the same historical roots and language. However, in different regions, Dao Tuyen people have special cultural characteristics due to different geographical conditions, ecological environments, economic and cultural exchanges with other ethnic groups. Dao Tuyen people primarily live in the northern mountains, so they have to deal with the natural and social environment in a very special manner. They always consider the natural environment as a close and faithful friend, respect and protect it in their own way, and have a system of customary laws to protect the nature, such as customary laws on water resources, forest, and farmland protection, etc. Dao Tuyen people have always said to each other as “Dao people”, though they like any other Dao group, they are born from a pumpkin. Thus, there is a similarity in form of origin among Dao groups. Dao Tuyen people and other Dao groups distinguish their ranks like that: “anyone sees the sun before,” she/he is elder, regardless of children of aunt or uncle, all the same in the villages. Dao Tuyen people have 5 main family names: Bàn, Lý, Đặng, Triệu and Tráng, in the process of living, Dao Tuyen people now have up to 12 family names. In each family of Dao Tuyen people, the husband is the head of the family who had to go through the maturity ritual, according to their 8 customs. If the father died, the eldest son will take over the head of a family. The head of a family is responsible for job assignment and undertakes the hard work. Dao Tuyen people believe that the heaven and earth is created by Cao Vuong and Binh Vuong. Because the earth is wider than the sky, Cao Vuong made the sun to shine the earth and then created “Humankind”, “high mountains”, and “teachers”. They are also unique in the concept of heaven and earth of Dao Tuyen people that the sun appears before, and then the people and things. Dao Tuyen people think people have two parts: the soul and the body. If the soul leaves the body for “wandering”, people will be sick. When being sick, Dao Tuyen people hold the rituals to conjure up the spirits. However, if the spirits did not enter into the body, people will die. Dao Tuyen people believe that “When being born, people are in the yang world /When passing away, people are the spirits in the yin world / People are similar to the wheel turning over the years, so they have operate the funeral rituals for the dead. This custom is very different from other ethnic groups. 1.3.2. Overview of ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people In our study, we focus on going into details of three genres of typical folk songs in the life cycle, such as folk songs of maturity rituals, folk songs for wedding and funeral. These are three major rituals in the life cycle of a Dao Tuyen person. Even though naming ceremony is regarded as the first ceremony for the birth of a human being, it is just a small ritual, without the participation of the whole community, except the witness of the child's father or grandfather. In this ritual, Dao Tuyen people does not invite ritual master and uses only one ritual folk song that is La jủng kẻng (naming song). Folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people are similar to folk songs of other Dao groups because both of them are formed from poetry and music that are closely connected. Ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people have significant quantities, in which 83/90 folk songs are used in the maturity and funeral rituals, among them 07 remaining folk songs are: Hiến hương, Hiến hoa, Hiến đèn, Hiến trà, Hiến cơm, Hát dâng trống, Hát dâng thanh la which are commonly used for the offering in these two kind of rituals. In wedding, in addition to 43 folk songs used in the main rituals, there are 58 folk songs sung by the matchmaker to pray to the ancestors for successfully meeting bride, taking rest, coming in the village, etc. Besides, there are some narrative poems of the nation such as: Trường ca Bàn Hộ, Truyện Bàn Vương, Inh tòi dung (Hát Anh Đài), Ly hương ca, Cửu giang ca... that used by Dao Tuyen people in the life-cycle rituals. These songs are called Có by Dao Tuyen people, because the contents of ritual folk songs (also prayer) “reflect the concept of Dao people of the origin of universe, all things, and mankind in general and the origin of Dao people in particular”. The songs “Dằm ja jủng” were recorded by Dao Tuyen people in the books to teach singing (or teach worshipping) in Nôm Dao. The ritual folk songs have important implications to the life of each Dao Tuyen person because through the songs, the readers and listeners understand the aspiration and desire of humans to the natural world and the spiritual world. 9 Summary of Chapter 1 In short, from the overview of folk ritual songs and spiritual culture, we can imagine the history of residence, basic characteristics of ethnic culture and ritual folk songs of Dao Tuyen people. These issues are the premise for study and intensive research in the reflection contents and arts of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people. In addition, the overview of the history of research issues, concepts, terminology, research methods, contributions is also the basis to analyze each specific issue in the study of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people. Chapter 2 FOLK SONGS IN RITUAL PERFORMANCE OF DAO TUYEN PEOPLE Within the framework of our thesis, we only go into details of ritual folk songs in family activities through three typical genres: Folk songs in maturity, wedding and funeral rituals. Particularly, these three typical genres of ritual folk songs of the Dao Tuyen people are examined in the performance of folk songs, as follows: 2.1. Folk songs in maturity ritual We prepare tables under the process of rituals using folk songs in the context of maturity ritual of the Dao Tuyen people as follows: Table 1: Process of maturity ritual of the Dao Tuyen people Background of performance Songs In the morning of the first day: Open vegetarian seances to invite Công Tào, Thánh Sư The main ritual master sings Mời thầy Công Tào, Thánh Sư. In the noon of the first day: Ritual to invite Bàn Vương, Ngọc Hoàng [Jade Emperor] to help the Saints and Monks protect the person who is recognized as maturity. The main ritual master and secondary ritual masters sing Mời thần: In the afternoon of the first day: Offering to invite masters of the ritual masters for help The ritual masters sing Mời sư thầy. At the door where the Đế Mẫu seated (these doors are symbolic) After inviting the middle-ranking female bonze, the ritual masters sing Mời Thần Đế mẫu. At the gates of Hell, Lạnh, and Fairyland (these gates are symbolic) The ritual masters sing Ngọc nữ hát xin qua cửa to open the door for the person who is recognized as maturity goes through. In the night of the first day: Before the altar, the ritual masters conduct Ngọc nữ lên đèn, lên hương, Ngọc nữ về đàn, Tạ ơn Pháp sư and Tạ ơn Ngọc 10 the sanctification ceremony for the person who is recognized as maturity. Hoàng are sung. The ceremony of Đồng Tử born in Mai Son The ritual masters sing Ngọc nữ lên đèn. In the noon of the second day: Ceremony to grant royal seal The main ritual master sings Trao ấn tín. In the afternoon of the second day: Ceremony for teaching the doctrines the disciples The ritual masters teach the person who is recognized as maturity prayers such as Đạo làm con, Đạo làm trò, Biết ơn các Thánh Sư In the evening of the second day: Before residual Choong, the ritual master hands over children to parents The ritual masters and their disciples dance and sing Dâng trống, dâng thanh la, dâng tiền. In the morning of the third day: The ritual masters conduct the ritual to take the recipients from Mai Son where they are born to the earth with enough ghost soldiers and royal seal to become the disciple of Công Tào, Thánh Sư before residual Choong. The ritual masters sing Ngọc nữ hát giáng sinh. In the noon of the third day: Ceremony to distribute perquisites for the person who is recognized as maturity. The main ritual master sings Cấp lương liệu bổng lộc. In the afternoon of the third day: Ceremony for congratulating the recipients to be recognized as maturity. The ritual masters sing Mừng Tân Ân. In the night of the third day: Offering ceremony The ritual masters sing the songs of offering: Hiến hoa, Hiến cơm, Hiến rau, Hát dâng bảng, Hát tiễn thần, etc. Based on the description of the performance of folk songs in the maturity ritual mentioned above, we divide into two stages using the folk songs in maturity ritual, including the folk songs sung before the maturity ritual and folk songs sung during the maturity ritual. 2.2. Folk songs in wedding ritual The wedding ritual of Dao Tuyen people is conducted under specific rituals, and we prepare a table of all the rituals which use folk songs inside as follows: 11 Table 2: Process of wedding ritual of Dao Tuyen people Background of performance Folk songs Age comparison ceremony No fixed folk song is performed, only free repartees. Marriage proposal ceremony The matchmaker sings a fixed song: So duyên, then both parties sing songs of love exchange freely. Engagement ceremony The matchmaker and uncle of bride sing repartees of wedding offering, such as: Pork, wine, rice, chicken, etc. These songs are often free lyrics improvised by both parties or based on the available fixed lyrics to improvise. Wedding, including the following rituals: Tutelary god pass (Village pass) Singing 15 folk songs on the following contents including: Border pass, reasons to the border pass, money offering to Tutelary god, asking about things around the border pass, the origin of the currency Ti Lộ, etc. Singing at the yard of bride’s family (exchange wedding gifts) Singing 38 folk songs on the following contents: Gifts to the bride’s family by the bridegroom’s family, the merits of the parents’ birth, the origin of gifts, the merits of the gods who make a match and support.... Singing in front of the altar of the bride’s family (in the betel and areca ritual) Singing 32 folk songs on the following contents: Bình “Lạy éng”, origin of betel and areca, rice, corn, tea and pipe tobacco, report to the ancestors... Singing at the br

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