Correlates of teachers’ performance: Basis for enhancement program at Thai nguyen university

i Southern luzon State University Republic of Philippines Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam CORRELATES OF TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE: BASIS FOR ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of Graduate School Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines In collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Phi

pdf90 trang | Chia sẻ: huong20 | Ngày: 15/01/2022 | Lượt xem: 196 | Lượt tải: 0download
Tóm tắt tài liệu Correlates of teachers’ performance: Basis for enhancement program at Thai nguyen university, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
losophy in Educational Management by NGUYEN DINH YEN (KAKA) March 2014 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With sincere thanks for the encouragement, guidance and unselfish sharing of their knowledge, time, effort and skills, and for untiring motivation that led to the completion of this study, the researcher acknowledges the following: Dr. Cecilia N. Gascon, President of the Southern Luzon State University in the Republic of the Philippines, for her untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is possible; Dr. Dang Kim Vui, President of Thai Nguyen University for allowance the training for dotor of philosophy in educotinal managenent in international training center Thai Nguyen University; Dr.Apolonia A. Espinosa, her adviser, for her generous assistance, invaluable advice, guidance, constructive comments thereby making this paper a scholarly work; Panel of experts whose constructive criticisms led the researcher to making this effort a true scholarly work; Mr.Nicanor L. Guinto, for extending his assistance in ensuring consistency and comprehensibility of this study; The respondents for their patience and cooperation in answering the questionnaire. The researcher‘s family, colleagues, and friends for the love and support in one way or another, and To those who have contributed to make this study a success iii TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. vii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................ viii Chapter I. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1 Background of the study ............................................................................................................. 4 Objectives of Study .................................................................................................................... 5 Null Hypothesis .......................................................................................................................... 6 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................ 6 Scope and Limitations ................................................................................................................ 7 Definitions of Terms ................................................................................................................... 7 Chapter II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES ..................................................... 10 Personal Characteristics of Teachers ........................................................................................ 10 Professional Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 15 Teaching Performance .............................................................................................................. 21 Conceptual Framework............................................................................................................. 23 Research Paradigm ................................................................................................................... 24 Chapter III. METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 26 Locale of the Study ................................................................................................................... 26 Research Design ....................................................................................................................... 26 Population and Sampling .......................................................................................................... 27 Instrumentation ......................................................................................................................... 27 Data Gathering Procedure ........................................................................................................ 28 Statistical Treatment ................................................................................................................. 28 Chapter IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................... 31 Part I. Profile of respondents .................................................................................................... 32 Part II. Personal Characteristics and Professional Characteristics of Teachers ....................... 34 Part III. Teaching Performance ................................................................................................ 43 Table 14 .................................................................................................................................... 44 Part IV: Correlates of teachers‘ performance ........................................................................... 47 PROPOSED ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM TO ENHANCE TEACHERS‘ PERFORMANCE ..................................................................................................................... 59 OF THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL YEAR 2014-2015 ........................................ 59 iv Chapter V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................... 64 Summary ................................................................................................................................... 64 Findings .................................................................................................................................... 65 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 68 Recommendations .................................................................................................................... 68 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 69 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Respondents‘ frequency distribution by colleges ....................................................... 27 Table 2. Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to school .................... 31 Table 3. Profile of Students - Respondents .............................................................................. 32 Table 4. Profile of Teachers – Respondents ............................................................................. 33 Table 5. Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to physical aspects ................................................................................................................ 34 Table 6. Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics ofteachers as to mental aspects ................................................................................................. 35 Table 7. Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to emotional aspects ............................................................................................................. 36 Table 8. Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to social aspects .................................................................................................................... 37 Table 9. Weighted mean distribution of the professional characteristics of teachers as to teaching skills ........................................................................................................................ 38 Table 10. Weighted mean distribution of the professional characteristics of teachers as to management skills .................................................................................................................... 40 Table 11. Weighted mean distribution of the professional characteristics of teachers as to evaluation skills ...................................................................................................................... 41 Table 12. Weighted mean distribution of the professional characteristics of teachers as to guidance skills ......................................................................................................................... 42 Table 13. Weighted mean distribution of the teaching performance of teachers as to commitment .............................................................................................................................. 43 Table 14. Weighted mean distribution of the teaching performance of teachers as to knowledge of subject ................................................................................................................ 44 Table 15. Weighted mean distribution of the teaching performance of teachers as to teaching for independent learning ............................................................................................ 45 Table 16. Weighted mean distribution of the teaching performance of teachers as to............. 46 management of learning ........................................................................................................... 46 Table 17. Students‘ regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to commitment ........................................................................... 47 Table 18. Students‘ regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristicsof teachers as to knowledge of subject .............................................................. 48 vi Table 19. Students‘ regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to teaching for independent learning.......................................... 50 Table 20. Students‘ regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to management of learning ......................................................... 51 Table 21. Teachers‘ regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to commitment ........................................................................... 52 Table 22. Regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to knowledge of subject ......................................................................................... 53 Table 23. Regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to teaching for independent learning ...................................................................... 55 Table 24. Regression analysis of the demographic, personal and professional characteristics of teachers as to management of learning ......................................................... 57 vii LIST OF FIGURES Fig.1. Variables in the study on correlates of teachers‘ performance, basis for an enhancement program ........................................................................................... 24 Fig. 2.Location of respondent colleges in TNU, Thai Nguyen City, Thai Nguyen Province, Viet Nam ............................................................. 26 viii ABSTRACT TITLE OF RESEARCH Correlates of Teachers’ Performance: Basis for enhancement program at Thai Nguyen University RESEARCHER NGUYEN DINH YEN (KAKA) DEGREE CONFERRED Doctor of Educational Management NAME/ADDRESS OF INSTITUTION Southern Luzon State University and Thai Nguyen University ADVISER Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa YEAR WRITTEN 2013-2014 This study generally attempted to determine the correlates of teaching performance with a viewpoint of developing an enhancement program at College of Thai Nguyen University (TNU) for school year 2013, 2014. Specifically, it sought to find out the demographic profile of the respondents as to age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, position; determine the factors that affect teachers‘ performance as to personal characteristics (physical, mental, emotional, and social) and professional characteristics (teaching skills, guidance skills, classroom management skills, and assessment skills); determine teachers‘ performance as to commitment, knowledge of the subject, teaching for independent learning, and management of learning; ascertain which of the above-mentioned factors predict teachers‘ performance; and develop an enhancement program based from the result of the study. This research is a descriptive correlational study which was limited only at TNU as locale since respondents were chosen purposively to include the total population of 145 teachers and administrators of TNU, and 738 randomly selected students from the different colleges of TNU, who were asked to answer a researcher-constructed questionnaire. The study used arithmetic mean and regression analysis to examine the correlates of teacher‘s performance at Thai Nguyen University. In the light of the finding, the following conclusions are drawn: The student-respondents in the study, which comprised the greatest number, were single, college students whose age ranged from 18-25 years old, and who equally represented both genders. The teacher-respondents in this study were mostly married, female teachers whose age ranged from 23 to 53 years old and who mostly possess MA/MS degrees. The personal and ix professional characteristics of teachers were generally viewed by respondents to affect teaching performance. Respondents viewed the performance of teachers as very satisfactory. The factors that predict teachers‘ performance as to commitment were mostly attributed to their professional characteristics; knowledge of subject matter, mostly relate in their personal and professional skills and their demographic profile; teaching for independent learning, mostly relate in their professional characteristics and demographic profile; and management of learning, mostly relate in their personal and professional characteristics. Finally, the enhancement program is ready for implementation. In light of the findings and conclusions, it was recommended that teachers should consider making personal and professional development a top priority to ensure quality in their teaching. The Thai Nguyen University administration should adapt or adopt the enhancement program developed in this study for its teaching safeguard the students‘ and the community‘s right to quality education. Likewise, Teachers and administrators, not only in TNU, should help one another to periodically assess teaching performance and its correlates to keep track of potential influencing factors that may induce or discourage quality teaching. As a final point, future researchers may pursue a similar study, following or modifying the methodologies of this study in their own areas or Universities to aid teachers in reflecting on how they can improve personally and professionally. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION Education is the sector that plays a big role in shaping the destiny of people in the future. It serves as a social instrument that provides knowledge to people in schools and colleges not merely for the sake of facilitating continuity of culture butalso rationally change the material foundations of civilization. Education should help in improving the studentsand introduce ideas and values that will arm them with capabilities and skillsneeded in their work. Higher education has several purposes - and one of the most important is to promote citizenship. The second purpose is preparing people to be good human beings, to be good members of families, to be the kind of parents that create responsible families and communities. The other purpose involves educating people with world-competitive skills. Having said these, the teacher is the most important factor in the field of education. Teachers develop performance style characteristic to their ways of relating to the world, perceptually as well as cognitively. A person is, therefore, likely to act in a way that maximizes the use of his aptitudes. Similarly, teacher‘s positive attitude towards teaching and higher aspiration level determines his positive perception of the environments. An effective teacher development design should have an exhaustive measure of these factors so as to foster necessary skills and attitudes amongst prospective teachers. The exclusive weight age to knowledge alone should be dispensed in favor of more activity oriented programs which have direct bearing on actual classroom situation (UNESCO, 2002). Teaching is the conscious planning and management of a situation in which a learner tries to overcome the learning problems. It should comprise a series of actions intended to facilitate learning as teachingfor itis a multifaceted set of activities. The teachers, therefore, need to be a master of the subject matter as well as an expert in the way content isdelivered across a potentially diverse set of students. Thus knowing the ‗how‘ of teaching is as important as the what of teaching. As teaching is considered to be a complex activity, the scholars and researchers in the field of education have since embarked on exploring into and analyzing the teaching phenomenon. However it is universally recognized that teachers‘ instructional performance plays a key role in students‘ learning and academic achievement (Usop, Askandar, Kadtong, and Usop, 2013). 2 Performance is actions of a person or group during the task. Job performance is the product of a combination of an individual‘s motivation and ability. In 1976 the term students evaluation of teachers‘ performance first gained familiarity in the ERIC system. From 1976-1984 there were 1055 studies on students‘ evaluation of teachers performance. These studies mostly found out that the performance of the teacher whether she is effective or not effective is not usually measured by the quality of the students she has produced. More often the teacher is blamed if the students failed to manifest the expected behavior and the kind of learning they gained during the period of schooling. This quality learning refers to the performance of the students in the academic and their chosen field of specialization in the school and even outside. Moreover, if the students were able to land a good job and become successful, then they were given quality teaching and learned with laurels from her mentors with patience for years. This is common baseline of teachers' effectiveness in the world of education. According to Lardizabal, Bustos, Bucu, &Tangco, (1991), teaching is effective to the extent that a competent teacher acts in ways that are favorable to the development of a desirable personality. This competency of the teachers will create a long lasting impact on the part of students. And to the teachers, they are effective if they are capable of bringing about a desired behavioral change in the students. In response to the No Child Left Behind law and the need for ―highly qualified‖ teachers, state education departments, institutions of higher learning, and school divisions around the world have been struggling to set criteria that ensure highly qualified educators to man the educational landscape (Thompson, Greer, and Greer, 2004). In a study that examined empirical studies of teacher quality and qualifications, Rice (2003) found five broad categories of teacher attributes that appear to contribute to teacher quality: ―(1) experience, (2) preparation programs and degrees, (3) type of certification, (4) coursework taken in preparation for the profession, and (5) teachers‘ own test scores. The study of Wayne and Youngs (2003) also dealt with teacher quality which examined the characteristics of effective teachers and their connection to student effectiveness. They established that ―students learn more from teachers with certain characteristics.Teachers differ greatly in their effectiveness, but teachers with and without different qualifications differ only a little‖ (p. 100-101). Berry (2002), as cited by Thompson, Greer, and Greer, 2004) found out that studies about teaching performance appear to have a ―singular focus on content knowledge‖ (p.1) despite the notion that teacher qualities are equally important in the profession. Because of 3 this, he stated that educators must also know ―how to organize and teach their lessons in ways that assure diverse students can learn those subjectsHighly qualified teachers don‘t just teach well-designed, standards-based lessons: They know how and why their students learn‖ (p.2).This is perhaps why former studies would argue that good teachers are characterized as caring, supportive, concernedabout the welfare of students, knowledgeable about their subject matter, able toget along with parentsand genuinely excited about the work that they do. Citing their study on characteristics of favorite teachers they asked at the start of the class, Thompson, Greer, and Greer (2004) found out that the personal characteristics of effective teachers revolve around an encompassing theme of caring. Noddings (2001) clarified that caring is demonstrated in numerous ways including being attentive and receptive. Noddingshighlighted, ―A caring teacher is someone who has demonstrated that she [he] can establish, more or less regularly, relations of care in a wide variety of situations[and] will want the best for that person‖ (p. 100-101). The relationship of teacher and student, giving and receiving care, is a continuous one, lasting over time and involving intimate and personal understanding. In addition, Noddings connects caring with preparation and organization. Students recognize caring in teachers who are prepared and organized. This philosophy of caring permeates the actions of teachers students remember best. There are many factors that influence the teachers‘ job performance such as personal characteristics (Love of learning, Compassionate, Honesty, Patience, Sense of Humor, Creative/Flexible, Enthusiasm) and professional characteristics (Instructional Skills, Classroom Management Skills, Assessment Skills)etc.Swarts, White, Stuck, and Patterson (1990) assessed teaching performance on five teaching functions: instructional presentations, instructional monitoring, instructional feedback, management of instructional time and management of students‘ behavior. Ferris, Bergin, and Wayne (1988) identified teachers' job performance on seven performance dimensions. These were preparation and planning, effectiveness in presenting subject matter, poise, relations with students, self-improvement, relations with other staff and relations with parents & community. Jahangir (1988) judged the performance of teachers on four categories of teaching behavior, namely, intellect, teachers‘ personality, teaching techniques and interaction with students. Riaz (2000) measured teachers‘ performance on factors such as 4 teaching competence demonstrated, motivational skills, teachers‘ attitudetoward students and fairness in grading. Background of the study The factors affecting the performance of teachers are of two types, the external factors and the internal factors. There are many external factors affecting how a teacher makes decisions in the classroom. While it is difficult to attach any order of significance to these factors, because every teacher is different, they will include to some degree, the expectations of the community, the particular school system in which the teacher is employed, the school itself, the grade policies, the parents and the students. Many of the expectations from these external factors will appear conflicting and it is the classroom teachers who weld these into a workable framework while integrating a range of internal factors. Individual beliefs about teachers how students learn most effectively, how to teach in particular discipline or key learning area. The match between individuals beliefs about teachers are best teaching practice and whether they can personally meet these demands in the classroom is crucial. The teachers own preferred ways of thinking, acting and seeing the world, learners and learning will also be affected by the availability of resources both human and physical (Groundwater and Cornu, 2002) Thai Nguyen University (TNU) was established by Decree No. 31 dated on April 4 th 1994 of the Government on the basis of the arrangement, reorganization of the university and vocational training under the Ministry of Education and Training in Thai Nguyen. Currently TNU consists of seven universities, one college and two faculties, a defense education center, a learning resource center, publisher, hospital and high university for practicing the functional and scientific units for training and research. TNU is implementing the guiding ideology of the party expressed through resolutions of the eighth National Party Congress, which is to build training centers for research education and high-quality technology transferring in the region. For over 10 years, the consistent policy of the Party and the State is to build and develop TNU and in fact, TNU has demonstrated the role, its position in the Vietnamese higher education system, particularly with the midlands and mountainous areas of northern Vietnam. Currently, at TNU there are 2587 teaching staff, including 230 doctors, 2 professors, 65 associate professors, over 780 masters and 200 PhD students, percentage of lecturers on the payroll process postgraduate degree from universities accounted for 66%. 5 Little research appears to have been carried out on factors that improve teachers‘ job performance, especially at Thai Nguyen University. The present study was thus carried out to judge teachers‘ performance on the factors of personal characteristics and professional characteristics. The present study will address the urgent need for base information to improve the teaching learning process. It is believed that if the factors that influence teachers‘ performance at higher education level are controlled, the quality of education and teaching learning process as a whole would become more effective. Objectives of Study This study determined the correlates of teaching performance with a viewpoint of developing an enhancement program at College of Thai Nguyen University (TNU) for school year 2013, 2014. Specifically, it sought to address the following: 1. Find out the demographic profile of the respondents as to 1.1 Age, 1.2 Gender, 1.3 Civil status, 1.4 Educational attainment, 1.5 Position; 2. Determine the factors that affect teachers‘ performance as to: 2.1. Personal characteristics: 2.1.1. Physical, 2.1.2. Mental, 2.1.3. Emotional, and 2.1.4. Social; 2.2. Professional characteristics: 2.2.1. Teaching skills, 2.2.2. Guidance skills, 2.2.3. ClassroomManagement skills, and 2.2.4. Assessment skills. 3. Determine teachers‘ performance as to: 3.1. Commitment, 3.2. Knowledge of the subject, 3.3. Teaching for independent learning, 3.4. Management of learning; 6 4. Ascertain which of the above-mentioned factors predict teachers‘ performance. 5. Develop an enhancement program based from the result of the study. Null Hypothesis 1. None of the above mentioned factors predict teachers‘ performance. Significance of the Study This study was conducted in hope that the findings will be useful for students, teachers, deans and educational planners of Thai Nguyen University, and future researchers who wish to embark on the same topic. Studentsof TNU. This study will benefit them more importantly because the findings of this study will aid the administration of Thai Nguyen University to draft appropriate actions to ensure that students are taught by teachers who are qualified in their respective fields. Eventually, they will be confident that they will graduate with the appropriate skills and competencies in their professions because the teachers who taught them have been holistically conditioned to be excellent in their fields. Teachersat TNU. As teachers are usually overwhelmed by academic workload and personal life every day, they tend to forget about reflecting whether their performance could still productively address the expectations of the community on them. Studies such as this one will not only let them keep track on what seems to be affecting/ influencing their performance as teachers, it will likewise give them opportunities to explore possibilities to enhance themselves with the aid of the TNU administration. Deans and Educational Planners.Since performance of teachers in teaching and that of students inside and outside of the University reflects much on the kind of leadership, priorities, and idealisms of supervisors, educational planners, and the University administration in general, studies such as this one will enable them to keep track on the performance of the people – the teaching staff - who have the collective power o... educators. They added that evaluation and accountability are more widely practiced with teachers than at other levels in school organization. Teachers usually have three sources of data which include: 20 1. Pupil scores on standardized tests; 2. Notes made following two or three classroom visits; and 3. The completion of a judgmental checklist of behaviors not related to pupil outcomes. OECD (2013) argues that effective teacher evaluation can also help schools to become sensitive to individual talent, performance and motivation. In order to do so, it suggested a standardization of evaluation procedures from the national to local level in consideration of international standards. 1. Design a coherent framework for evaluation and accountability with the student at the center. 2. Include a balance of components, such as measures of student outcomes, system-level indicators with basic demographic, administrative and contextual information, and research and analysis to inform planning, intervention and policy development. 3. Promote national consistency while allowing for local diversity. 4. Engage the non-public sector. 5. Fill the gaps to achieve a balanced framework for evaluation and accountability. 6. Establish connections between different components of the framework. 7. Give a role to independent evaluation agencies. 8. Prioritize and sustain efforts to improve the capacity for evaluation. 9. Engage and respect the professionalism of stakeholders. 10. Emphasize the improvement function of evaluation and assessment and links to the classroom. 11. Maintain sound knowledge management. 12. Clearly communicate the purpose and results of the evaluation. In connection to this, Lardizabalet al. indicated statements that could better assess the guidance skills of teachers. 1. Uses specific criteria for the accurate evaluation of individual performance 2. Selects, evolves, and utilizes criterion-referenced tests 3. Analyzes and interprets evaluation result skillfully 4. Utilizes evaluation results as a basis for improving instruction The preceding statements prove that teaching is not an easy task. It requires 21 individuals to possess different skills that are regarded as inherent in the profession. Disregarding even one of such skills can spell a large difference not just for the school, but more importantly for the students. Hence, school administrators should always be on guard and ensure that skills which may collectively be regarded as their weakness should be strengthened on the in-service teachers through enhancement programsthat administrators may develop as informed by research. Teaching Performance Teacher‘s performance in teaching has been a widely popular research area among educators and scholars. It is a common belief among educators that the skills that teachers possess tell a lot about how much intellectual development a child may receive under his/her tutelage. The succeeding paragraphs summarize notable studies related to teacher performance evaluation in hope of aiding essential explanations on possible findings in this study. Capitalizing on the notion that teacher quality is the most important variable in increasing student achievement,Schacter (n.d.) reviewed notable research on teacher quality and proposed a possible action school administrators can take based on his findings. He noted that because other measures of teacher quality have had little to no effect on student achievement or ratings of teachers‘ classroom teaching, measuring teacher performance provides a promising and practical solution. Measures of teacher performance, he continued, must be both comprehensive enough to capture the essence of good teaching, and also provide for student achievement accountability metrics the public can readily understand. Podgursky and Springer (2007) examined the economic case for performance- related pay in K–12education in the United States. Their evaluation of literature on performance-related compensation schemes in education has led them to see diversity in terms of incentive design, population, type of incentive(group versus individual), strength of study design, and duration of the incentive program. They found that while the literature is not sufficiently robust to prescribe how systems should be designed—for example, optimal size of bonuses, and mix of individual versus group incentives— it is sufficiently positive to suggest that further experiments and pilot programs by districts and states are very much in order. They pointed out that these programs be introduced in a manner amenable to effective evaluation. 22 Investigating whether teacher evaluation can improve teaching, Taylor and Tyler (2012) studied practice-based assessment, an approach to teacher evaluation that relies on multiple, highly structured classroom observations conducted by experienced peer teachers and administrators. They discovered that greater teacher performance as measured by student achievement gains in years strongly suggest that teachers develop skills or otherwise change their behavior in a lasting manner as a result of undergoing subjective performance evaluation. The results of their study provide evidence that subjective evaluation can improve employee performance, even after the evaluation period ends. They finally pointed out that if done well, performance evaluation can be an effective form of teacher professional development. Figlio andKenny (2007) systematically documented the relationship between individual teacher performance incentives and student achievement using the United States data. They found that test scores are higher in schools that offer individual financial incentives for good performance. Moreover, they said that the estimated relationship between the presence of merit pay in teacher compensation and student test scores is strongest in schools that may have the least parental oversight. They finalized that the association between teacher incentives and student performance could be due to better schools adopting teacher incentives or to teacher incentives eliciting more effort from teachers. Sass, T. R.& Harris, D. (2012) examined the measurement and prediction of worker productivity using a sample of teachers and school principals. We find that principals‘ evaluations are positively associated with teachers‘ estimated contributions to students‘ test scores (value-added), and are better predictors of teacher value-added than are teacher credentials. Principals‘ assessments of teachers‘ cognitive and non-cognitive skills are strongly associated with principals‘ overall teacher evaluations and to a lesser extent with teacher value-added. While past teacher value-added predicts future value-added, principals‘ subjective ratings can provide additional information, particularly when prior value-added measures are based on a single year of teacher performance. Meanwhile, Goldhaber&Hansen (2010) explored the potential for using value added model (VAM) estimates as the primary criteria for rewarding teachers with tenure, a policy reform currently under consideration. The evidence that he found that observable teacher characteristics are only weakly related to teacher productivity makes effective teacher quality policies elusive, and has led some to call for using more direct measures of 23 teacher performance to determine employment eligibility (or compensation). Such evidence showed that VAM measures of teacher effectiveness are stable enough that early career estimates of teacher effectiveness predict student achievement at least three years later, and do so far better than observable teacher characteristics. This finding lends credence to the notion that these implicit measures of teacher quality are a reasonable metric to use as a factor in making substantive personnel decisions. Studies on teacher performance have been relatively extensive in different countries, particularly in the United States. In many third world countries, such studies have been given little attention due to other priority needs such as facilities, qualified teachers and personnel and many others. However, as studies previously highlighted in this chapter show, a comprehensive and reliable evaluation measures on teacher performance may create a large difference in the teaching and learning process. Hence, this study will attempt to address such need by correlating teacher characteristics and actual teaching performance at Thai Nguyen University. The result will be further used in designing an enhancement program to strengthen teaching performance in the University and eventually students‘ learning in the long run. Conceptual Framework The idea of quality education to be mainly attributed to the performance of teachers has been widely acknowledged by various researchers and scholars in the field of pedagogyas proven by the wealth of literature in the area. This is why careful attention has always been given to evaluation of teacher‘s performance in Colleges and Universities to see whether they meet the expected competencies for them to successfully produce graduates who can comply with the demands in the workplace.Different aspects of teacher evaluation criteria have been set by scholars in the field whose works are cited in this study. Such scholars and researchers emphasize the personal and professional characteristics of teachers as determiners of teaching competence. This is why the two general concepts along with their specific characteristic areas have been considered for this study to arrive at the evaluation of the competencies of the teachers (see Fig. 1). However, despite this, low rating in teacher evaluation sometimes result in the teacher being dismissed from work. In certain institutions, they do evaluate their teachers, but they just forget about it afterwards because the evaluation serves merely as a form of complying with institutional policies.Post assessment activities and programs are often neglected due to the plethora of responsibilities teachers face in the workplace. Aside from 24 this, some educational institution view personal and professional development as a personal responsibility of the teacher. In practical sense, personal and professional development of teachers should be a shared responsibility of the school administration and the teacher themselves.This notion particularly calls for a follow-up enhancement program for the teachers to address certain problems and in turn genuinely deliver quality education in Universities such as the Thai Nguyen University. Thus, as basis for possible programs for teacher development at Thai Nguyen University, their characteristics and teaching performance that can be derived through this study could serve as gauges in drafting a program that is more relevant to the teachers‘ personal and professional needs. In the long run, when the program is fully implemented and continuously applied, there canbe greater confidence in seeing growth not only on the part of the teacher, but also among the students in general. Research Paradigm Fig.1. Variables in the study on correlates of teachers’ performance, basis for an enhancement program Figure 1 shows the variables in the study on correlates of teachers‘ performance, basis for an enhancement program. The figure highlights two variables: dependent and independent, whose corresponding result will be used as basis for the enhancement Independent variables Dependent variable Demographic Profile Personal characteristics: 1. Physical; 2. Mental; 3. Emotional; 4. Social; Professional characteristics: 1. Teaching skills; 2. Guidance skills; 3. Management skills; 4. Evaluation skills Teachers’ performance 1. Commitment; 2. Knowledge of the subject; 3. Teaching for Independent Learning; 4. Management of Learning ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM ATTHAINGUYEN UNIVERSITY 25 program at Thai Nguyen University. The independent variables in the study include demographic profile, personal and professional characteristics of teachers at TNU derived through a survey. Under personal characteristics, physical, mental, emotional, and social aspects will be underscored. Under professional characteristics, teaching skills, guidance skills, management skills, and evaluation skills will be taken into account. Results of such survey will be correlated with the teachers‘ performance rating. The correlation will serve as basis for an enhancement program to be designed by the researcher. 26 Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the locale of the study, research design, population and sampling, date gathering procedures, and statistical treatment used in the study. Locale of the Study This study was conducted in four (04) units of Thai Nguyen University (TNU) at Thai Nguyen province in Vietnam (see Fig. 2).The colleges include Thai Nguyen University Of Technology, Thai Nguyen University Of Education, Thai Nguyen University Of Medicine And Pharmacy, Thai Nguyen University Of Agriculture And Forestry. Fig. 2.Location of respondent colleges in TNU, Thai Nguyen City, Thai Nguyen Province, Viet Nam Research Design This study used the descriptive correlation design in analyzing the investigated variables. According to Sevilla, et al. (2004), it is designed to help determine the extent to 27 which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. They quoted Fox (2004) stating that the critical distinguishing characteristics are the effort to estimate a relationship, as distinguished from simple description. This study was conducted to correlate research factors namely: Personal characteristics and Professional characteristics of teacher to teaching performance. Population and Sampling Teachers and students of colleges at TNU served as the population of this study. The sample of the study consisted of 145 teachers and 728 students of ten (04) colleges at TNU who were randomly selected. Table 1 indicates the number of respondents taken from the colleges of TNU that became part of this study. Table 1 Respondents’ frequency distribution by colleges Instrumentation In this study, the researcher used questionnaires to gather data. The self-constructed questionnaire was composed of items that pertain to teachers‘ performance as to commitment, knowledge of the subject, teaching for independent learning, and management of learning among demographic profile of the respondents as to age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, and position, factors that affect teachers‘ performance as to personal characteristics (physical, mental, emotional, social), and professional characteristics (teaching skills, guidance skills, classroom management skills, evaluation skills). No TNU Number of respondents Teachers Students 1 College of Technology 40 227 2 College of Education 40 252 3 College of Medicine and Pharmacy 32 121 4 Agriculture and Forestry 33 128 Total 145 728 28 Sets of questionnaire were administered to the respondents. They were asked to supply the demographic information first before putting a check on the response scale that correspond to their choice. Data Gathering Procedure The study was first proposed to a panel of experts in educational management from Southern Luzon State University and Thai Nguyen University, which was eventually approved with minor revisions. After thorough reading of pertinent information on the topic of concern, the researcher constructed a questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by the adviser and was further validated by three experts from Southern Luzon State University and Thai Nguyen University. Upon approval of the questionnaire, it was administered to groups of lecturers during their lecture times. All staff members in the Scientific Research Management Department of the college assisted in administering the questionnaires to different groups of lecturers. Prior to answering the questionnaire, lecturers were briefed to ensure that the questionnaires were filled out correctly. Questionnaires were collected immediately after completion. Group administration of the questionnaire also helped to save data collection costs. Lecturers were also allowed not to include a name on the survey. Afterwards, the questionnaire was administered to groups of students during their learning times. All staff members in the Student Affair Department of the college assisted in administering the questionnaires to different groups of students. Instructions were given to the students to ensure that the questionnaires were filled in correctly. Questionnaires were collected immediately after completion. Group administration of the questionnaire also helped to save data collection costs. Thestudents were also not required to include a name on the survey. Statistical Treatment To answer the problems in this study, the following statistical tools were applied on the data collected. To determine the status of teacher's performance the weighted mean was used. The formula is: N ffff WM 1234   Where: WM = Weighted mean 29 N = Number of respondents f = frequency Chi-square test, for determining the significant relationship of teachers‘ performance in terms of teachers‘ characteristics and professional. The formula is:      E EO X 2 2 Where: X2 = chi-square value O = observed frequencies E = expected frequencies The researcher used the rating scale below and its descriptive ratings for the questionnaire used in the survey: Scale Range Scale Descriptive Rating 4 3.26 – 4.00 Strongly Agree (SA) 3 2.51 – 3.25 Agree (A) 2 1.76 – 2.50 Disagree (D) 1 1.00 – 1.75 Strongly Disagree (SD) Similarly, the following descriptive interpretation aided the researcher in assessing teacher‘s performance. Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Description 5 Outstanding The performance almost always exceeds the job requirements. The faculty is an exceptional role model. 4 Very Satisfactory The performance meets and often exceeds the job requirements. 3 Satisfactory The performance meets job requirements. The faculty is an exceptional role model. 2 Fair The performance needs some developments to meet the job requirements. 1 Poor The faculty fails to meet the job requirements. 30 According to Le (2007), the size of coefficient was interpreted as follows: The correlation coefficient R is used to measure the degree of the relationship between two variables. R squares, which indicates the correlations between each independent variable and a dependent variable, was employed to show how well a dependent variable was explained by an independent variable. R = 0 no correlation R<0.3 & R 2 <0.1 small or weak correlation 0.3 ≤ R < 0.5 & 0.1 ≤ R2< 0.5 medium correlation 0.5 ≤ R < 0.7 & 0.25≤ R2 < 0.5 rather large or strong correlation 0.7 ≤ R < 0.9 & 0.5≤ R < 0.8 large or strong correlation 0.9 ≤ R & 0.8≤ R2 perfect correlation 31 Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter includes the different tables which present the data of the findings in this study with their respective interpretation. The data were analyzed and interpreted, so that conclusions and recommendations could be drawn from the study. Table 2 Frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to school Colleges Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Teachers Students The College of Agriculture and Forestry 33 22.8 128 17.6 The College of Education 40 27.6 227 31.2 The College of Engineering and Technology 40 27.6 252 34.6 The College of Medicine and Pharmacy 32 22.1 121 16.6 Total 145 100.0 728 100.0 Table 2 showed the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents as to school. The number of teachers of the college of Education was 40 (27.6%), equal to the number of teachers at the college of Engineering and Technology Agriculture and Forestry. The number of teachers at the college of Agriculture and Forestry was 33, accounting for 22% and the teachers at the college of Medicine and Pharmacy are 32, taking up 22.1%. Aside from this, the number of students- respondents was 728, in which the students at the college of Agriculture and Forestry were 128(17.6%); the students at the college of Education were 227 (31.2%); the students at the college of Engineering and Technology were 252 (34.6%) and the rest are the students at the college of Medicine and Pharmacy were 121 (16.6%). 32 Part I. Profile of respondents Table 3 Profile of Students - Respondents Table 3 presented the profile of students – respondents. As shown in Table 2, among 728 respondents, one hundred and forty six (146) or 20.1 percent were 18 years old; 24 percent were 19 years old and also were 22 years old. 17 respondents belong to 20years old while 151 respondents belong to 21years old. There were 43 respondents who were 23 years old, 19 students who were 24 and only 2 students who were 25 year old. The table also shows that 363 out of 728 students or 49.9 percent were male and 365 respondents or 50.1 percent were female. All of the students were single (100 percent). The table also Variables Frequency Percentage Age Total 18 yrs.old 19 yrs.old 20 yrs.old 21 yrs.old 22 yrs.old 23 yrs.old 24 yrs.old 25 yrs.old 146 175 17 151 175 43 19 2 728 20.1 24.0 2.3 20.7 24.0 5.9 2.6 0.3 100.0 Gender: Total Male Female 363 365 728 49.9 50.1 100.0 Civil Status Total Single Married 728 0 728 100.0 0 100.0 Educational Attainment Total fist year student second year student third year student forth year student fifth year student 242 98 166 202 20 728 33.2 13.5 22.8 27.7 2.7 100.0 33 displayed that among 728 students, 242 were first year students; 202 were forth year students; 166 were third year students; 98 were second year students and only 20 were fifth ones. Table 4 Profile of Teachers – Respondents As can be seen in Table 4, among 145 respondents, 32.3% respondentswere from 26 to 28 years old, and a lower number of respondents were from 33 to 35 years old. 14.5% respondents belong to 29 to 32 years old and also between 36 to 38 years old. There were only 9% of the respondents who were 23 to 25 years old; 0,7%were from 29to 41 Variables Frequency Percentage Age Total 23 – 25 yrs.old 26 – 28 yrs.old 29 – 32 yrs.old 33 – 35 yrs.old 36 – 38 yrs.old 39 – 41 yrs.old 42 – 44 yrs.old 45 – 47 yrs.old 48 – 50 yrs.old 51 – 53 yrs.old 13 47 21 36 21 1 3 1 0 2 145 9.0 32.3 14.5 24.8 14.5 0.7 2.1 0.7 0.0 1.4 100.0 Gender: Total Male Female 61 84 145 42.1 57.9 100.0 Civil Status Total Single Married 24 121 145 16.6 83.4 100.0 Educational Attainment Total BS MA/MS units MA/MS Doctoral units PhD/EdD 6 5 86 30 18 145 4.1 3.4 59.3 20.7 12.4 100.0 34 years old; 2,1% were from 42 to44 years old; 1,4% were from 41 to 53 years old and there was no respondent was from 48 to 50 years old. Table 4 showed that 61 out of 145 teachers or 42.1 percent are male and 84 respondents or 57.9 percent are female, 24 respondents or 16.6% are single; 121 or 83.4 percent are married. Most of respondents or 59.3 % are MA‘s degree holders; 30 respondents or 20.7% take doctoral units; 18% are PhDs/EdDs holders; 6% are BS takers and the rest of the respondents, 5 are MA/MS unit takers. Part II. Personal Characteristics and Professional Characteristics of Teachers Table 5 Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to physical aspects Statements Teachers Students The teacher WM QD WM QD 1.has pleasing physical appearance 3.18 A 3.33 SA 2.exhibits good taste in the selection and wearing of clothes 3.43 SA 3.47 SA 3. shows self-control in the choice of accessories 3.65 SA 3.26 SA 4. has good poise. 3.79 SA 3.42 SA 5. shows confidence through smiles and eye contact. 3.70 SA 3.47 SA 6. has impressive communication skills. 3.39 SA 3.48 SA 7. has pleasant voice. 3.25 SA 3.46 SA 8. demonstrates self-confidence in her well-being. 3.39 SA 3.23 A 9. shows evidence of strong physical health. 3.42 SA 3.13 A 10. has no irritating mannerisms. 3.49 SA 3.39 SA Average Weighted Mean 3.47 SA 3.36 SA Legend: 3.4 – 4.0 Strongly agree 1.8 –2.5 Disagree 2.6 – 3.3 Agree 1–1.7 Strongly disagree Table 5 displayed the weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to physical aspects. As can be seen in the table, the average weighted mean of 10 items for teachers was 3.47 and 3.36 for students. It means that the teachers and students strongly agreed with all the items of this table. In detail, the teacher strongly agreedwith items 4, 5, 3, 10, 2, 9 with the range from 3.42 to 3.79. The rest of the items, 6, 8, 7, 1 belonging to the weighted mean range from 3.18 to 3.39 explained that the teacher agreed with the characteristics in these items. Besides, the students strongly agreed with the items 6, 5, 2, 7, 4 which range from 3.42 to 3.48. In addition, they agreed with the characteristics in items 10, 1, 3, 8, 9 in which the weighted mean range from 3.13 to 3.39. 35 The result is in accordance with Barr‘s (1958 cited in Orstein, 1990) statement about personal characteristics of teachers which particularly recognizes ―attractiveness‖ of the teacher as one of the characteristics important for successful teaching. Aquino‘s (2003) statement also coincides with it when he mentioned that good grooming and poise contribute to becoming a superior teacher. Table 6 Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics ofteachers as to mental aspects Statements Teachers Students The teacher WM QD WM Q D 1. has foresight in planning his/her activities. 3.39 SA 3.37 S A 2. has insight into the abilities and interests of his students. 3.39 SA 3.46 S A 3. thinks critically. 3.46 SA 3.27 S A 4. practices fairness and equality among his students. 3.60 SA 3.62 S A 5. anticipates and reacts properly to students in social situations. 3.41 SA 3.39 S A 6. foresees and attempts to resolve potential difficulties. 3.28 SA 3.23 S A 7. anticipates individual cognitive needs of students. 3.39 SA 3.34 S A 8. has sense of humor. 3.39 SA 3.22 A 9. shows evidence of mental health and stability. 3.52 SA 3.26 S A 10. shows evidence of sound decision-making. 3.53 SA 3.37 S A Average Weighted Mean 3.44 SA 3.35 S A Legend: 3.4 – 4.0 Strongly agree 1.8 –2.5 Disagree 2.6 – 3.3 Agree 1–1.7 Strongly disagree Table 6 displayed theweighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to mental aspects. As can be seen, the teachers strongly agreed with these characteristics as to mental aspect (3.44) and the students agreed with these ones (3.35). Among ten items in the table, the teacher strongly agreed with items 4, 10, 9, 3, 5 having weighted mean range from 3.41 to 3.60. Item 1,2,7,8 had the same weighted mean values, 36 3.39, which displayed that the teachers agreed with these characteristics and the lower value in item 6, 3.28 shows that the teacher also agreed with the characteristic ―the teacher foresees and attempts to resolve potential difficulties‖. Besides, the weighted mean values 3.62 in item 4, 3.46 in item 2 represented that the students strongly agreed with the characteristics in these items. The rest of the items with the weighted mean values from 3.22 to 3.39 showed that the students agreed with the characteristics in items 5, 10, 7, 1, 3, 9, 6, 8. This is why Lardizabal, et al. (1991) noted that before a teacher becomes one, he/she must undergo several years of pre-service training to master his/her subject matter, be adept with professional education, and revitalize his/her understanding of basic knowledge. Table 7 Weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachers as to emotional aspects Statements Teachers Students The teacher WM QD WM QD 1. values feelings and morale. 3.39 SA 3.21 A 2. deals with his students fairly and justly. 3.70 SA 3.60 SA 3. possesses strong will power and conviction. 3.19 A 3.20 A 4. projects integrity and dignity. 3.58 SA 3.56 SA 5. keeps her composure during crucial times. 3.47 SA 3.51 SA 6. is patient. 3.43 SA 3.39 SA 7. helps students with emotional as well as educational problems. 3.41 SA 3.27 SA 8. stimulates interest and curiosity in a particular lesson. 3.74 SA 3.37 SA 9. encourages students to ask questions confidently. 3.83 SA 3.47 SA 10. shows evidence of emotional soundness. 3.40 SA 3.45 SA Average Weighted Mean 3.51 SA 3.40 SA Legend: 3.4 – 4.0 Strongly agree 1.8 –2.5 Disagree 2.6 – 3.3 Agree 1–1.7 Strongly disagree Table 7 represented the weighted mean distribution of the personal characteristics of teachersas to emotional aspects. The teachers strongly agreed with 8 items out of 10 items in this table which the weighted mean values ranked from 3.40 to 3.83belonging to 37 items 9, 8, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10. It also showed that the teachers agreed with the rest of the items, item 1 (3.39), i...pare different ways of explaining the material (real-life examples, analogies, visuals, etc.) to catch the attention of more students and appeal to different learning styles - make the class interesting enough that students are paying attention by using active learning strategies, such as pair work or group work. - have colleague observe and critique the teacher‘s teaching - Focus on student activities rather than 63 2. Guidance skills teacher activities - applying activities that appropriate with students‘ level. - set the time required for the set activities. - give clear instructions before giving tasks. - create a collaborative environment for students by using pair work or group work. - be a facilitator to help students during class to help them achieve the task. - be sure to have the attention of everyone in the classroom before starting the lesson. - tell the students exactly what they are doing and set the time for each task. - circulate the class the check the students‘ progress. 64 3. Management skills 4. Evaluation skills - create a class as a warm cheery place and maintain the class disciplines. - make ample use of praise before good behavior. - plan to check for understanding and develop a conclusion or a preview. - decide what to assess, how to assess, and how to respond to the information gained through the assessment. - improve the quality of student learning, not to provide evidence for evaluating or grading. - the assessment technique is chosen to fit the subject matter and the need of particular class. 64 Chapter V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of findings in the study, conclusions derived from the results, and recommendations. Summary This study generally attempted to determine the correlates of teaching performance with a viewpoint of developing an enhancement program at College of Thai Nguyen University (TNU) for school year 2013, 2014. Specifically, it sought to address the following: 1. Find out the demographic profile of the respondents as to 1.1. Age, 1.2. Gender, 1.3. Civil status, 1.4. Educational attainment, 1.5. Position; 2. Determine the factors that affect teachers‘ performance as to: 2.1. Personal characteristics: 2.1.1. Physical, 2.1.2. Mental, 2.1.3. Emotional, and 2.1.4 Social; 2.2. Professional characteristics: 2.2.1. Teaching skills, 2.2.2. Guidance skills, 2.2.3.Classroom Management skills, and 2.2.4. Assessment skills. 3. Determine teachers‘ performance as to: 3.1. Commitment, 3.2. Knowledge of the subject, 65 3.3. Teaching for independent learning, 3.4. Management of learning; 4. Ascertain which of the above-mentioned factors predict teachers‘ performance; 5. Develop an enhancement program based from the result of the study. This research is a descriptive correlational study was limited only at TNU as locale since respondents were chosen purposively to include the total population of teachers and administrators of TNU, and randomly selected students from the different colleges of TNU, who were asked to answer a researcher-constructed questionnaire. The study usedarithmetic mean and regression analysis to examine the correlates of teacher‘s performance at Thai Nguyen University. Findings Based on the gathered data, the researcher found out: 1. The number of teachers of the college of Education was 40 (27.6%), equal to the number of teachers at the college of Engineering and Technology Agriculture and Forestry. The number of teachers at the college of Agriculture and Forestry was 33, accounting for 22% and the teachers at the college of Medicine and Pharmacy were 32, taking up 22.1%. Aside from this, the number of students- respondents was 728, in which the students at the college of Agriculture and Forestry were 128(17.6%); the students at the college of Education are 227 (31.2%); the students at the college of Engineering and Technology were 252 (34.6%) and the rest are the students at the college of Medicine and Pharmacy were 121 (16.6%). In the case of student-respondents, one hundred and forty six (146) or 20.1 percentwere 18 years old; 24 percent were 19 years old and also were 22 years old. Seventeen respondents belong to 20years old while 151 respondents belong to 21years old. There were 43 respondents who were 23 years old, 19 students who were 24 and only 2 students who were 25 year old. In addition, 363 out of 728 students or 49.9 percent were male and 365 respondents or 50.1 percent were female. All of the students were single (100 percent). Among 728 students, 242 were first year students; 202 were forth year students; 166 were third year students; 98 were second year students and only 20 were fifth ones. In the case of the teacher-respondents, among 145 respondents, 32.3% respondentswere from 26 to 28 years old, and a lower number of respondents were from 33 to 35 years old. 14.5% respondents belong to 29 to 32 years old and also between 36 to 38 years old. There were only 9% of the respondents who were 23 to 25 years old; 0,7%were from 66 29to 41 years old; 2,1% were from 42 to44 years old; 1,4% were from 41 to 53 years old and there was no respondent was from 48 to 50 years old. Table 4 showed that 61 out of 145 teachers or 42.1 percent were male and 84 respondents or 57.9 percent were female, 24 respondents or 16.6% were single; 121 or 83.4 percent were married. Most of respondents or 59.3 % were MA‘s degree holders; 30 respondents or 20.7% take doctoral units; 18% were PhDs/EdDs holders; 6% were BS takers and the rest of the respondents, 5 were MA/MS unit takers. 2. The factors in relation to personal characteristics that affect teaching performance as viewed by student- and teacher- respondents resulted in the following: As to physical aspects, average weighted mean (AWM) of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.37 and 3.36 respectively, or strongly agree; As to mental aspects, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.44 and 3.35respectively, or strongly agree; As to emotional aspects, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.51 and 3.40 respectively, or strongly agree; and As to social aspects, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.30 and 3.36 respectively, or strongly agree. The factors in relation to professional characteristics that affect teaching performance as viewed by student- and teacher- respondents resulted in the following: As to teaching skills, average weighted mean (AWM) of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.43 and 3.37 respectively, or strongly agree; As to management skills, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.26 and 3.34 respectively, or strongly agree; As to evaluation skills, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.19 and 3.31, or agree and strongly agreerespectively; and As to evaluation skills, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.16 and 3.26, or agree and strongly agree respectively. 3. Teaching performance as viewed by student- and teacher- respondents resulted in the following: As to commitment, average weighted mean (AWM) of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.90 and 3.69 respectively, or very satisfactory; 67 As to knowledge of subject, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 4.13 and 3.75 respectively, or very satisfactory; As to teaching for independent learning, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.80 and 3.67 respectively, or very satisfactory; and As to management of learning, AWM of teachers‘ responses and students‘ responses were 3.79 and 3.56 respectively, or very satisfactory. 4. Correlates of teaching performance as to commitment resulted in a regression analysis of R= 0.463 and R 2 = 0.214 or medium correlationof student responses for evaluation skills, guidance skills, emotional aspects, management skills, teaching skills, and R= 0.3≤R<0.5 and R 2= 0.1≤R2<0.5 or medium correlation of teachers‘ responses with gender and R=0.7≤R<0.9; R 2=0.5≤R2<0.8 or strong correlation for physical aspects, mental aspects, guidance skills, evaluation skills, management skills, and teaching skills; Correlates of teaching performance as to knowledge of subject resulted in a regression analysis of R= 0.395 and R 2 = 0.156; R= 0.417 and R 2 = 0.174; R= 0.430 and R 2 = 0.184; R= 0.436 and R 2 = 0.190;R= 0.443 and R 2 = 0.196 or moderate correlation of students‘ responses withevaluation skills, mental aspects, social aspects, guidance skills, and teaching skills; and R= 0.521; R 2 = 0.271 and R= 0.635; R 2 = 0.403 or moderate correlation of teachers‘ responses withmental aspects, management skills, gender, teaching skills, social aspects, civil status, educational attainment, guidance skills, physical aspects, age; Correlates of teaching performance as to teaching for independent learning resulted in a regression analysis of R= 0.385; R 2 = 0.147 and R= 0.407; R 2 = 0.163 or medium correlation of students‘ responses with evaluation and guidance skills; and R= 0.480 and R2= 0.231 or medium correlation with social aspects and R= 0.630; R 2 = 0.397 or strong correlation with teaching skills, gender, civil status, evaluation skills, educational attainment, mental aspects, management skills, and physical aspects as regards teachers‘ responses; Finally, correlates of teaching performance as to management of learning resulted in R= 0.383 and R 2 = 0.147;R= 0.417and R 2 = 0.174; R= 0.441 and R 2 = 0.195; R= 0.448 and R 2 = 0.201; R= 0.45 and R 2 = 0.206 or medium correlation of students‘ respondents with evaluation skills, guidance skills, management skills, mental aspects, and emotional aspects; and R= 0.558 and R 2 = 0.311, R= 0.848, R2 = 0.719, R= 0.897, R2 = 0.805 or strong correlation with social aspects, teaching skills, gender, civil status, management skills, mental aspects, guidance skills, physical aspects as regards teachers‘ responses. 68 Thus, the null hypothesis which states that ―None of the above mentioned factors predict teachers‘ performance‖ is hereby rejected. 5. An enhancement program was created based on the correlates of teaching performance which aims to improve personal characteristics of teachers through personality enhancement symposia and exercises and improve professional skills of teachers through periodic in- service training. Conclusions In the light of the finding, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The student-respondents in the study, which comprised the greatest number, were single, college students whose age ranged from 18-25 years old, and who equally represented both genders. The teacher-respondents in this study were mostly married, female teachers whose age ranged from 23 to 53 years old and who mostly possess MA/MS degrees. 2. The personal and professional characteristics of teachers were generally viewed by respondents to affect teaching performance. 3. Respondents viewed the performance of teachers as very satisfactory. 4. The factors that predict teachers‘ performance as to commitment were mostly attributed to their professional characteristics; knowledge of subject matter, mostly relate in their personal and professional skills and their demographic profile; teaching for independent learning, mostly relate in their professional characteristics and demographic profile; and management of learning, mostly relate in theirpersonal and professional characteristics. 5. The enhancement program is ready for implementation. Recommendations In light of the findings and conclusions, the following are hereby recommended: 1. Teachers should consider making personal and professional development a top priority to ensure quality in their teaching. 2. The Thai Nguyen University administration should adapt or adopt the enhancement program developed in this study for its teaching safeguard the students‘ and the community‘s right to quality education. 3. Teachers and administrators, not only in TNU, should help one another to periodically assess teaching performance and its correlates to keep track of potential influencing factors that may induce or discourage quality teaching. 4. Future researchers may pursue a similar study, following or modifying the methodologies of this study in their own areas or Universities to aid teachers in reflecting on how they can improve personally and professionally. 69 REFERENCES English references: Aquino, G. V. (2003). Effective teaching. Manila: National Book Store. Batara, S. (1995). ―Every Teacher is a Guidance Counselor‖. Retrieved on December 10, 2013 from Counselor-by-Samuel-B-Batara. Charles County Public Schools.(2013). ―Criteria for Evaluating Teacher Performance‖.Retrieved on January 21, 2014 from Clavo, C. R. (2005). Personal Characteristics and Perceived Administrative Practices of Selected Elementary School Heads.(Unpublished Master‘s Thesis).Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines. Darling-Hammond, L., Orcutt, S., Strobel, K., Kirsch, E., Lit, I., & Martin, D. (n.d.). ―Feelings Count: Emotions and Learning‖. Retrieved on November, 2013 from Eckard, P. J. &McElhinney, J. H. (1977).―Teacher Evaluation and Educational Accountability‖.Educational leadership.Washington, USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Jahangir, F.S. (1988). ―Student Evaluation of Their Teachers' Performance‖.Pakistan Psychological Studies, 6.pp. 27-30. Ferris, G.R., Bergin, T.G., & Wayne, S. J. (1988).Personal Characteristics, Job performance and absenteeism of Public School Teachers.Journal of Applied Social Psychology 187. pp. 552-563. Figlio, D.N.&Kenny, L. W. (2007). ―Individual Teacher Incentives and Student Performance‖.Journal of Public Economics, 91, (5-6).901-914. DOI:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.10.001. Goldhaber, D. & Hansen, M. (2010). ―Implicit Measurement of Teacher Quality: Using Performance on the Job to Inform Teacher Tenure Decisions‖.American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 100(2).250-255. Hamermesh, D. (2013). Physical appearance may influence faculty teaching evaluations, study says. Retrieved on September, 5 2013 from Hargreaves, A. (1998). ―The Emotional Practice of Teaching‖.Teacher and Teacher Education, 14(8). pp. 835-854. 70 Jimenez, R. M. (2010). ―Every teacher, a guidance counselor‖.Retrieved on December 16, 2013 from guidance-counselor. Kolb, D. A. (1976).―Management and the Learning Process‖.In California Management Review, 18(3). pp. 21-31. Lardizabal, A. S., Bustos, A. S., Bucu, L. C., &Tangco, A. G. (1991).Principles and methods of teaching. Quezon City: Phoenix. Marygrove College (2012). ―5 Ways Teachers Can Improve Their Classroom Management Skills‖. Retrieved on December 20, 2013 from Their-Classroom-Management-Skills. Meyer, B., Haywood, N., Sachdev, D., and Faraday, S. (2008). Independent learning: Literature review (Research Report DCSF-RR051). UK: Department for Children, Schools and Families. Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. OECD (2013).Teachers for the 21st century: Using evaluation to improve teaching. Netherlands: OECD. Olstein, A. C. (1990). Strategies for effective teaching. New York: Harper Collins. Podgursky, M. J. &Springer, M. G. (2007). ―Teacher Performance Pay: A Review‖. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 26, (4).909–949.DOI: 10.1002/pam.20292. Riaz, M.N. (2000). Student Evaluation of University Teaching Quality: Analysis of a Teacher‘s Rating Scale for a Sample of University Students. Pakistan Journal Teacher‘s Rating Scale for a Sample of University Students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. 15 (3-4). pp. 107-117. Rice, J. K. (2003). Teacher quality: Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. Sanchez, C. A. (1998). Psychology applied to business and industry. Manila: National Book Store. Sass, T.R.&Harris, D. (2012). ―Skills, Productivity and the Evaluation of Teacher Performance‖.Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Research Paper Series, (12-11). Schacter, J. (n.d.). ―Teacher Performance-Based Accountability:Why, What and How‖. California, USA: Milken Family Foundation. Retrieved on December 20, 2013 from 71 Shepherd, D. (2013).The impact of teacher subject knowledge on learner performance in South Africa: A within-pupil across-subject approach. In Fourth International Workshop on Applied Economics of Education.Catanzaro, Italy: Department of Social Sciences, Universita' Magna Graecia and the Department of Economics, Lancaster University. Swarts, C.W., K.P, White., G.B, Stuck., and T. Patterson.(1990). ―The Factorial Structure of the North Carolina Teaching Performance Appraisal Instruments.‖Journal of Educational and Psychological Measurement 50. pp. 175-182. Taylor, E. S. & Tyler, J. H. (2012). ―Can Teacher Evaluation Improve Teaching?‖.Education Next, 12(4). 78.84. Thompson, S., Greer, J., Greer, B. (2004).Highly qualified for successful teaching: characteristics every teacher. Date retrieved: February 14, 2014 from UCLA Office of Instructional Development.(1997). The TA handbook 1997-98.Los Angeles: University of California. UNESCO, 2002. Status ofTeachers in Pakistan. Published byUNESCO OfficeIslamabad.Pakistan.p.5. Usop, A., Askandar, K., Kadtong, M., and Usop, A. (2013). Work Performance and Job Satisfaction among Teachers. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(5). pp. 245-252. Wayne, A. M., &Youngs, P. (2003).―Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review‖. Review of Educational Research, 73(1). pp. 89-122. Zeichner, K.&Gore, J. (n.d.). ―Teacher Socialization‖.In W. R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education. New York: Macmillan. Vietnamese references: Le Van Huy. (2007). Using SPSS applied in marketing research manual. Danang University of Economics. 72 APPENDICES Appendix QUESTIONNAIRE Republic of the Philippines SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Lucban, Quezon, Philippines Dear Respondent: I am Nguyen Dinh Yen (Kaka), a Doctor of Educational Management student of Southern Luzon State University in the Philippines. I am currently writing my dissertation entitled ―Correlates of teachers‘ performance: Basis for enhancement program at Thai Nguyen University‖. In connection to this, I wish to seek your support for my study by carefully answering this questionnaire. Your response will be significant, not only for my dissertation, but to the Thai Nguyen University community in general. Rest assured that your responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much! Truly yours, Nguyen Dinh Yen --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE CORRELATES OF TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE: BASIS FOR ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM AT THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY I. Demographic Profile Directions: Supply the information needed in item numbers 1-4. For item numbers 5-7, put a check on the blank that correspond to your answer. 1. Name: ______________________________ 2. School: ______________________________ 3. Position: ______________________________ 4. Age: ______________________________ 5. Gender: ____ Male ____ Female 73 6. Civil Status: ____ Single _____ Married _____ Widowed _____ Separated 7. Educational Attainment: _____ Bachelor‘s degree holder _____ Doctoral units _____ with MA/MS units _____ Doctoral degree holder _____ MA/MS degree holder II. Factors that Affect Teachers’ Performance Part 1: Personal Characteristics of Teachers Directions: Below are statements on the personal characteristics of teachers. Please put a check ( / ) mark on the scalegiven in each item that best corresponds to your answer. The items are coded in the following scale: SCALE DESCRIPTIVE RATING 4 Strongly Agree (SA) 3 Agree (A) 2 Disagree (D) 1 Strongly Disagree (SD) A. PHYSICAL ASPECTS The teacher SA (4) A (3) D(2) SD(1) 1.has pleasing physical appearance. 2.exhibits good taste in the selection and wearing of clothes. 3.shows self-control in the choice of accessories. 4.has good poise. 5.shows confidence through smiles and eye contact. 6.has impressive communication skills. 7.has pleasant voice. 8.demonstrates self-confidence in her well-being. 9.shows evidence of strong physical health. 10. has no irritating mannerisms. 74 B. MENTAL ASPECTS The teacher SA (4) A (3) D(2) SD(1) 1.has foresight in planning his/her activities. 2.has insight into the abilities and interests of his students. 3.thinks critically. 4.practices fairness and equality among his students. 5.anticipatesand reacts properly to students in social situations. 6.foresees and attempts to resolve potential difficulties. 7.anticipates individual cognitive needs of students. 8. has sense of humor. 9.shows evidence of mental health and stability. 10. shows evidence of sound decision-making. C. EMOTIONAL ASPECTS The teacher SA (4) A (3) D(2) SD(1) 1.values feelings and morale. 2.deals with his students fairly and justly. 3.possessess strong will power and conviction. 4.projects integrity and dignity. 5.keeps her composure during crucial times. 6.is patient. 7.helps students with emotional as well as educational problems. 8.stimulates interest and curiosity in a particular lesson. 9. encourages students to ask questions confidently. 10. shows evidence of emotional soundness. 75 D. SOCIAL ASPECTS The teacher SA (4) A (3) D(2) SD(1) 1.understands the nature of a student. 2.has the ability to deal with different kinds of students. 3.possesses genuine sympathy for the students. 4.cares for the welfare of others. 5.maintains discipline at all times. 6.observes high standard of morality. 7.disciplines in quiet, dignified and positive manner. 8.commends efforts and gives praises for work well done. 9.gets along well with students, school staff and community without compromising her dignity as a professional. 10.knows how to communicate to people and motivate them effectively. Part 2: Instructional Skills of Teachers Directions: Below are statements on the instructional skills of teachers. Please put a check ( / ) mark on the scalegiven in each item that best corresponds to your answer. The items are coded in the following scale: SCALE DESCRIPTIVE RATING 4 Strongly Agree (SA) 3 Agree (A) 2 Disagree (D) 1 Strongly Disagree (SD) 76 A. TEACHING SKILLS SA (4) A (3) D(2) SD(1) The teacher 1.identifies specific needs, interests, and capacities of individual students and provides adequately for these. 2.analyzes and identifies specific learning tasks. 3.shows evidence of mastery of subject matter. 4.provides varied learning experiences. 5.selects, prepares and uses instructional materials and aids effectively in achieving teaching goals. 6.selects appropriate available community resources and uses these effectively in the teaching-learning process. 7.motivates the students and asks questions effectively to develop critical thinking and creativity. 8.creates and tries out appropriate strategies and materials that meet the peculiar needs and problems of students. 9.communicates ideas effectively. 10.helps students assimilate and reflect upon Information B. MANAGEMENT SKILLS SA(4) A(3) D(2) SD(1) The teacher 1.prepares adequately for the day‘s learning activities. 2.starts learning activities promptly. 3.provides a permissive and stimulating atmosphere that encourages students to raise questions and suggest alternative solutions to problems. 4.administers tests effectively. 5.returns corrected papers and other students‘ works promptly. 6.achieves teaching objectives to the optimum degree possible for a particular lesson or activity within a reasonable period of time. 7.prepares and submits neat and accurate reports on time. 77 8.is ready to serve beyond the call of duty when the need arises. 9.uses free time wisely. 10.listens to praises, comments and recommendations from his superiors, co-workers and parents intelligently. Evaluation Skills SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) C. EVALUATION SKILLS The teacher 1.gives timely and specific feedback. 2.keeps assessment records. 3.uses specific criteria for the accurate evaluation of individual performance. 4.selects and utilizes different types of tests. 5.submits records which allow for data analysis and interpretation. 6.evaluates effectiveness of instruction. 7.analyzes assessment information to understand each student‘s progress to date. 8.utilizes evaluation results as a basis for improving instruction. 9.explains grading system to students. 10.uses variety of assessment instruments, tools and techniques. D. GUIDANCE SKILLS SA (4) A (3) D(2) SD(1) The teacher 1.shows interest in students‘ problems and needs and helps solve them. 2.provides for the maximum involvement of students in the learning activities. 3.stimulates and compliments pupils to elicit positive and active interaction. 4.helps students develop self-discipline in and through the learning process. 5. has sympathy for the needs of individual students. 78 6.knows each student. 7.understands each student. 8. exhibits fairness in confronting issues of students. 9.models moral values to each student. 10.assists each student to improve his study skills. Part 3. Teaching Performance Directions: Below are statements that measure the teaching performance of teachers. Please put a check ( / ) mark on the scalegiven in each item that best corresponds to your answer. The items are coded in the following scale and description: Scale Descriptive Rating Qualitative Description 5 Outstanding The performance almost always exceeds the job requirements. The faculty is an exceptional role model. 4 Very Satisfactory The performance meets and often exceeds the job requirements. 3 Satisfactory The performance meets job requirements. The faculty is an exceptional role model. 2 Fair The performance needs some developments to meet the job requirements. 1 Poor The faculty fails to meet the job requirements. A. COMMITMENT The teacher 5 4 3 2 1 1. shows concern on students‘ capability to understand/learn lessons. 2. makes learning process a cooperative effort between teacher and students. 3. makes self available to students beyond official time. 4. regularly comes to class on time, well-groomed and well-prepared to complete assigned tasks. 5. keeps accurate records of students‘ performance and prompt submission of the same. B. KNOWLEDGE OF SUBJECT The teacher 1. demonstrates mastery of the subject matter (explain the subject matter 79 without relying solely on the prescribed textbook). 2. draws and shares information on the state of the art theory and practice in his/her discipline. 3. integrates subject to practical situations and learning purposes of students. 4. explains the relevance of present topics to the previous lessons and relates the subject matter to relevant current issues and/or daily life activities. 5. demonstrates up-to-date knowledge and/or awareness on current trends and issues on the subject. C. TEACHING FOR INDEPENDENT LEARNING The teacher 1. uses different teaching strategies to explore students potentials/abilities. 2. recognizes students‘ individual performance. 3. guides students to attain course objectives. 4. helps students realize that they are responsible for their classroom performance. 5. encourages students to think for himself and make decisions based on what he has learned. D. MANAGEMENT OF LEARNING The teacher 1. provides chances to students participation to different class activities. 2. takes different roles such as facilitator, coach in order to motivate students to contribute to knowledge and understand the concepts at hand. 3. modifies learning-teaching situations to attain set objectives. 4. structures/restructures learning and teaching-learning context to enhance attainment of learning objectives. 5. makes use of instructional materials such as audio/video materials, fieldtrips, computer-aided instruction and others to reinforce learning processes. 80 CURRICULUM VITAE NGUYỄN ĐÌNH YÊN English name: KAKA A. PERSONAL DATA Status Age Date of Birth Place of birth Address Phone/ Mobile Father Mother : married : 34 : July 19, 1980 : PhuTho Province, Vietnamese : CachMangThang 8 Ward, Thai Nguyen City : 090.2200.678 : Nguyen Dinh Khanh : Dang ThiHoa B. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Degree MA. EM. University Upper secondary Secondary Elementary School Thai Nguyen University of Technology Thai Nguyen University of Technology Upper Secondary School Viet Tri Det School Det Elementary School Year Graduated 2008 2002 1998 1994 1990 C. ELIGIBILITIES D. WORK EXPERIENCES 2012-2014 Teacher Thai Nguyen University 2002-2012 Teacher Thai Nguyen University of Technology

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • pdfcorrelates_of_teachers_performance_basis_for_enhancement_pro.pdf
  • jpgNCS Nguyen Dinh Yen 05-2014.jpg
  • docThong tin LA NCS Nguyen Dinh Yen 05-2014.doc
  • pdfTom tat English Nguyen Dinh Yen 05-2014.pdf
  • pdfTom tat Tieng Viet Nguyen Dinh Yen 05-2014.pdf
Tài liệu liên quan